## Miguel E. Basáñez

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190270360

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190270360.001.0001

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# (p.327) Appendix 12 Subjective Development Index (SDI) Methodology

Source:
A World of Three Cultures
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The Subjective Development Index (SDI) derives from Inglehart’s World Cultural Map (Figure 2.4 in Chapter 2). It combines the map’s two axes (survival–self-expression and traditional–secular/rational) into a single line in such a way that a unique value for each country is generated, enabling a world ranking. In other words, it turns the cultural map into an index. The WVS cultural map dynamics from the last 30 years (Figure 2.5 in Chapter 2) show that countries move toward the upper-right corner of the map, at least for most of the countries on the top right side.

Starting from this observation, SDI is the calculation of the distance of each country in the world cultural map to the highest position closer to the upper-right corner of the map. Sweden was the highest score in the survival–self expression axis in the 5th wave (2.35) and Japan was the highest in the traditional–secular/rational axis (1.96). Hence, a hypothetical country score of 2.35 and 1.96 is taken as the highest point of reference.

To measure the distance between an actual country and the maximum hypothetical score, the hypotenuse formula (a2 + b2 = c2) from the Pythagorean theorem is used:

In any right-angled triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse c (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs a and b (the two sides that meet at a right angle).

The graphic representation is shown in Figure A12.1.

Figure A12.1 Pythagorean theorem and the hypotenuse formula

In the World Cultural Map the scores for the “two legs” a and b of any country are always known: they are the distances in the axes scores to the hypothetical maximum. But the score c, or linear combination of the two axes for the new index, is unknown.

In order to find the c score, or linear combination, the hypotenuse formula can also be expressed as c = √ a2 + b2 (where √ stands for square root).

(p.328) Applying the formula to find the linear combination distance between Sweden, the closest country to the hypothetical maximum, the procedure is as follows: the a score is the difference between the hypothetical maximum in the survival–self-expression axis (2.35) and the actual Sweden scores on the same axis (2.35). In this case the distance a is 0. The b score is the difference between the hypothetical maximum on the traditional–secular/rational axis (1.96) and the actual Sweden score on the same axis (1.86). In this case the distance b is 0.10. In summary, a = 0 + b = 0.10. Applying the formula: 02 + 0.102 = 0 + 0.01 = 0.01. Hence, the square root of 0.01 = 0.10.

At the other end of the spectrum, Zimbabwe is the most distant country from the hypothetical maximum. The procedure is the same: the a score or difference between the hypothetical maximum in the survival–self-expression axis (2.35) and the actual Zimbabwe scores on the same axis (-1.36) is 3.71. The b score or difference between the hypothetical maximum on the traditional–secular/rational axis (1.96) and the actual Zimbabwe score on the same axis (-1.50) is 3.46. In summary, a = 3.71 + b = 3.46. Applying the formula: 3.712 + 3.462 = 13.76 + 11.97 = 25.74. Hence, the square root of 25.74 = 5.07.

Another expression of the same formula is:

$Display mathematics$

The index is the measurement of the distance from each country to the greatest value on both the horizontal axis of the cultural map and on the vertical axis. These distances range from 0.10 (that of Sweden) to 5.07 (that of Zimbabwe). The scores for all the countries are shown in Table A12.1.

The index’s benefits lies in its ability to (1) classify countries in a way that allows us to compare their positions in a ranking order; and (2) to perform further statistical analysis by producing a continuum value. In order to make the scale comparable with other international indices, it is inverted and standardized so that the higher the value, the better the ranking in the index. The calculations’ results are shown in Table A12.2 and the index in Table A12.3. (p.329)

Table A12.1 World Cultural Map Scores: Score Values for the World Values Survey Map’s Axes

Nation and Wave

Surv Self Values

HD11

Albania 42

0.07

-1.14

3.97

Algeria 4

-1.48

-0.74

4.62

Andorra 5

0.8

1.62

1.37

Argentina 5

-0.66

0.38

3.28

Armenia 3

0.55

-1.31

3.92

Australia 5

0.21

1.75

1.85

Austria 4

0.25

1.43

1.94

Azerbaijan 3

-0.14

-1.38

4.28

-1.21

-0.93

4.56

Belarus 4

0.89

-1.23

3.74

Belgium 4

0.5

1.13

1.90

Bosnia 4

0.34

-0.65

3.41

Brazil 5

-0.98

0.61

3.42

Britain 5

0.06

1.68

2.01

Bulgaria 5

1.13

-1.01

3.46

Burkina Faso 5

-1.32

-0.49

4.34

-0.26

1.91

2.26

Chile 5

-0.87

0

3.68

China 5

0.8

-1.16

3.70

Colombia 5

-1.87

0.6

4.21

Croatia 4

0.08

0.31

2.77

Cyprus 5

-0.56

0.13

3.36

Czech 4

1.23

0.38

2.10

Denmark 4

1.16

1.87

0.93

Dominican Republic 3

-1.05

0.33

3.62

East Germany 5

1.46

0.26

2.15

Egypt 4

-1.61

-0.46

4.54

-2.06

0.53

4.41

Estonia 4

1.27

-1.19

3.61

Ethiopia 5

-0.65

-0.36

3.76

Finland 5

0.82

1.12

1.68

France 5

0.63

1.13

1.80

Galicia 3

-0.04

1.34

2.24

Georgia 3

-0.04

-1.31

4.17

Ghana 5

-1.94

-0.29

4.71

Greece 4

0.77

0.55

2.16

Guatemala 4

-1.7

-0.17

4.44

Hong Kong 5

1.2

-0.98

3.42

Hungary 4

0.4

-1.22

3.90

Iceland 4

0.44

1.63

1.68

India 5

-0.36

-0.21

3.45

Indonesia 5

-0.47

-0.8

3.98

Iran 4

-1.22

-0.45

4.24

Iraq 5

-0.4

-1.68

4.67

Ireland 4

-0.91

1.18

3.10

Israel 4

0.26

0.36

2.62

Italy 5

0.13

0.6

2.53

Japan 5

1.96

-0.05

2.40

Jordan 4

-1.61

-1.05

4.93

Kyrgyz 4

-0.15

-0.91

3.88

Latvia 4

0.72

-1.27

3.83

Lithuania 4

0.98

-1

3.49

Luxemburg 4

0.42

1.13

1.96

Macedonia 4

0.12

-0.72

3.58

Malaysia 5

-0.73

0.09

3.51

Mali 5

-1.25

-0.08

4.03

Malta 4

-1.53

-0.03

4.22

Mexico 5

-1.47

1.03

3.68

Moldova 5

0.47

-1.28

3.92

Montenegro 4

0.86

-1.24

3.75

Morocco 5

-1.32

-1.04

4.72

Moscow 2

1.44

-0.79

3.18

Northern Ireland 4

-0.33

0.84

2.74

New Zealand 5

0

1.86

2.02

Netherlands 5

0.71

1.39

1.58

Nigeria 4

-1.53

0.28

4.06

Norway 5

1.39

2.17

0.60

Pakistan 4

-1.42

-1.25

4.94

Peru 4

-1.36

0.03

4.05

Philippines 4

-1.21

-0.11

4.01

Poland 5

-0.78

-0.14

3.70

Portugal 4

-0.9

0.49

3.41

Puerto Rico 4

-2.07

1.12

4.21

Romania 5

-0.39

-1.55

4.55

Russia 5

0.49

-1.42

4.05

Rwanda 5

-1.57

-0.62

4.61

South Africa 5

-1.09

-0.1

3.91

South Korea 5

0.61

-1.37

3.96

Saudi Arabia 4

-1.31

0.15

3.94

Serbia 5

0.35

-0.62

3.38

Singapore 4

-0.54

-0.28

3.63

Slovakia 4

0.67

-0.43

3.06

Slovenia 2

0.64

-0.62

3.25

Slovenia 5

0.73

0.36

2.34

Spain 5

0.09

0.54

2.60

Sweden 5

1.86

2.35

0.10

Switzerland 5

0.74

1.9

1.30

Taiwan 5

1.16

-1.18

3.62

Tanzania 4

-1.84

-0.15

4.55

Thailand 5

-0.64

0.01

3.50

-1.83

-0.26

4.60

Turkey 5

-0.89

-0.33

3.91

Uganda 1

-1.42

-0.5

4.42

Ukraine 5

0.3

-0.83

3.59

Uruguay 5

-0.37

0.99

2.70

United States 5

-0.81

1.76

2.83

Venezuela 4

-1.6

0.43

4.04

Vietnam 5

-0.3

-0.26

3.45

West Germany 5

1.31

0.74

1.74

Zambia 5

-0.77

-0.62

4.03

Zimbabwe 4

-1.5

-1.36

5.07

(1) Hypothenus distance (HD1) = SQRT(((B$49-B2)^2)+((C$87-C2)^2)).

(2) Survey year: 1 = 1980; 2 = 1990; 3 = 1995; 4 = 2000; 5 = 2005.

(p.330) (p.331) (p.332)

Table A12.2 Hypotenuse Distance (HD) or Linear Combination Scores

Standardized Values for the World Values Survey Map’s Countries

Nation and Wave**

Surv Self Values

HD*

Standard Score

Nation and Wave

Surv Self Values

HD*

Standard Score

1

Sweden 5

1.86

2.35

0.10

1.000

52

Dominican Republic 3

-1.05

0.33

3.62

0.291

2

Norway 5

1.39

2.17

0.60

0.900

53

Singapore 4

-0.54

-0.28

3.63

0.290

3

Denmark 4

1.16

1.87

0.93

0.833

54

Mexico 5

-1.47

1.03

3.68

0.281

4

Switzerland 5

0.74

1.9

1.30

0.759

55

Chile 5

-0.87

0

3.68

0.280

5

Andorra 5

0.8

1.62

1.37

0.745

56

China 5

0.8

-1.16

3.7

0.277

6

Netherlands 5

0.71

1.39

1.58

0.703

57

Poland 5

-0.78

-0.14

3.7

0.276

7

Finland 5

0.82

1.12

1.68

0.683

58

Belarus 4

0.89

-1.23

3.74

0.269

8

Iceland 4

0.44

1.63

1.68

0.682

59

Montenegro 4

0.86

-1.24

3.75

0.265

9

West Germany 5

1.31

0.74

1.74

0.671

60

Ethiopia 5

-0.65

-0.36

3.76

0.264

10

France 5

0.63

1.13

1.80

0.657

61

Latvia 4

0.72

-1.27

3.83

0.251

11

Australia 5

0.21

1.75

1.85

0.648

62

Kyrgyz 4

-0.15

-0.91

3.88

0.239

12

Belgium 4

0.5

1.13

1.90

0.638

63

Hungary 4

0.4

-1.22

3.9

0.237

13

Austria 4

0.25

1.43

1.94

0.630

64

Turkey 5

-0.89

-0.33

3.91

0.233

14

Luxemburg 4

0.42

1.13

1.96

0.625

65

South Africa 5

-1.09

-0.1

3.91

0.233

15

Britain 5

0.06

1.68

2.01

0.615

66

Armenia 3

0.55

-1.31

3.92

0.231

16

New Zealand 5

0

1.86

2.02

0.614

67

Moldova 5

0.47

-1.28

3.92

0.231

17

Czech 4

1.23

0.38

2.10

0.598

68

Saudi Arabia 4

-1.31

0.15

3.94

0.228

18

East Germany 5

1.46

0.26

2.15

0.588

69

South Korea 5

0.61

-1.37

3.96

0.224

19

Greece 4

0.77

0.55

2.16

0.586

70

Albania 4

0.07

-1.14

3.97

0.222

20

Galicia 3

-0.04

1.34

2.24

0.570

71

Indonesia 5

-0.47

-0.8

3.98

0.220

21

-0.26

1.91

2.26

0.565

72

Philippines 4

-1.21

-0.11

4.01

0.213

22

Slovenia 5

0.73

0.36

2.34

0.550

73

Mali 5

-1.25

-0.08

4.03

0.211

23

Japan 5

1.96

-0.05

2.40

0.538

74

Zambia 5

-0.77

-0.62

4.03

0.209

24

Italy 5

0.13

0.6

2.53

0.511

75

Venezuela 4

-1.6

0.43

4.04

0.207

25

Spain 5

0.09

0.54

2.60

0.497

76

Russia 5

0.49

-1.42

4.05

0.206

26

Israel 4

0.26

0.36

2.62

0.494

77

Peru 4

-1.36

0.03

4.05

0.206

27

Uruguay 5

-0.37

0.99

2.70

0.478

78

Nigeria 4

-1.53

0.28

4.06

0.204

28

N. Ireland 4

-0.33

0.84

2.74

0.469

79

Georgia 3

-0.04

-1.31

4.17

0.181

29

Croatia 4

0.08

0.31

2.77

0.462

80

Colombia 5

-1.87

0.6

4.21

0.173

30

United States 5

-0.81

1.76

2.83

0.451

81

Puerto Rico 4

-2.07

1.12

4.21

0.173

31

Slovakia 4

0.67

-0.43

3.06

0.404

82

Malta 4

-1.53

-0.03

4.22

0.171

32

Ireland 4

-0.91

1.18

3.10

0.397

83

Iran 4

-1.22

-0.45

4.24

0.168

33

Moscow 2

1.44

-0.79

3.18

0.380

84

Azerbaijan 3

-0.14

-1.38

4.28

0.159

34

Slovenia 2

0.64

-0.62

3.25

0.367

85

BurkinaFas 5

-1.32

-0.49

4.34

0.148

35

Argentina 5

-0.66

0.38

3.28

0.361

86

-2.06

0.53

4.41

0.133

36

Cyprus 5

-0.56

0.13

3.36

0.345

87

Uganda 1

-1.42

-0.5

4.42

0.131

37

Serbia 5

0.35

-0.62

3.38

0.341

88

Guatemala 4

-1.7

-0.17

4.44

0.127

38

Bosnia 4

0.34

-0.65

3.41

0.335

89

Egypt 4

-1.61

-0.46

4.54

0.107

39

Portugal 4

-0.9

0.49

3.41

0.334

90

Tanzania 4

-1.84

-0.15

4.55

0.105

40

Hong Kong 5

1.2

-0.98

3.42

0.333

91

Romania 5

-0.39

-1.55

4.55

0.105

41

Brazil 5

-0.98

0.61

3.42

0.333

92

-1.21

-0.93

4.56

0.103

42

Vietnam 5

-0.3

-0.26

3.45

0.326

93

-1.83

-0.26

4.6

0.095

43

India 5

-0.36

-0.21

3.45

0.325

94

Rwanda 5

-1.57

-0.62

4.61

0.092

44

Bulgaria 5

1.13

-1.01

3.46

0.324

95

Algeria 4

-1.48

-0.74

4.62

0.090

45

Lithuania 4

0.98

-1

3.49

0.318

96

Iraq 5

-0.4

-1.68

4.67

0.081

46

Thailand 5

-0.64

0.01

3.50

0.317

97

Ghana 5

-1.94

-0.29

4.71

0.073

47

Malaysia 5

-0.73

0.09

3.51

0.314

98

Morocco 5

-1.32

-1.04

4.72

0.072

48

Macedonia 4

0.12

-0.72

3.58

0.300

99

Jordan 4

-1.61

-1.05

4.93

0.029

49

Ukraine 5

0.3

-0.83

3.59

0.299

100

Pakistan 4

-1.42

-1.25

4.94

0.027

50

Estonia 4

1.27

-1.19

3.61

0.295

101

Zimbabwe 4

-1.5

-1.36

5.07

0.000

51

Taiwan 5

1.16

-1.18

3.62

0.292

(*) Hypothenus distance (HD) = SQRT(((B$49-B2)^2)+((C$87-C2)^2)).

(**) Survey year: 1 = 1980; 2 = 1990; 3 = 1995; 4 = 2000; 5 = 2005.

*** Standardized = (Maximum score on a desired scale from “0” to “x”) * (N-minimum)/(max – min).

(p.333) (p.334)

Table A12.3 The Subjective Development Index (SDI), Country Scores and Ranking

 1 Sweden 5* 1 2 Norway 5* 0.9 3 Denmark 4* 0.833 4 Switzerland 5* 0.759 5 Andorra 5* 0.745 6 Netherlands 5* 0.703 7 Finland 5* 0.683 8 Iceland 4* 0.682 9 West Germany 5* 0.671 10 France 5* 0.657 11 Australia 5* 0.648 12 Belgium 4* 0.638 13 Austria 4* 0.63 14 Luxemburg 4* 0.625 15 Britain 5* 0.615 16 New Zealand 5* 0.614 17 Czech 4* 0.598 18 East Germany 5* 0.588 19 Greece 4* 0.586 20 Galicia 3* 0.57 21 Canada 5* 0.565 22 Slovenia 5* 0.55 23 Japan 5* 0.538 24 Italy 5* 0.511 25 Spain 5* 0.497 26 Israel 4* 0.494 27 Uruguay 5* 0.478 28 Northern Ireland 4* 0.469 29 Croatia 4* 0.462 30 United States 5* 0.451 31 Slovakia 4* 0.404 32 Ireland 4* 0.397 33 Moscow 2* 0.38 34 Slovenia 2* 0.367 35 Argentina 5* 0.361 36 Cyprus 5* 0.345 37 Serbia 5* 0.341 38 Bosnia 4* 0.335 39 Portugal 4* 0.334 40 Hong Kong 5* 0.333 41 Brazil 5* 0.333 42 Vietnam 5* 0.326 43 India 5* 0.325 44 Bulgaria 5* 0.324 45 Lithuania 4* 0.318 46 Thailand 5* 0.317 47 Malaysia 5* 0.314 48 Macedonia 4* 0.3 49 Ukraine 5* 0.299 50 Estonia 4* 0.295 51 Taiwan 5* 0.292 52 Dominican Republic 3* 0.291 53 Singapore 4* 0.29 54 Mexico 5* 0.281 55 Chile 5* 0.28 56 China 5* 0.277 57 Poland 5* 0.276 58 Belarus 4* 0.269 59 Montenegro 4* 0.265 60 Ethiopia 5* 0.264 61 Latvia 4* 0.251 62 Kyrgyz 4* 0.239 63 Hungary 4* 0.237 64 Turkey 5* 0.233 65 South Africa 5* 0.233 66 Armenia 3* 0.231 67 Moldova 5* 0.231 68 Saudi Arab. 4* 0.228 69 South Korea 5* 0.224 70 Albania 4* 0.222 71 Indonesia 5* 0.22 72 Philippines 4* 0.213 73 Mali 5* 0.211 74 Zambia 5* 0.209 75 Venezuela 4* 0.207 76 Russia 5* 0.206 77 Peru 4* 0.206 78 Nigeria 4* 0.204 79 Georgia 3* 0.181 80 Colombia 5* 0.173 81 Puerto Rico 4* 0.173 82 Malta 4* 0.171 83 Iran 4* 0.168 84 Azerbaijan 3* 0.159 85 Burkina Faso 5* 0.148 86 El Salvador 4* 0.133 87 Uganda 1* 0.131 88 Guatemala 4* 0.127 89 Egypt 4* 0.107 90 Tanzania 4* 0.105 91 Romania 5* 0.105 92 Bangladesh 4* 0.103 93 Trinidad 5* 0.095 94 Rwanda 5* 0.092 95 Algeria 4* 0.09 96 Iraq 5* 0.081 97 Ghana 5* 0.073 98 Morocco 5* 0.072 99 Jordan 4* 0.029 100 Pakistan 4* 0.027 101 Zimbabwe 4* 0

(*) This number refers to the most recent survey available for each country.

(p.335) (p.336)