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States in DisguiseCauses of State Support for Rebel Groups$

Belgin San-Akca

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190250881

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190250881.001.0001

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(p.225) (p.228) (p.229) (p.230) (p.231) (p.232) (p.233) (p.234) (p.235) (p.236) (p.237) (p.238) (p.239) (p.240) (p.241) (p.242) (p.243) (p.244) (p.245) (p.246) (p.247) (p.248) (p.249) (p.250) (p.251) (p.252) (p.253) (p.254) (p.255) (p.256) (p.257) (p.258) Appendix 5 The Entire Cases of De Facto Support, 1945–2010 (p.226)

Source:
States in Disguise
Author(s):

Belgin San-Akca

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Target

Nonstate Armed Group

Period Active

Supporters

Type of Support

Period of Support

Afghanistan

Hizb-i Islami-yi Afghanistan

1980–1991

Saudi Arabia

Financial Aid

1980–1991

Afghanistan

Taliban

1995–2012

Pakistan

Safe havens to members

2002–2010

Safe havens to leadership

2002–2010

Open offices

2002–2010

Training camp

2002–2010

Training

2006–2007

Weapons and logistics aid

2006

Afghanistan

United Islamic Front for Salvation of Afghanistan (UIFSA)

1996–2001

United Kingdom

Open offices

2001

Algeria

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

1999–2012

Mali

Safe havens to members

1999–2010

Training camp

Spain

Safe havens to members

1999–2010

Pakistan

Training

2007–2010

Algeria

Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA)

1993–2003

Switzerland

Safe havens to members

2002–2003

United Kingdom

Safe havens to members

1993–2003

Open offices

Afghanistan

Training

2002–2003

Azerbaijan

Military faction (forces of Suret Husseinov)

1993

Russia (Soviet Union)

Safe havens to leadership

1993

Azerbaijan

Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh

1994–2005

Armenia

Safe havens to members

1994–2005

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Russia (Soviet Union)

Safe havens to members

1994–2005

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Bangladesh

Purba Banglar Communist Party - Janajuddha (PBCP - Janajudhha)

2005–present

India

Safe havens to leadership

2008–2010

Open offices

2008–2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

2009–2010

Myanmar (Burma)

Transport of military equipment, military advice

2009–2010

Bangladesh

Purba Banglar Communist Party (PBCP)

2005–present

India

Safe havens to members

2005–present

Safe havens to leadership

2005–present

Bangladesh

Purba Banglar Communist Party (PBCP)

2005–present

India

Open offices

2008–2010

Weapons and logistics aid

2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

2009

Pakistan

Weapons and logistics aid

2010

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia

1993–1995

Croatia

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1993–1995

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Croatian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina

1993–1994

USA

Safe havens to members

1993–1994

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Financial aid

Burundi

National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD)

1998–2003

Tanzania

Safe havens to members

1998–2003

Training camp

Burundi

National Liberation Front (Frolina)

1997–2000

Tanzania

Safe havens to members

1997–2000

Training camp

Weapons and logistics aid

Burundi

Palipehutu

1991–2000

Tanzania

Safe havens to members

1991–1992

Burundi

Palipehutu-National Forces of Liberation (Palipehutu-FNL)

1997–2008

Tanzania

Safe havens to members

1997–2008

Cameroon

Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (UPC)

1960–1961

Switzerland

Safe havens to leadership

1960

Central African Republic

Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP)

2009–2011

Chad

Safe havens to leadership

2009

Central African Republic

Forces of Francois Bozize

2002

France

Safe havens to leadership

2002

Central African Republic

Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR)

2006

Benin

Safe havens to leadership

2006

Chad

National Liberation Front of Chad (FROLINAT)

1966–1970

Sudan

Safe havens to leadership

1966

Chad

Chadian National Front (FNT)

1992–1994

Sudan

Safe havens to members

1992–1994

Chad

Islamic Legion

1989–1990

Sudan

Safe havens to members

1989–1990

Chad

Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD)

1991–1999

Niger

Safe havens to members

1991–1997

Nigeria

Safe havens to members

1991–1997

Chad

Movement for National Salvation of Chad (MOSANAT)

1989

Nigeria

Safe havens to members

1989

Sudan

Safe havens to members

1989

Ethiopia

Safe havens to members

1989

Chad

Revolutionary Forces of 1 April

1989

Sudan

Safe havens to members

1989

Safe havens to leadership

1989

Chad

Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD)

2006–2007

France

Open offices

2007

United Kingdom

Open offices

2007

China

East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)

1990–present

Afghanistan

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Training camp

2002–2008

Pakistan

Safe havens to members

2001–2010

Safe havens to leadership

2002–2003

Open offices

2002–2010

China

Taiwanese insurgents

1947

Japan

Safe havens to leadership

1947

Colombia

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)

1964–present

Panama

Safe havens to members

1997–2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1997–2010

Ecuador

Safe havens to members

1997–2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1997–2010

Venezuela

Safe havens to members

1997–2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1997–2010

Colombia

National Liberation Army (ELN)

1966–2008

Bolivia

Safe havens to members

1999–2001

Colombia

Popular Liberation Army (EPL)

1984–present

Ecuador

Safe havens to members

1990–2006

Open offices

Costa Rica

National Liberation Army (NLA)

1948

Dominican Republic

Training

1948

Honduras

Training

1948

Guatemala

Weapons and logistics aid

1948

Djibouti

Front for Restoration of Unity and Democracy - Ahmed Dini (FRUD-AD)

1999

Eritrea

Safe havens to members

1999

Djibouti

Front for Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD)

1991–1994

Ethiopia

Safe havens to members

1991–1994

Eritrea

Safe havens to members

1991

DR Congo (Zaire)

Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL)

1996–1997

Rwanda

Financial aid

1996–1997

Uganda

Financial aid

1996–1997

Angola

Financial aid

1996–1997

Egypt

Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group)

1993–1998

United Kingdom

Financial aid

1993–1998

El Salvador

Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP)

1979

USA

Financial aid

1979

El Salvador

Military faction (forces of Benjamin Mejia)

1972

Venezuela

Safe havens to leadership

1972

Ethiopia

Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya (AIAI)

1993–1999

Kenya

Safe havens to members

1993–1999

Financial aid

Libya

Safe havens to members

1993–1999

Yemen

Safe havens to members

1993–1999

Ethiopia

Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya (AIAI)

1993-1999

Saudi Arabia

Weapons and logistics aid

1993–1999

Financial aid

Pakistan

Weapons and logistics aid

1993–1999

Financial aid

Sudan

Financial aid

1993–1999

United Arab Emirates

Financial aid

1993–1999

Djibouti

Financial aid

1993–1999

Ethiopia

Al-Shabaab

2008–present

Kenya

Safe havens to members

2010

Ethiopia

Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF)

1964–1980

Egypt

Safe havens to members

1964–1970

Open offices

Sudan

Safe havens to leadership

1964–1980

Saudi Arabia

Safe havens to leadership

1964–1980

Ethiopia

Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF)

1973–1991

Sudan

Financial aid

1970–1980

Ethiopia

Oromo Liberation Front (OLF)

1977–present

Kenya

Safe havens to members

1977–2010

Training camp

Somalia

Safe havens to members

1977–1999

France

Algerian National Movement (MNA)

1955–1957

Belgium

Safe havens to members

1955–1957

France

Khmer Issarak

1946–1953

Thailand

Safe havens to members

1948–1953

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Georgia

Republic of Abkhazia

1992–1993

Russia (Soviet Union)

Weapons and logistics aid

1992–1993

Turkey

Financial aid

1992–1993

Georgia

Zviadists

1992–1993

Russia (Soviet Union)

Safe havens to members

1992–1993

Safe havens to leadership

Guatemala

Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG)

1982–1995

Mexico

Safe havens to members

1982–1990

Open offices

1982–1990

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1991–1993

Guatemala

Revolutionary Organization of Armed People (ORPA)

1979–1981

El Salvador

Weapons and logistics aid

1980–1981

Guinea

Rally of Democratic Forces of Guinea (RFDG)

2000–2001

Liberia

Safe havens to members

2000–2001

Haiti

National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation (FLRN)

2004

Dominican Republic

Safe havens to members

2004

India

Communist Party of India– Maoist (CPI-M)

2005–2011

Burma

Training camp

2010

India

Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA)

2010–2012

Bangladesh

Safe havens to members

2010

Safe havens to leadership

India

Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCC)

1992–2004

Nepal

Safe havens to members

2001–2004

Training camp

Weapons and logistics aid

India

Naga National Council (NNC)

1956–1968

United Kingdom

Safe havens to leadership

1960–1968

India

National Democratic Front of Bodoland–Ranjan Daimary (NDFB - RD)

2009–present

Bangladesh

Safe havens to members

2009–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Training camp

India

National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Isak-Muivah (NSCN - IM)

1992–2000

Bangladesh

Safe havens to leadership

1993

Thailand

Weapons and logistics aid

1992–2000

India

National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Khaplang (NSCN - K)

2005–present

Myanmar (Burma)

Safe havens to members

2005–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

India

People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

1982–present

Myanmar (Burma)

Safe havens to members

1982–2010

Safe havens to leadership

2006

Training camp

1982–2010

Bangladesh

Safe havens to leadership

2005–2010

Training camp

2008–2010

India

People’s Liberation Army of Manipur (PREPAK)

2008–2009

Bangladesh

Safe havens to members

2008–2009

Myanmar

Safe havens to members

2008–2009

Training camp

India

People’s United Liberation Front (PULF)

2000–2008

Pakistan

Training camp

2008

India

People’s War Group (PWG)

1990–2004

Nepal

Safe havens to members

2001–2004

Safe havens to leadership

2001

Sri Lanka

Training camp

2001

Weapons and logistics aid

1991 and 2001–2002

India

Sikh insurgents

1983–1993

Canada

Open offices

1983

India

National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB)

1993–2010

Bhutan

Safe havens to members

1993–2003

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

Bangladesh

Safe havens to members

Safe havens to leadership

1993–2010

Training camp

Myanmar

Safe havens to members

2003–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

Nepal

Safe havens to members

2003–2010

China

Weapons and logistics aid

2008–2010

India

Tripura National Volunteers (TNV)

1979–1988

Bangladesh

Safe havens to members

1984–1988

India

United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)

1990–2010

Myanmar (Burma)

Safe havens to members, leaders

1990–2010

Open offices, Training camp

2003–2010

Cambodia

Weapons and logistics aid

1993

India

United National Liberation Front (UNLF)

1994–2009

Myanmar (Burma)

Safe havens to leadership

2001–2002

Training camp

1995–2004

Bangladesh

Safe havens to leadership

2006

Training camp

2003–2009

Indonesia

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

1990–2005

Malaysia

Safe havens to members

1990–2005

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Singapore

Safe havens to members

1990–2005

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Financial aid

Australia

Safe havens to members

1990–2005

Safe havens to leadership

1990–2005

Australia

Open Offices

2001–2005

Financial aid

1990–2005

Indonesia

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

1990–2005

USA

Open offices

2001–2005

Financial aid

1995–2006

Thailand

Weapons and logistics aid

1990–2005

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Indonesia

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

1990–2005

Sweden

Financial aid

1990–2005

Denmark

Financial aid

2000–2005

Norway

Financial aid

1999–2005

Sweden

Safe havens to leadership

1965–1981

USA

Weapons and logistics aid

1958–1959

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Singapore

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1958

Indonesia

Republic of South Moluccas

1950

Netherlands

Safe havens to members

Safe havens to leadership

1950

Financial aid

Indonesia

Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin)

1975–1998

Sweden

Safe havens to leadership

1975–1998

Indonesia

Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRI)

1958–1961

USA

Weapons and logistics aid

1958–1959

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Singapore

Transport of military equipment, military advice

1958

Iran

Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI)

1946–1996

Iraq

Safe havens to members

1946–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

USA

Weapons and logistics aid

1946–1979

Iran

Party of Free Life of Kurdistan (PJAK)

2004–present

USA

Safe havens to members

2010

Safe havens to leadership

2010

Open offices

2010

Transport of military equipment, military advice

2004–2010

Azerbaijan

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Iraq

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Iran

Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK)

1979–2001

France

Safe havens to members

1979–1988

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Turkey

Safe havens to members

1991–1992

Iraq

Al-Mahdi Army

2004–2008

Iran

Safe havens to members, leaders

2004–2008

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Iraq

Ansar al-Islam

2004–2014

Spain

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Germany

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Norway

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Iran

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Jordan

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Saudi Arabia

Safe havens to members

2004–2010

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Iraq

Ansar al-Islam

2004–2014

Afghanistan

Safe havens to members, leaders

2004–2010

Training camp, training

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Iraq

Islamic State of Iraq (ISI)

2006–present

Syria

Recruitment

2004

Transport of military equipment

Lebanon

Recruitment

2004

Jordan

Recruitment

2004

Saudi Arabia

Recruitment

2004

Financial Aid

2004–2010

Iraq

Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)

1961–1991

USA

Safe havens to members

1961–1991

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Iraq

Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)

1961–1991

United Kingdom

Safe havens to members

1961–1991

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Turkey

Financial aid

19951995

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Israel

Safe havens to members

1961–1991

Safe havens to leadership

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Iraq

Kurdistan Democratic Party-Provisional Command (KDP-QM)

1977–1978

Iran

Safe havens to members

1977–1978

Safe havens to leadership

Iraq

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)

1976–1996

United Kingdom

Safe havens to members

1976–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Iran

Safe havens to members

1976–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Syria

Safe havens to members

1976–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Libya

Weapons and logistics aid

1976–1996

Financial aid

Iraq

Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI)

1982–1996

United Kingdom

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

France

Safe havens to members, leaders

1982–1996

Open offices

Iraq

Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI)

1982–1996

Switzerland

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Austria

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Iran

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Financial aid

Saudi Arabia

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Kuwait

Safe havens to members

1982–1996

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Israel

Fatah

1959–present

United Kingdom

Safe havens to members

1990–2007

Turkey

Safe haven to members

1967–1970

Lebanon

Safe haven to leaders

2005–2010

Open offices

Training camp

Italy

Open Offices

1959–1972

Israel

Hamas

1993–present

United Kingdom

Financial aid

1993–2010

United States

Financial aid

1993–2010

Israel

Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

1995–present

Sudan

Transport of military equipment, military advice

2000–2010

Israel

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine– General Command (PFLP-GC)

1968–present

Sweden

Safe haven to members

1988–1989

Germany

Safe haven to members

1988–1989

Lebanon

Safe haven to members

1969–2010

Open offices

Training camps

Ivory Coast

Ivorian Popular Movement of the Great West (MPIGO)

2002–2003

Burkina Faso

Safe havens to members

2002–2003

Liberia

Safe havens to members

2002–2003

Kenya

Military faction (forces of Hezekiah Ochuka)

1982

Tanzania

Safe havens to leadership

1982

Lebanon

Amal

1983–1984

Iraq

Financial aid

1983–1984

Lebanon

Lebanese Arab Army (LAA)

1976

Libya

Safe havens to members

1976

Lebanon

Lebanese Forces

1989

United Kingdom

Financial aid

1989

Liberia

Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD)

2000–2003

USA

Safe havens to leadership

2003

Financial aid

2000–2003

Liberia

National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL)

1989–1997

USA

Safe havens to members

1989–1990

Financial aid

1989–1997

Sierra Leone

Safe havens to members

1989–1997

Macedonia, FYR

National Liberation Army (UCK)

2001

USA

Safe havens to members

2001

Safe havens to leadership

Financial aid

Albania

Safe havens to members

2001

Safe havens to leadership

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Croatia

Safe havens to members

2001

Safe havens to leadership

Weapons and logistics aid

Financial aid

Transport of military equipment, military advice

Malaysia

Communist Party of Malaya (CPM)

1956–1957

Thailand

Training camp

1957

Financial aid

Mauritania

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

2008–2012

Spain

Safe haven to members

2008–2010

Mali

Safe haven to members

2008–2010

Training camp

Pakistan

Training

2008–2010

Morocco

Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro (POLISARIO)

1975–1989

France

Safe haven to members

1975–1989

Safe haven to leaders

Italy

Safe haven to members

1975–1989

Safe haven to leaders

Algeria

Safe haven to members

1975–1989

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Weapons and logistics Aid

Libya

Weapons and logistics Aid

1975–1989

Mozambique

Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO)

1977–1992

USA

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

Open offices, Weapons, Logistics and Financial aid

Canada

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

United Kingdom

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

Open offices

Portugal

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

Open offices

Kenya

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

Mozambique

Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO)

1977–1992

South Africa

Safe haven to members, leaders

1977–1992

Open offices, Training, Training Camp,

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Myanmar (Burma)

Arakan National Liberation Party (ANLP)

1964–1972

Bangladesh

Safe haven to members

1964–1972

Training camp

Myanmar (Burma)

Mujahid Party

1948–1961

Pakistan

Safe haven to members

1948–1961

Myanmar (Burma)

New Mon State Party (NMSP)

1959–present

Thailand

Safe haven to members

1959

Weapons and logistics Aid

1959–1990

India

Training camp

1959–1994

Myanmar (Burma)

Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO)

1991–present

Bangladesh

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

Saudi Arabia

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

Afghanistan

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

India

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

Pakistan

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

Malaysia

Training

1991–1994

Financial aid

Nepal

Communist Party of Nepal– Maoist (CPN-M)

1996–2006

India

Safe haven to members

1996–2006

Safe haven to leaders

1996–2005

Training camp

1996–2006

Transport

1996–2006

Nepal

Nepali Congress

1960–1962

India

Safe haven to members, leaders

1960–1962

Nicaragua

Contras / Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN)

1982–1990

Honduras

Open offices

1983–1984

Transport

1986–1987

Panama

Financial aid

1984–1987

Switzerland

Financial aid

1984–1987

Nicaragua

Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN)

1977–1979

Cuba

Safe haven to members

1977–1979

Honduras

Safe haven to members

1977–1979

Costa Rica

Safe haven to members

1978–1979

Safe haven to leaders

1977–1979

Niger

Air and Azawak Liberation Front (FLAA)

1991–1993

Mali

Safe haven to members

1991–1993

Niger

Democratic Front for Renewal (FDR)

1995–1995

Mali

Safe haven to members

1995

Nigeria

Safe haven to members

1995

Nigeria

Boko Haram

2009–present

Niger

Safe haven to members, leaders

2009–2010

Cameroon

Safe haven to members

2009–2010

Chad

Safe haven to members

2009–2010

Algeria

Safe haven to members, leaders

2009–2010

Training, Financial Aid

Nigeria

Boko Haram

2009–present

Somalia

Safe haven to leaders, training

2009–2010

Mauritania

Training

2009–2010

Mali

Training

2009–2010

Afghanistan

Training

2009–2010

Pakistan

Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA)

2004–2009

United Arab Emirates

Financial aid

2004–2006

Pakistan

Balochistan Republican Army (BRA)

2008–2009

Afghanistan

Transport

2008–2009

Pakistan

Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)

1990–1996

United Kingdom

Safe haven to leaders

1991–1996

Open offices

Financial aid

Canada

Safe haven to leaders

1994–1996

Open offices

1995–1996

Financial aid

1995–1996

USA

Open offices

1995–1996

Financial aid

1995–1996

South Africa

Open offices

1995–1996

Financial aid

1995–1996

Pakistan

Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat- e-Mohammadi (TNSM)

2007

Afghanistan

Safe haven to members

2007

Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

2008–present

Afghanistan

Safe haven to members

2008–2010

Saudi Arabia

Financial aid

2009

Papua New Guinea

Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA)

1989–1996

Solomon Islands

Transport

1989–1996

Paraguay

Opposition coalition (Febreristas, Liberals, and Communists)

1947–1947

Argentina

Safe haven to members

1947

Peru

Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR)

1965–1965

Bolivia

Safe haven to members

1965

Safe haven to leaders

Transport

Peru

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)

1963–2007

Bolivia

Safe haven to members

1989–2007

Colombia

Financial aid

1975–2007

Peru

Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)

1989–1993

El Salvador

Safe haven to members

1989–1993

Colombia

Safe haven to members

1989–1993

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Ecuador

Safe haven to members

1989–1993

Bolivia

Safe haven to members

1989–1993

Safe haven to leaders

Chile

Safe haven to members

1989–1993

Safe haven to leaders

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Panama

Weapons and logistics Aid

1989–1993

Philippines

Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

1993–present

Afghanistan

Safe haven to members

1993–2010

Safe haven to leaders

Training

Financial aid

Philippines

Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)

1972–2007

Malaysia

Safe haven to members

1972–1993

Safe haven to leaders

Financial aid

Afghanistan

Training

1972–1993

Libya

Financial aid

1972–1993

Russia (Soviet Union)

Association of the Latvian Fatherland Guards (LTS(p)A)

1946–1946

Sweden

Safe haven to leaders

1946

Russia (Soviet Union)

Forces of the Caucasus Emirate

2007–2009

Turkey

Safe havens for members

2009

Russia (Soviet Union)

Forest Brothers

1946–1948

Sweden

Safe haven to leaders

1946–1948

Russia (Soviet Union)

Latvian National Guerrilla Organisation (LNPA)

1946

Sweden

Safe haven to leaders

1946

Rwanda

Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR)

1996–2000

Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)

Safe haven to members

1996–2000

Training camp

1996–2000

Burundi

Safe haven to members

1996–2000

Rwanda

Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)

1990–2012

USA

Safe haven to leaders

2009–2010

Rwanda

Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR)

1990–1994

Belgium

Safe haven to leaders

1990–1994

Open offices

Senegal

Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC)

1990–2003

Guinea-Bissau

Safe haven to members

1995–2003

The Gambia

Safe haven to members

1990–2003

Transport

1990–1994

France

Open offices

1990–2003

Serbia (Yugoslavia)

Kosovo Liberation Army (UCK)

1998–1999

Albania

Weapons and logistics Aid

1996–1999

Sierra Leone

Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC)

1997–2000

Guinea

Safe haven to leaders

1998

Sierra Leone

Revolutionary United Front (RUF)

1991–2001

Liberia

Safe haven to members

1991–1996

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Ukraine

Weapons and logistics Aid

1991–2001

Somalia

Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS/UIC)

2006–2008

Djibouti

Safe haven to members, leaders

2008

Open offices

Yemen

Safe haven to leaders

2007

Egypt

Safe haven to leaders

2008

Saudi Arabia

Financial aid

2006

Sweden

Safe haven to members

2008

Somalia

Hizbul-Islam

2009–present

USA

Safe haven to members

2010

Financial aid

Somalia

United Somali Congress / Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)

1990–1991

United Kingdom

Safe haven to members

1990–1991

Italy

Safe haven to members

1990

South Africa

African National Congress (ANC)

1981–1988

Zambia

Safe haven to leaders

1981–1988

Open offices

South Africa

South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO)

1966–1988

Zambia

Safe haven to members

1966–1988

Training camp

Spain

Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA)

1978–2011

France

Safe haven to members

1978–2011

Safe haven to leaders

1978–1992

Sri Lanka

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

1984–2009

Myanmar (Burma)

Open offices

1993–1996

Weapons and logistics Aid

1999–2000

Thailand

Open offices

1996–2009

Weapons and logistics Aid

1991–2009

Financial aid

1996–2009

Transport

1995–2009

United Kingdom

Open offices

1984–2001

Financial aid

1984–2007

Canada

Open offices

2007–2008

Financial aid

1987–2008

Australia

Open offices

1984–2007

Financial aid

1984–2007

Sri Lanka

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

1984–2009

France

Open offices, financial aid

1996–2007

Cambodia

Weapons and logistics Aid

1994–2009

Malaysia

Weapons and logistics Aid

1994–1996

Transport

1991–1996

Vietnam

Weapons and logistics Aid

1999–2000

Singapore

Weapons and logistics Aid

1994–1996

Ukraine

Weapons and logistics Aid

1994–1996

USA

Financial aid

1998–2008

Indonesia

Transport

1990–2009

Sudan

Anya Nya

1963–1972

United Kingdom

Safe haven to members, leaders

1963–1972

Congo

Safe haven to members, leaders

1963–1972

Open offices

Training

Uganda

Safe haven to members, leaders

1963–1972

Open offices

Training

Kenya

Safe haven to members

1963–1972

Ethiopia

Safe haven to members

1963–1972

Safe haven to leaders

Sudan

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A)

2003–2009

Chad

Safe haven to members

2007–2009

Ukraine

Weapons and logistics Aid

2009

Eritrea

Weapons and logistics Aid

2009

Transport

2009

France

Financial aid, Safe Haven to leaders

2003–2009

Syria

Muslim Brotherhood

1979–1982

Jordan

Safe haven to members

1979–1982

Tajikistan

Forces of Khudoberdiyev

1998–1998

Uzbekistan

Safe haven to members

1998

Safe haven to leaders

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Tajikistan

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

2010–2011

Pakistan

Safe haven to members

2010

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Training camp

Afghanistan

Safe haven to members

2010

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Saudi Arabia

Financial aid

2010

Tajikistan

United Tajik Opposition (UTO)

1992–1999

Afghanistan

Safe haven to members

1992–1995

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Training camp

Transport

Pakistan

Weapons and logistics Aid

1996–1998

Safe haven to leaders

1992–1997

Iran

Safe haven to leaders

1992–1998

Thailand

Communist Party of Thailand (CPT)

1974–1982

Laos

Safe haven to members

1974–1982

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Training camp

Training

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

Transport

Cambodia

Safe haven to members

1974–1982

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Thailand

Patani insurgents

2003–present

Malaysia

Safe haven to members

2003–2010

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Financial aid

Tunisia

Résistance Armée Tunisienne

1980–1980

Algeria

Safe haven to members

1980

Turkey

Devrimci Sol

1991–1992

Netherlands

Safe haven to leaders

1991–1992

France

Safe haven to members

1991

Open offices

1992

Lebanon

Training camp

1992

United Kingdom

Financial aid

1992

Turkey

Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)

1984–Present

Syria

Safe haven to members

1999–2010

Iraq

Safe haven to members

1984–2010

Safe haven to leaders

1984–2010

Turkey

Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)

1984–present

Lebanon

Safe haven to leaders

1984–1992

Training camp

1984–1992

Belgium

Open offices

1993–1999

Training camp

1996–1998

Netherlands

Training camp

2004

Uganda

Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)

1996–2007

Saudi Arabia

Training camp

2007

Financial aid

2007

Uganda

Uganda People’s Democratic Army (UPDA)

1986–1988

Sudan

Safe haven to members

1986–1988

Safe haven to leaders

Uganda

West Nile Bank Front (WNBF)

1996–1996

Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)

Safe haven to members

1996

Open offices

1996

Sudan

Open offices

1996

Uganda

Uganda National Rescue Front (UNRF)

1981–1983

Sudan

Safe haven to leaders

1981–1983

Zaire

Safe haven to leaders

1981–1983

United Kingdom

Provisional IRA (PIRA)

1971–2005

Colombia

Safe haven to members

1992–2002

Training camp

2001–2002

Lebanon

Training camp

1972–1982

Ireland

Financial aid

1971–2005

USA

Weapons, logistics, Funds

1981–1985

United States

Al-Qaeda

2001–present

United Kingdom

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Safe haven to leaders

Open offices

Financial aid

Belgium

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Training camp

Weapons and logistics Aid

Financial aid

France

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Spain

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Safe haven to leaders

Financial aid

Germany

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Financial aid

Turkey

Safe haven to members

2001–2003

Netherlands

Financial aid

2001

Italy

Financial aid

2001–2002

Saudi Arabia

Safe haven to members

2001–2010

Financial aid

Pakistan

Safe haven to members

2002–2010

Safe haven to leaders

Training camp

Afghanistan

Safe haven to leaders

2002–2010

Uzbekistan

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

1999–2000

Tajikistan

Safe haven to members

1999–2000

Open offices

Training camp

Saudi Arabia

Financial aid

1999–2000

Uzbekistan

Jihad Islamic Group (JIG)

2004–2004

Germany

Weapons and logistics Aid

2004

Financial aid

Yemen

Al-Qaeda in Arabic Peninsula (AQAP)

2009–Present

Saudi Arabia

Financial Aid

2009–2010

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe African People’s Union (Zapu)

1964–1974

Tanzania

Training camp

1964–1974

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)

1973–1976

Tanzania

Safe haven to members

1973–1976

Training camp

Zimbabwe

Patriotic Front

1976–1979

Tanzania

Safe haven to leaders

1976 (p.227)