Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Risk of a LifetimeHow, When, and Why Procreation May Be Permissible$

Rivka Weinberg

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780190243708

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243708.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.249) Works Cited

(p.249) Works Cited

Source:
The Risk of a Lifetime
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Alloy, L. B. and Abramson, L. Y., “Judgment of Contingency in Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Sadder but Wiser?” Journal of Experimental Psychology 1979 108: 441–485.

Alzheimer’s Association, “Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease,” Alz.org.

Anderson, Elizabeth, “Is Women’s Labor a Commodity?” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1990 19: 71–92.

Anderson, Elizabeth, Value in Ethics and Economics, Harvard University Press, 1993.

Associated Press, “Kansas Man Who Donated Sperm to Lesbian Couple Being Sued by State for Child Support,” January 13, 2013.

Barber, J. S., Axinn, W. G., and Thornton, A., “Unwanted Childbearing, Health, and Mother Child Relationships,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1999 40: 231–257.

Baron-Cohen, Simon, The Science of Evil: On Empathy and the Origins of Cruelty, Basic Books, 2011.

Bayne, Tim, “Gamete Donation and Parental Responsibility,” Journal of Applied Philosophy 2003 20: 77–87.

Bayne, Tim, and Kolers, Avery, “Toward a Pluralistic Account of Parenthood,” Bioethics 2003 17: 221–242.

Belkin, Lisa, “The Made-to-Order Savior,” New York Times, July 1, 2001.

Belsky, J., “Parental and Nonparental Child Care and Children’s Socioeconomic Development: A Decade in Review,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 1990 52: 885–903.

Benatar, David, Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, Oxford University Press, 2006.

(p.250) Benatar, David, “The Unbearable Lightness of Bringing into Being,” Journal of Applied Philosophy 1999 16: 173–180.

Benatar, David, “Why It Is Better Never to Come into Existence,” American Philosophical Quarterly 1997 34: 345–355.

Benhabib, Seyla, “Cultural Complexity, Moral Interdependence, and the Global Dialogical Community,” Glover, Jonathan, and Nussbaum, Martha, Eds., Women, Culture, and Development, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Bloom, Paul, “I’m O.K., You’re a Psychopath,” New York Times, June 17, 2011.

Blum, H. M., Boyle, M. H., and Offord, D. R., “Single Parent Families: Child Psychiatric Disorder and School Performance,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998 27: 214–219.

Blustein, Jeffrey, “Procreation and Parental Responsibility,” Journal of Social Philosophy 1997 28: 80–82.

Boonin, David, The Non-identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People, Oxford University Press, 2014.

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writer’s Project, 1936–1938, Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html.

Brighouse, Harry and Swift, Adam, “Parents’ Rights and the Value of the Family,” Ethics 2006 117: 80–108.

Brodzinsky, David, The Psychology of Adoption, Oxford University Press, 1990.

Brownee, Kimberley and Cureton, Adam, Eds., Disability and Disadvantage, Oxford University Press, 2009.

Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., and Rogers, Willard L., The Quality of American Life, Russell Sage Foundation, 1976.

Camus, Albert, The Myth of Sisyphus, Vintage International, 1991.

Carnevale, Anthony P., Rose, Stephen J., and Cheah, Ban, “The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings,” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, 2011.

Cohen, Elizabeth, “Surrogate Offered $10,000 to Abort Baby,” CNN, March 6, 2013.

Collins, Francis, “The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution” in Personalised Medicine, Harper, 2010.

Coogle, Adam, “Saudi Arabia to Women: ‘Don’t Speak Up, We Know What’s Best for You,’” Daily Beast.

Craddock, N., and Jones, I., “Genetics of Bipolar Disorder,” Journal of Medical Genetics 1999 36: 585–594.

Darwall, Stephen, The Second-Person Standpoint: Morality, Respect, and Accountability, Harvard University Press, 2009.

Davidowitz, Lucy, The War against the Jews: 1933–1945, Bantam, 1975.

Dayal, Molina B., Lucidi, Richard Scott, et al., “Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis,” Medscape Reference, August 29, 2013, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/273415-overview#aw2aab6b4.

(p.251) DeGrazia, David, Creation Ethics: Reproduction, Genetics, and Quality of Life, Oxford University Press, 2012.

DeParle, Jason, “Two Classes, Divided by ‘I Do,’” New York Times, July 14, 2012.

Diener, Ed, and Diener, Carol, “Most People Are Happy,” Psychological Science 1996 7: 181–185.

Diener, Ed, et al., “Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress,” Psychological Bulletin 1999 125: 276–302.

Diener, Marissa, and McGavran, Mary Beth Diener, “What Makes People Happy? A Developmental Approach to the Literature on Family Relationships and Well-Being,” The Science of Subjective Well-Being, Eid, Michael, and Larson, Randy J, Eds., Guilford Press 2008.

Dobson, K., and Franche, R. L., “A Conceptual and Empirical Review of the Depressive Realism Hypothesis,” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 1989 21: 419–433.

D’Onofrio, Brian M., Rickert, Martin E., et al., “Paternal Age at Childbearing and Offspring Psychiatric and Academic Morbidity,” JAMA Psychiatry, online first, February 26, 2014.

Douglass, Frederick, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2002.

Dworkin, Ronald, “Paternalism,” Monist 1972 56: 64–84.

Dworkin, Ronald, “The Original Position,” University of Chicago Law Review 1973 40: 500–533.

Feinberg, Joel, “The Child’s Right to an Open Future,” Whose Child? Children’s Rights, Parental Authority, and State Power, Aiken, William, and LaFollette, Hugh, Eds., Littlefield, Adams, 1980.

Feinberg, Joel, “Wrongful Life and the Counterfactual Element in Harming,” Social Philosophy and Policy 1986 4: 145–179.

Feldman, Fred, Confrontations with the Reaper, Oxford University Press, 1992.

Feldman, Susan, “Multiple Biological Mothers: The Case for Gestation,” Journal of Social Philosophy 1992 23: 98–104.

Finkel, Eli J., and Fitzsimons, Grainne M., “When Helping Hurts,” New York Times, May 10, 2013.

Fisch, H., Hyun, G., et al., “The Influence of Paternal Age on Down syndrome,” Journal of Urology 2003 169: 2275–2278.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth, Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women in the Old South, University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Frankl, Victor, Man’s Search for Meaning, Hogger and Stoughton, 1971.

Frey, Rebecca, “Genetic Factors and Mental Disorders,” Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, web: http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Genetic-factors-and-mentaldisorders.html.

Friedrich, Daniel, “A Duty to Adopt?” Journal of Applied Philosophy 2013 30: 25–39.

(p.252) Giuliana Fuscaldo, “Genetic Ties: Are They Morally Binding?” Bioethics 2006 20: 64–76.

Gallagher, Maggie, “What Is Marriage For? The Public Purposes of Marriage Law,” Louisiana Law Review 2001–2002 62: 773–791.

Gelles, Richard, “Child Abuse and Violence in Single-Parent Families: Parent Absence and Economic Deprivation,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1989 59: 492–501.

Glionna, John M., “Twins Rejected, Birth Mother Sues,” Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2001.

Glover, Jonathan, Choosing Children: Genes, Disability, and Design, Oxford University Press, 2006.

Golomb, Elan, Trapped in the Mirror: Adult Children of Narcissists in Their Struggle for Self, William Morrow, 1992.

Hanser, Matthew, “Harming Future People,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1990 19: 47–70.

Hare, Caspar, “Voices from Another World: Must We Respect the Interests of People Who Do Not, and Will Never, Exist?” Ethics 2007 117: 498–523.

Hare, R. M., “Rawls’ Theory of Justice,” Reading Rawls, Daniels, Norman, Ed., Stanford University Press, 1989.

Harman, Elizabeth, “Can We Harm and Benefit in Creating?” Philosophical Perspectives 2004 18: 89–109.

Haugaard, J. J., Schustack, A., et al., “Birth Mothers Who Voluntarily Relinquish Infants for Adoption,” Adoption Quarterly 1998 2: 89–97.

Herzog, Don, Happy Slaves, University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Hill, J. L., “‘What Does It Mean to Be a Parent?’: The Claims of Biology as the Basis for Parental Rights,” New York University Law Review 1991 66: 353–420.

Hirvelä, Shari, and Helkama, Klaus, “Empathy, Values, Morality, and Asperger’s Syndrome,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2011 52: 560–572.

Hook, Ernest B., Cross, Phillip K., and Schreinemachers, Dina M., “Chromosomal Abnormality Rates at Amniocentesis and in Live-Born Infants,” Journal of the American Medical Association 1983 249: 2034–2038.

Howe, David, “Attachment: Assessing Children’s Needs and Parenting Capacity,” The Child’s World: The Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Children in Need, 2nd edition, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2010.

Human Rights Watch, June 26, 2013, http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/06/26/ saudi-arabia-women-dont-speak-we-know-whats-best-you.

HuffPost Live, “Surrogate Mother Left to Care for Biological Parents’ Twins,” March 19, 2003.

Hurley, Paul, and Weinberg, Rivka, “Whose Problem Is Non-identity?” Journal of Moral Philosophy, forthcoming.

In the Matter of Baby M 109 N.J. 396, 537 A. 2nd (N.J. 1988).

(p.253) Iacopino, Vincent, “The Taliban’s War on Women,” report for Physicians for Human Rights, http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/reports/talibans-war-on-women-1998.html.

Jones, Adele, “Issues Relevant to Therapy with Adoptees,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 1997 34: 64–68.

Johns Hopkins Health Library entry on schizophrenia: www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/mental_health_disorders/schizophrenia_85,P00762/

Kant, Immanuel, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.

Kavka, Gregory, “The Paradox of Future Individuals,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1981 11: 93–112.

Karnein, Anja J., A Theory of Unborn Life: From Abortion to Genetic Manipulation, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Kelland, Kate, “Some Forms of IVF Linked to Rise of Autism, Mental Disability,” Reuters International, July 2, 2013.

Keller, Matthew, and Nesse, Randolph, “Is Low Mood an Adaptation? Evidence for Subtypes with Symptoms That Match Precipitants,” Journal of Affective Disorders 2005 86: 27–35.

Kristiansen, Kristjana and Shakespeare, Tom, Eds., Arguing about Disability: Philosophical Perspectives, Routledge, 2010.

Lahr, John, “The Disappearing Act,” The New Yorker, February 2, 2007.

Lanzmann, Claude, director, Shoah, 1985.

Leahy, Robert, “Pessimism and the Evolution of Negativity,” Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 2002 16: 295–316.

Lehrer, John, “Depression’s Upside,” New York Times, February 28, 2010.

LeMoyne, Terri, and Buchanan, Tom, “Does Hovering Matter? Helicopter Parenting and Its Effect on Well-Being,” Sociological Spectrum 2011 31: 399–418.

Lewin, Tamar, “Surrogate Mother Able to Sue for Negligence,” New York Times, September 20, 1992.

Lowenstein, Sophie, “An Overview of the Concept of Narcissism,” Social Casework 1997 58: 136–142.

McCeer, Victoria, “Varieties of Moral Agency: Lessons from Autism (and Psychopathy),” Moral Psychology, vol. 3: The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development, Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, Ed., MIT Press, 2008.

McLaughlin, Zeanah, et al., “Attachment as a Mechanism Linking Foster Care Placement to Improved Mental Health Outcomes in Previously Institutionalized Children,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2012 53: 46–55.

McMahan, Jeff, “Problems of Population Theory,” Ethics 1981 92: 104–107.

McMahan, Jeff, The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life, Oxford University Press, 2002.

(p.254) McMahan, Jeff, “Wrongful Life: Paradoxes in the Morality of Causing People to Exist,” Rational Commitment and Social Justice, Jules L. Coleman and Christopher W. Morris, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mayohealth.com

Medline Plus, “Huntington’s Disease,” web.

Mariano, Timothy Y., Chan, Heng Choon (Oliver), and Myers, Wade C., “Toward a More Holistic Understanding of Filicide: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of 32 Years of U.S. Arrest Data,” Forensic Science International 2014 236: 46–53.

Matlin, Margaret W., and Stang, David J., The Pollyanna Principle: Selectivity in Language, Memory and Thought, Schenkman, 1978.

Meyers, David G., and Diener, Ed, “The Pursuit of Happiness,” Scientific American 1996 274: 70–72.

Mowry, Briana, “Is Being Childfree by Choice Selfish?” Redbook Magazine, redbookmag.com/love-sex/advice/childfree-by-choice.

Munson, Ronald, “Artificial Insemination and Donor Responsibility,” Intention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Bioethics, Wadsworth, 1988.

Nagel, Thomas, “Rawls on Justice,” Philosophical Review 1973 82: 220–234.

Narayan, Uma, “Family Ties: Rethinking Parental Claims in the Light of Surrogacy and Custody,” Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Families, Hard Choices, and the Social Good, Narayan, Uma and Bartkowiak, Julia J., Eds., Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.

Narveson, Jan, “Utilitarianism and New Generations,” Mind 1967 76: 62–72.

Narverson, Jan, “Moral Problems of Population,” Monist 1973 57: 62–86.

Lindemann-Nelson, James, “Parental Obligations and the Ethics of Surrogacy: A Causal Perspective,” Public Affairs Quarterly 1991 5: 49–61.

New York Times, December 2, 1986, “Major Personality Study Finds That Traits Are Mostly Inherited.” New York Times In-Depth report on schizophrenia, web.

Nickman, S. L., and Rosenfeld, A., “Children in Adoptive Families: Overview and Update,” Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005 44: 987–995.

Nozick, Robert, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Basic Books, 1974.

Nussbaum, Martha, “Human Capabilities, Female Human Beings,” Women, Culture, and Development, Glover, Jonathan, and Nussbaum, Martha, Eds., Oxford University Press, 1995.

O’Connor, Joe, “Trend of Couples Not Having Children Is Just Plain Selfish,” National Post, September 19, 2012.

O’Neal, Onora, “Between Consenting Adults,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1985 14: 252–277.

Olausson, P. O., Cnattingius, S., et al., “Teenage Pregnancies and the Risk of Late Fetal Death and Infant Mortality,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999 106: 116–121.

(p.255) Oremus, Will, “Did Early Christians Practice Birth Control?” Slate, February 10, 2012, slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2012/02/obama_birth_control_battle_when_did_catholics_ban_contraception_.html?wpisrc = slate_river.

Overall, Christine, Why Have Children? MIT Press, 2012.

Page, Edgar, “Donation, Surrogacy, and Adoption,” Journal of Applied Philosophy 1985 2: 161–172.

Parfit, Derek, “Comments on the Non-Identity Problem,” Ethics 1986 96: 832–863.

Parfit, Derek, “Future Generations, Further Problems,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1982 11: 113–172.

Parfit, Derek, On What Matters, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Parfit, Derek, Reasons and Persons, Oxford University Press, 1984.

Phipps, Maureen G., Sowers, Maryfran, et al., “The Risk for Infant Mortality among Adolescent Chilbearing Groups,” Journal of Women’s Health 2002 11: 889–897.

Rawls, John, A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, 1971.

Reich, Annie, “Pathological Forms of Self-Esteem Regulation,” Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1960 15: 215–232.

Ripstein, Arthur, Equality, Responsibility, and the Law, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Ripstein, Arthur, Force and Freedom, Harvard University Press, 2009.

Roberts, Melinda, Child versus Childmaker, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

Roberts, Melinda, “Good Intentions and a Great Divide: Having Babies by Intending Them,” Law and Philosophy 1983 12: 287–317.

Robertson, John, Children of Choice: Freedom and the New Reproductive Technologies, Princeton University Press, 1994.

Roberstson, John, “Procreative Liberty and Harm to Offspring in Assisted Reproduction,” American Journal of Law and Medicine 2004 30: 7–40.

Rothman, Barbara, Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and Technology in a Patriarchal Society, Norton, 1989.

Sack, W. H., Mason, R., and Higgins, J. E., “The Single-Parent Family and Abusive Child Punishment,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1985 55: 252–259.

Sandel, Michael, The Case against Perfection, Harvard University Press, 2007.

Savulescu, Julian, and Kahane, Guy, “The Moral Obligation to Create Children with the Best Chance of the Best Life,” Bioethics 2009 23: 274–290.

Scanlon, T. M., What We Owe To Each Other, Harvard University Press, 1998.

Sen, Amartya, Commodities and Capabilities, Oxford University Press, 1985.

Schiffrin, Holly H., Liss, Miriam, et al., “Helping or Hovering? The Effects of Helicopter Parenting on College Students’ Well-Being,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, February 9, 2013.

(p.256) Shiffrin, Seana, “Wrongful Life, Procreative Responsibility, and the Significance of Harm,” Legal Theory 1999 5: 117–148.

Skaine, Rosemarie, The Women of Afghanistan under the Taliban, McFarland, 2002.

Solomon, Andrew, Far from the Tree, Scribner / Simon & Schuster, 2012.

Smilansky, Saul, “Is There a Moral Obligation to Have Children?” Journal of Applied Philosophy 1995 12: 41–53.

Smilansky, Saul, “Life Is Good,” South African Journal of Philosophy 2012 31: 69–78.

Smilansky, Saul, “Preferring Not to Have Been Born,” 10 Moral Paradoxes, WileyBlackwell, 2007.

Solomon, Judith, and George, Carol, “The Disorganized Attachment Caregiving System: Disregulation of Adaptive Processes at Multiple Levels,” Disorganized Attachment and Caregiving, Solomon, Judith, and George, Carol, Eds., Guilford Press, 2011.

Sperling, Daniel, Posthumous Interests, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Steinbock, Bonnie, “The Logical Case for Wrongful Life,” Hastings Center Report 1986 16: 15–20.

Stewart, Janet, “Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21,” Genetic Drift: Management of Common Genetic Disorders, 1998 16.

Sunstein, Cass, “Preferences and Politics,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1991 20: 3–34.

Sunstein, Cass R., and Thaler, Richard H. “Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron,” University of Chicago Law Review 2003 70: 1159–1206.

Tellegen, Auke, Lykken, David, et al., “Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988 54: 1031–1039.

Tuomela, Raimo and Miller, Kaarlo, “We-Intentions,” Philosophical Studies 1988 53: 367–389.

Uher, R., “The Role of Genetic Variation in the Causation of Mental Illness: An Evolution-Informed Framework,” Mollecular Psychiatry 2009 14: 1072–1082.

The University of Southern California Shoah Foundation archives, http://sfi.usc.edu/.

Velleman, David, “Love and Nonexistence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 2008 36: 266–288

Velleman, David, “The Gift of Life,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 2008 36: 245–266.

Velleman, David, “Well Being and Time,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 1991 72: 48–71.

Wasserman, David, “The Non-identity Problem, Disability, and the Role Morality of Prospective Parents,” Ethics 2005 116: 132–152.

Weinberg, Rivka, “Existence: Who Needs It? The Non-identity Problem and Merely Possible People,” Bioethics 2013 27: 471–484.

(p.257) Weinberg, Rivka, “Identifying and Dissolving the Non-identity Problem,” Philosophical Studies 2008 137: 3–18.

Weinberg, Rivka “Is Having Children Always Wrong?” South African Journal of Philosophy 2012 31: 26–37.

Weinberg, Rivka, “Procreative Justice: A Contractualist Account,” Public Affairs Quarterly 2002 16: 405–425.

Weinberg, Rivka, “The Moral Complexity of Sperm Donation,” Bioethics 2008 22: 166–178.

Weinreb, Maxine, and Murphy, Bianca, “The Birth Mother,” Women and Therapy 1988 7: 23–36.

Wieseltier, Leon, Kaddish, Vintage Books / Random House, 1998.

Williams, Bernard, “A Critique of Utilitarianism,” Utilitarianism For and Against, Smart, J. J. C., and Williams, Bernard, Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Wolf, Susan, Meaning in Life and Why It Matters, Princeton University Press, 2010.

Woodward, James, “The Non-identity Problem,” Ethics 1986 96: 805–831.

Woodward, James, “Reply to Parfit’s ‘Comments on the Non-Identity Problem,’” Ethics 1987 97: 800–816.

Wilson, Robin Fretwell, “Evaluating Marriage: Does Marriage Matter to the Nurturing of Children?” San Diego Law Review 2005 42: 847–881. (p.258)