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Binary BulletsThe Ethics of Cyberwarfare$
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Fritz Allhoff, Adam Henschke, and Bradley Jay Strawser

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190221072

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.001.0001

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Emerging Norms for Cyberwarfare

Emerging Norms for Cyberwarfare

(p.13) 1 Emerging Norms for Cyberwarfare
Binary Bullets

George R. Lucas

Oxford University Press

Cyberconflict confronts nations with attacks on military, industrial, and civilian infrastructure and objects that violate conventional norms of war. This conflict represents both criminal theft and vandalism, coupled with sophisticated espionage and intelligence operations, neither category of which has heretofore been considered as the kind of use of force and “armed conflict” that is governed by existing legal and moral regimes. As a result, cyberconflict has been portrayed as a kind of war without rules, and as a form of warfare that obviates existing norms and calls for an entirely new legal regime. Recognizing these challenges, This chapter argues that (1) there are a set of norms governing cyberconflict practices presently emerging from the engagement in these practices by adversaries; and (2) that the emergent norms closely resemble the considerations of conventional armed conflict, sufficiently so as to permit a reasonable extrapolation of current norms to the new cyberdomain.

Keywords:   emerging norms, cyberwarfare, moral in cyberspace, rules of armed conflict, international law

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