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When Norms CollideLocal Responses to Activism against Female Genital Mutilation and Early Marriage$
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Karisa Cloward

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190274917

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274917.001.0001

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Creating Local Awareness of International Norms

Creating Local Awareness of International Norms

Chapter:
(p.135) Chapter 4 Creating Local Awareness of International Norms
Source:
When Norms Collide
Author(s):

Karisa Cloward

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274917.003.0004

Chapters 4 through 7 present empirical support for the theory, drawing on both qualitative interview data and original survey data. Chapter 4 focuses on awareness of international norms. It shows that there have been comparable levels of transnational activism against FGM and early marriage in the study communities. While the high salience of the international norm against FGM drives up activism by aid-dependent NGOs, the high salience of the local norm supporting the practice drives down activism by other community organizations. The low salience of both the international and local norms surrounding early marriage drives down activism by aid-dependent NGOs but creates space for activism by actors and organizations that are financially independent. However, the level of activism against both practices varies by community—awareness of the international norms against FGM and early marriage is most likely when communities, and individuals within communities, are accessible to NGOs and other activists.

Keywords:   international norm, local norm, awareness-raising, female genital mutilation, FGM, early marriage, salience, nongovernmental organization, NGO, international aid

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