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Inherit the Holy MountainReligion and the Rise of American Environmentalism$

Mark Stoll

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780190230869

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190230869.001.0001

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(p.277) Appendix The Presbyterianness of the Progressive Era

(p.277) Appendix The Presbyterianness of the Progressive Era

Childhood Religious Affiliation of Presidents and their Cabinets

Source:
Inherit the Holy Mountain
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

This chart shows graphically the dominance of Presbyterians in the Progressive Era, 1889–1921, and into the New Deal. Presbyterians show a signature attraction to Interior and Agriculture, the departments most closely connected to the natural world. The chart also shows a few other curious patterns. Presidents tended to appoint coreligionists to their cabinets. Presbyterians also disproportionately led State and War, whose implications for the Wilson administration Robert Morse Crunden discusses in Ministers of Reform: The Progressives’ Achievement in American Civilization, 1889–1920 (New York: Basic Books, 1982), chapter 8. On the right of the chart, Presbyterian presence diminishes dramatically. Clearly, the departments of “Mammon,” Treasury and Commerce, held little attraction to them. Instead, the number of Methodists and Episcopalians is striking, as is the greater diversity of denominations.

President

Interior

Agriculture

State

War

Atty. Gen.

Treasury

Commerce

Labor

1885

P Cleveland

M Lamar

E Bayard

U Endicott

M Garland

E* Manning

1886

C Vilas

1887

M Fairchild

1888

? Colman 89

1889

P Harrison

P Noble

P Rusk

P Blaine

? Proctor

P Miller

Q Windom

1890

1891

P Elkins

? Foster

1892

? Foster

1893

P Cleveland

P Smith

E Morton

M Gresham

? Lamont

P Olney

? Carlisle

1894

1895

P Olney

B Harmon

1896

P Francis

1897

M McKinley

C Bliss

P Wilson

M Sherman

? Alger

RC McKenna

M Gage

1898

L Day

P Griggs

1899

P Hitchcock

P Hay

P Root

1900

1901

P TRoosevelt

M Knox

1902

M Shaw

1903

P Cortelyou

1904

U Taft

E Moody

? Metcalf

1905

P Root

1906

P Woodruff

RC Bonaparte

J Straus

1907

D Garfield

P Cortelyou

1908

P Bacon 09

M Wright

1909

U Taft

C Ballinger

M Knox

P Dickinson

E Wickersham

M MacVeagh

L Nagel

1910

1911

P Fisher

P Stimson

1912

1913

P Wilson

P Lane

P* Houston

P Bryan

E Garrison

D McReynolds

E McAdoo

E Redfield

P Wilson

1914

P Gregory

1915

P Lansing

1916

E Baker

1917

1918

M Glass

1919

Q Palmer

? Alexander

1920

M Payne

M Meredith

B Colby

P* Houston

1921

B Harding

D Fall

P HWallace

B Hughes

U Weeks

M Daugherty

E Mellon

Q Hoover

B* Davis

1922

1923

C Coolidge

P Work

? Kellogg

Uv Sargent

1924

B Gore

1925

C Jardine

? Davis

1926

1927

1928

M West

? Whiting

1929

Q Hoover

C Wilbur

M Hyde

P Stimson

? Hurley

P Mitchell

? Lamont

1930

M Doak

1931

1932

? Mills

? Chapin

1933

E FDRoosevelt

P Ickes

P HAWallace

E Hull

C Dern

C Cummings

? Woodin

M Roper

C Perkins

1934

J Morganthau

1935

1936

D Woodring

1937

1938

M Hopkins

1939

RC Murphy

1940

P Stimson

B Jackson

B Jones

1941

UB Wickard

E Biddle

1942

1943

1944

E Stettinius

1945

P HAWallace

Note: I omitted the relatively minor positions of Secretary of the Navy and Postmaster General for simplicity and clarity.

Note: Until 1936, Presidents took office on March 4. Norman Jay Colman and Robert Bacon assumed their positions in previous administrations after January 1 and served only briefly.

() From its creation in 1903 until 1913, the Department of Commerce and Labor.

KEY

  • B

    Baptist

  • C

    Congregrational

  • D

    Disciples of Christ

  • E

    Episcopalian

  • J

    Jewish

  • L

    Lutheran

  • M

    Methodist

  • P

    Presbyterian

  • Q

    Quaker

  • RC

    Catholic

  • U

    Unitarian

  • UB

    United Brethren

  • Uv

    Universalist

  • ?

    No available information

  • *

    Data lacking; inferred from affiliation of siblings, parents, and other close relations.

(p.278) (p.279) (p.280) (p.281)