Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Drawing the LineHealthcare Rationing and the Cutoff Problem$

Philip M. Rosoff

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190206567

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190206567.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.249) Bibliography

(p.249) Bibliography

Drawing the Line
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abbott, R., & Stevens, C. (2014). Redefining medical necessity: A consumer-driven solution to the U.S. health care crisis. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 943–965

Abigail Alliance for Better Access v. Von Eschenbach (2007). F. 3d (Vol. 495, pp. 695): Court of Appeals, Dist. of Columbia Circuit.

Aboumatar, H., Carson, K., Beach, M., Roter, D., & Cooper, L. (2013). The Impact of Health Literacy on Desire for Participation in Healthcare, Medical Visit Communication, and Patient Reported Outcomes among Patients with Hypertension. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(11), 1469–1476, doi:10.1007/s11606-013-2466-5.

Acharya, A., Adam, T., Baltussen, R., Evans, D., Hutubessy, R., Murray, C. J. L., et al. (Eds.). (2003). Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Afendulis, C. C., He, Y., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Chernew, M. E. (2011). The impact of Medicare Part D on hospitalization rates. Health Services Research, 46(4), 1022–1038. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2011.01244.x

Aggarwal, S. (2010). What’s fueling the biotech engine, 2009–2010. Nature Biotechnology, 28(11), 1165–1171. doi:10.1038/nbt1110-1165

Ahmed, H., Naik, G., Willoughby, H., & Edwards, A. (2012). Communicating risk. BMJ, 344(7862), 40–44.

Akpinar, E., Selvaggi, G., Levi, D., Moon, J., Nishida, S., Island, E., et al. (2009). Liver retransplantation of more than two grafts for recurrent failure. Transplantation, 88(7), 884–890.

Albertsen, A. (2014). Luck Egalitarianism, social determinants and Public Health initiatives. Public Health Ethics. 8(1), 42–49.

Albertsen, A., & Knight, C. (2015). A framework for luck egalitarianism in health and healthcare. Journal of Medical Ethics, 41(2), 165–169, doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101666.

Alcorn, S. R., Balboni, M. J., Prigerson, H. G., Reynolds, A., Phelps, A. C., Wright, A. A., et al. (2010). “If God wanted me yesterday, I wouldn’t be here today”: Religious and spiritual themes in patients’ experiences of advanced cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(5), 581–588.

Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York/Jackson, TN: New Press/ Perseus Distribution.

Allen, D. B., & Cuttler, L. (2013). Short stature in childhood—Challenges and choices. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(13), 1220–1228. 10.1056/NEJMcp1213178

Allen, J. (2012). Carneades. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/carneades/.

Altman, S. H., & Shactman, D. (2011). Power, politics, and universal health care : the inside story of a century-long battle. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.

Ambrose, S. E. (1989). Nixon: Volume II. The triumph of a politician 1962–1972. New York: Simon and Schuster.

(p.250) Andersen, E. F., Carey, J. C., Earl, D. L., Corzo, D., Suttie, M., Hammond, P., et al. (2014). Deletions involving genes WHSC1 and LETM1 may be necessary, but are not sufficient to cause Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome. European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG, 22(4), 464–470. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.192

Anderson, E. S. (1999). What is the point of equality? Ethics, 109(2), 287–337.

Angell, M. (1991). The case of Helga Wanglie. A new kind of “right to die” case. New England Journal of Medicine, 325(7), 511–512. doi:10.1056/NEJM199108153250712

Angell, M. (2004). The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House.

Anthony, D. L., Herndon, M. B., Gallagher, P. M., Barnato, A. E., Bynum, J. P. W., Gottlieb, D. J., et al. (2009). How much do patients’ preferences contribute to resource use? Health Affairs, 28(3), 864–873. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.28.3.864

Antman, K., Klegar, K., Pomfret, E., Osteen, R., Amato, D., Larson, D., et al. (1985). Early peritoneal mesothelioma: A treatable malignancy. The Lancet, 326(8462), 977–981. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(85)90526-4

Apatira, L., Boyd, E. A., Malvar, G., Evans, L. R., Luce, J. M., Lo, B., et al. (2008). Hope, truth, and preparing for death: Perspectives of surrogate decision makers. Annals of Internal Medicine, 149(12), 861–868. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-149-12-200812160-00005

Arah, O. A. (2009). On the relationship between individual and population health. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 12(3), 235–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11019-008-9173-8

Arawi, T., & Rosoff, P. M. (2012). Competing duties. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 9(2), 135–147.

Arneson, R. J. (2004). Luck egalitarianism interpreted and defended. Philosophical Topics, 32(1/2), 1–20. doi:10.2307/43154426

Arnold, D. G., & Oakley, J. L. (2013). The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: The pharmaceutical industry’s principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy. Journal of Health, Politics, and Policy Law, 38(3), 505–544. doi:10.1215/03616878-2079496

Aronson, J. K. (2003). Anecdotes as evidence. BMJ, 326(7403), 1346.

Aronson, J. K., & Hauben, M. (2006). Anecdotes that provide definitive evidence. BMJ, 333(7581), 1267–1269. doi:333/7581/1267 [pii]10.1136/bmj.39036.666389.94

Asch, D. A., & Hershey, J. C. (1995). Why some health policies don’t make sense at the bedside. Annals of Internal Medicine, 122(11), 846–850. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-122-11-199506010-00007

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2008). At risk populations and pandemic influenza: Planning guidance for state, territorial, tribal, and local health departments (Executive summary). Arlington, VA: ASTHO.

Atkins v. Virginia (2002). U.S. (Vol. 536, pp. 304): U.S. Supreme Court.

Atkinson, M. A., Eisenbarth, G. S., & Michels, A. W. (2014). Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 383(9911), 69–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60591-7

Auwaerter, P. G., Bakken, J. S., Dattwyler, R. J., Dumler, J. S., Halperin, J. J., McSweegan, E., et al. (2011). Antiscience and ethical concerns associated with advocacy of Lyme disease. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 11(9), 713–719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70034-2

Bach, P. B. (2013). Reforming the payment system for medical oncology: Reforming the payment system for medical oncologyviewpoint. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(3), 261–262. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.8127

(p.251) Badcott, D. (2013). Big Pharma: A former insider’s view. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 16(2), 249–264. doi:10.1007/s11019-012-9388-6

Bae, M. H., Lee, J. H., Yang, D. H., Park, H. S., Cho, Y., Chae, S. C., et al. (2012). Erroneous computer electrocardiogram interpretation of atrial fibrillation and its clinical consequences. Clinical Cardiology, 35(6), 348–353. doi:10.1002/clc.22000

Baergen, R. (2006). How hopeful is too hopeful? Responding to unreasonably optimistic parents. Pediatric Nursing, 32(5), 482, 485–486.

Baiardini, I., Braido, F., Bonini, M., Compalati, E., & Canonica, G. W. (2009). Why do doctors and patients not follow guidelines? Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 9(3), 228–233. doi:210.1097/ACI.1090b1013e32832b34651

Baicker, K., Chandra, A., & Skinner, J. S. (2012). Saving money or just saving lives? improving the productivity of US health care spending. Annual Review of Economics, 4(4), 33. doi:10.1146/Annurev-Economics-080511-110942

Baicker, K., & Finkelstein, A. (2011). The effects of Medicaid coverage—Learning from the Oregon experiment. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(8), 683–685. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1108222

Baker, K. S., Davies, S. M., Majhail, N. S., Hassebroek, A., Klein, J. P., Ballen, K. K., et al. (2009). Race and socioeconomic status influence outcomes of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 15(12), 1543–1554. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.07.023

Balboni, T. A., Paulk, M. E., Balboni, M. J., Phelps, A. C., Loggers, E. T., Wright, A. A., et al. (2010). Provision of spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer: Associations with medical care and quality of life near death. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28(3), 445–452. doi:10.1200/jco.2009.24.8005

Balfour-Lynn, I. M. (2014). Personalised medicine in cystic fibrosis is unaffordable. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 15, Supplement 1(0), 2–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2014.04.003

Ball, D. E., Tisocki, K., & Herxheimer, A. (2006). Advertising and disclosure of funding on patient organisation websites: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 6(1), 201.

Banaji, M. R. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York: Delacorte.

Banting, F. G., Best, C. H., Collip, J. B., Campbell, W. R., & Fletcher, A. A. (1922). Pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 7, 141–146.

Barbash, G. I., & Glied, S. A. (2010). New technology and health care costs—The case of robot-assisted surgery. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(8), 701–704, doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1006602.

Barnato, A., Anthony, D., Skinner, J., Gallagher, P., & Fisher, E. (2009). Racial and ethnic differences in preferences for end-of-life treatment. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(6), 695–701. doi:10.1007/s11606-009-0952-6

Barry, J. M. (2004). The great influenza: The epic story of the deadliest plague in history. New York: Viking Press.

Barry, M. J., & Edgman-Levitan, S. (2012). Shared decision making—the pinnacle of patient-centered care. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(9), 780–781.

Basu, S., & Hassenplug, J. C. (2012). Patient access to medical devices—A comparison of U.S. and European review processes. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(6), 485–488. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1204170

(p.252) Bazzano, A. T., Mangione-Smith, R., Schonlau, M., Suttorp, M. J., & Brook, R. H. (2009). Off-label prescribing to children in the United States outpatient setting. Academic Pediatrics, 9(2), 81–88.

Beach, M. C., Meredith, L. S., Halpern, J., Wells, K. B., & Ford, D. E. (2005). Physician conceptions of responsibility to individual patients and distributive justice in health care. Annals of Family Medicine, 3(1), 53–59. doi:10.1370/afm.257

Beale, A. V. (2012). The evolution of college admission requirements. Journal of College Admission(214), 20–22.

Begun, J. W., & Kaissi, A. A. (2004). Uncertainty in health care environments: Myth or reality? Health Care Management Review, 29(1), 31–39.

Bellman, R. E., & Zadeh, L. A. (1970). Decision-making in a fuzzy environment. Management Science, 17(4), B141–B164. doi:10.2307/2629367

Bendix, J. (2013). Curing the prior authorization headache: you probably can't avoid having to get upfront approvals, but you can reduce the hassles and costs they bring. Med Econ, 90(19), 24.

Benson, E. S. (1972). The concept of the normal range. Human Pathology, 3(2), 152–155. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0046-8177(72)80068-6

Bentham, J. (1970). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. London: Athlone Press (University of London).

Bergthold, L. A. (1995). Medical necessity: Do we need it? Health Affairs, 14(4), 180–190.

Berkman, N. D., Sheridan, S. L., Donahue, K. E., Halpern, D. J., & Crotty, K. (2011). Low health literacy and health outcomes: An updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(2), 97–107. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-155-2-201107190-00005

Berland, L. L. (2011). The American College of Radiology strategy for managing incidental findings on abdominal computed tomography. Radiologic clinics of North America, 49(2), 237–243. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcl.2010.10.003

Berlin, L. (2011). The incidentaloma: A medicolegal dilemma. Radiologic Clinics of North America, 49(2), 245–255.

Bernier, R. H., & Marcuse, E. K. (2005). Citizen voices on pandemic flu choices. A report of the Public Engagement Project on Pandemic Influenza. Keystone, CO: The Keystone Center.

Bernstein, P. L., & Bernstein Peter, L. (1996). Against the gods: The remarkable story of risk. New York: Wiley.

Berwick, D. M., Fineberg, H. V., & Weinstein, M. C. (1981). When doctors meet numbers. American Journal of Medicine, 71(6), 991–998.

Berwick, D. M., & Hackbarth, A. D. (2012). Eliminating waste in US health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(14), 1513–1516. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.362

Best, C. H., & Scott, D. A. (1923). The preparation of insulin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 57(3), 709–723.

Best, R. K. (2012). Disease politics and medical research funding: Three ways advocacy shapes policy. American Sociological Review, 77(5), 780–803. doi:10.1177/0003122412458509

Beveridge, W. (2000). Social insurance and allied services. 1942. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(6), 847–855.

Bidlingmaier, M., Friedrich, N., Emeny, R. T., Spranger, J., Wolthers, O. D., Roswall, J., et al. (2014). Reference intervals for insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-i) from birth to senescence: Results from a multicenter study using a new automated chemiluminescence IGF-I immunoassay conforming to recent international recommendations. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 99(5), 1712–1721.

(p.253) Biggar, N. (2015). Why religion deserves a place in secular medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics, 41(3), 229–233. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101776

Biggins, S. W. (2012). Futility and rationing in liver retransplantation: When and how can we say no? Journal of Hepatology, 56(6), 1404–1411.

Biggins, S. W., Gralla, J., Dodge, J. L., Bambha, K. M., Tong, S., Barón, A. E., et al. (2014). Survival benefit of repeat liver transplantation in the United States: A serial MELD analysis by hepatitis C status and donor risk index. American Journal of Transplantation, 14(11), 2588–2594. doi:10.1111/ajt.12867

Biomedical, N. C. f. t. P. o. H. S. o., & Behavioral Research, B., MD. (1978). The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research: ERIC Clearinghouse.

Blackburn, M. R., & Thompson, L. F. (2012). Adenosine deaminase deficiency: Unanticipated benefits from the study of a rare immunodeficiency. Journal of Immunology, 188(3), 933–935. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1103519

Blackhall, L. J., Frank, G., Murphy, S. T., Michel, V., Palmer, J. M., & Azen, S. P. (1999). Ethnicity and attitudes towards life sustaining technology. Social Science and Medicine, 48(12), 1779–1789.

Blagg, C. R. (2007). The early history of dialysis for chronic renal failure in the United States: A view from Seattle. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 49(3), 482–496. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.01.017

Blake, V. (2015). Narrow networks, the very sick, and the patient protection and Affordable Care Act: Recalling the purpose of health insurance and reform. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science, and Technology 16, 63–144.

Blaser, M., Bork, P., Fraser, C., Knight, R., & Wang, J. (2013). The microbiome explored: Recent insights and future challenges. [10.1038/nrmicro2973]. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 11(3), 213–217.

Bleustein, C., Rothschild, D. B., Valen, A., Valatis, E., Schweitzer, L., & Jones, R. (2014). Wait times, patient satisfaction scores, and the perception of care. American Journal of Managed Care, 20(5), 393–400.

Bloche, M. G. (2011). The Hippocratic Myth: Why doctors are under pressure to ration care, practice politics, and compromise their promise to heal. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bloche, M. G. (2012). Beyond the “r word?” Medicine’s new frugality. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(21), 1951–1953. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1203521

Block, L., Jarlenski, M., Wu, A., & Bennett, W. (2013). Mammography use among women ages 40–49 after the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1–7. doi:10.1007/s11606-013-2482-5

Bloss, C. S., Schork, N. J., & Topol, E. J. (2014). Direct-to-consumer pharmacogenomic testing is associated with increased physician utilisation. Journal of Medical Genetics, 51(2), 83–89. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2013-101909

Blumenthal, D., Abrams, M., & Nuzum, R. (2015). The Affordable Care Act at 5 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(25), 2451–2458. doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614

Blustein, J., & Marmor, T. R. (1992). Cutting waste by making rules: Promises, pitfalls, and realistic prospects. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 140(5), 1543–1572. doi:10.2307/3312425

Bock, G. L. (2008). Medically valid religious beliefs. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(6), 437–440. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.021964

(p.254) Bogdan-Lovis, E., Fleck, L., & Barry, H. C. (2012). It’s NOT FAIR! Or is it? The promise and the tyranny of evidence-based performance assessment. Theor Med Bioeth, 33(4), 293–311.

Boggs, C. (2015). The Medicalized Society. Critical Sociology, 41(3), 517–535.

Boorse, C. (1977). Health as a Theoretical Concept. Philosophy of Science, 44(4), 542–573. doi:10.2307/186939

Bopp, J., & Coleson, R. E. (1994). Child abuse by whom?—parental rights and judicial competency determinations: The Baby K and Baby Terry cases. Ohio Northern University Law Review, 20, 821–845.

Boss, R. D., Holmes, K. W., Althaus, J., Rushton, C. H., McNee, H., & McNee, T. (2013). Trisomy 18 and complex congenital heart disease: Seeking the threshold benefit. Pediatrics, 132(1), 161–165.

Bosslet, G. T., Pope, T. M., Rubenfeld, G. D., Lo, B., Truog, R. D., Rushton, C. H., et al. (2015). An Official ATS/AACN/ACCP/ESICM/SCCM Policy Statement: Responding to Requests for Potentially Inappropriate Treatments in Intensive Care Units. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191(11), 1318–1330.

Bostan, S., Acuner, T., & Yilmaz, G. (2007). Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals. Health Policy, 82(1), 62–70. doi:S0168-8510(06)00188-6 [pii]10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.08.005

Botter, S. M., Neri, D., & Fuchs, B. (2014). Recent advances in osteosarcoma. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 16, 15–23. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2014.02.002

Bowker, G. C., & Starr, S. L. (1999). Sorting things out. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Boyd, F. (1910). Faith and healing. British Medical Journal, 2(2590), 464.

Bracanovic, T. (2013). Against culturally sensitive bioethics. Medicine and Health Care Philosophy, 16(4), 647–652. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11019-013-9504-2

Braithwaite, R. S., Meltzer, D. O., King, J. T., Jr., Leslie, D., & Roberts, M. S. (2008). What does the value of modern medicine say about the $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year decision rule? Medical Care, 46(4), 349–356. doi:10.2307/40221668

Brandon, D. T., Isaac, L. A., & LaVeist, T. A. (2005). The legacy of Tuskegee and trust in medical care: Is Tuskegee responsible for race differences in mistrust of medical care? [Historical Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97(7), 951–956.

Brase, G. L. (2009). Pictorial representations in statistical reasoning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(3), 369–381.

Braun, M. M., Farag-El-Massah, S., Xu, K., & Coté, T. R. (2010). Emergence of orphan drugs in the United States: A quantitative assessment of the first 25 years. [10.1038/nrd3160]. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 9(7), 519–522. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v9/n7/suppinfo/nrd3160_S1.html

Braveman, P., Egerter, S., & Williams, D. R. (2011). The social determinants of health: Coming of age. Annual Review of Public Health, 32(1), 381–398. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101218

Braybrooke, D. (1987). Meeting needs. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Brazier, J., Ratcliffe, J., Tsuchiya, A., & Salomon, J. (2007). Measuring and valuing health benefits for economic evaluation. Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.

Brekke, K. R., & Sørgard, L. (2007). Public versus private health care in a national health service. Health Economics, 16(6), 579–601.

Brennan, R., Eagle, L., & Rice, D. (2010). Medicalization and Marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 30(1), 8–22. doi:10.1177/0276146709352221

(p.255) Brett, A. S., & Jersild, P. (2003). “Inappropriate” treatment near the end of life: Conflict between religious convictions and clinical judgment. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(14), 1645–1649. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.14.1645

Brierley, J., Linthicum, J., & Petros, A. (2013). Should religious beliefs be allowed to stonewall a secular approach to withdrawing and withholding treatment in children? Journal of Medical Ethics, 39(9), 573–577. doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100104

Brill, S. (2015). America’s bitter pill: Money, politics, backroom deals, and the fight to fix our broken healthcare system. New York: Random House.

Mason, C., Brindley, D. A., Culme-Seymour, E. J., & Davie, N. L. (2011). Cell therapy industry: billion dollar global business with unlimited potential. Regenerative Medicine, 6(3), 265–272.

Brock, G. (1998). Introduction. In G. GBrock (Ed.), Necessary goods: Our responsibilities to meet other’s needs (pp. 1–18). Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield.

Brody, H. (2005). The company we keep: Why physicians should refuse to see pharmaceutical representatives. Annals of Family Medicine, 3(1), 82–85. doi:10.1370/afm.259

Brody, H. (2007). Hooked: Ethics, the medical profession, and the pharmaceutical industry (Explorations in bioethics and the medical humanities). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Brody, H. (2012). From an ethics of rationing to an ethics of waste avoidance. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(21), 1949–1951. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1203365

Brody, H., & Bonham, V. L., Jr. (1997). Gag rules and trade secrets in managed care contracts. Ethical and legal concerns. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(18), 2037–2043.

Brook, R. H., Chassin, M. R., Fink, A., Solomon, D. H., Kosecoff, J., & Park, R. (1986). A method for the detailed assessment of the appropriateness of medical technologies. Int J Technol Assess Health Care, 2(01), 53–63.

Brooks, G. A., Li, L., Sharma, D. B., Weeks, J. C., Hassett, M. J., Yabroff, K. R., et al. (2013). Regional variation in spending and survival for older adults with advanced cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(9), 634–642. doi:10.1093/jnci/djt025

Brouwers, M. C., Haynes, R. B., Jadad, A. R., Hayward, R. S., Padunsky, J. A., & Yang, J. L. (1997). Evidence-based health care and the Cochrane Collaboration. Clin Perform Qual Health Care, 5(4), 195–201.

Brown, R. C. H. (2013). Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour. Journal of Medical Ethics, doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100774

Brownlee, S. (2008). Overtreated: Why too much medicine is making us sicker and poorer. New York: Bloomsbury.

Bruns, D., & Campbell, E. (2014). Twenty-two survivors over the age of 1 year with full trisomy 18: Presenting and current medical conditions. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 164(3), 610–619. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36318

Buchanan, A. (2008). Enhancement and the ethics of development. Kennedy Institute Ethics Journal, 18(1), 1–34.

Buchanan, A., Brock, D. W., Daniels, N., & Wikler, D. (2000). From chance to choice. Genetics and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Burnyeat, M. F. (1982). Gods and heaps. In M. C. Nussbaum, & M. Schofield (Eds.), Language and logos: Studies in ancient Greek philosophy presented to G.E.L. Owen (pp. 333–334). Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buryska, J. F. (2001). Assessing the ethical weight of cultural, religious and spiritual claims in the clinical context. Journal of Medical Ethics, 27(2), 118–122. doi:10.1136/jme.27.2.118

(p.256) Bustamante, A. V., Fang, H., Garza, J., Carter-Pokras, O., Wallace, S. P., Rizzo, J. A., et al. (2012). Variations in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants: The role of documentation status. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(1), 146–155. doi:10.1007/s10903-010-9406-9

Butterworth, J. F. (2009). Case reports: Unstylish but still useful sources of clinical information. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(3), 187–188. doi:10.1097/AAP.0b013e31819a277500115550-200905000-00002 [pii.

Cadieux, G., Abrahamowicz, M., Dauphinee, D., & Tamblyn, R. (2011). Are physicians with better clinical skills on licensing examinations less likely to prescribe antibiotics for viral respiratory infections in ambulatory care settings? Medical Care, 49(2), 156–165. doi: 110.1097/MLR.1090b1013e3182028c3182021a

Calabresi, G., & Bobbitt, P. (1978). Tragic choices. New York: W. W. Norton.

Califf, R. M., McCall, J., & Harrington, R. A. (2013). Assessing research results in the medical literature: Trust but verify. Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 173(12), 1053–1055.

Callahan, D. (1987). Setting limits: Medical goals in an aging society. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Callahan, D. (1990). What kind of life. The limits of medical progress. New York: Simon and Shuster.

Callahan, D. (1991). Medical futility, medical necessity: The-problem-without-a-name. Hastings Cent Rep, 21(4), 30–35. doi:10.2307/3562999

Callahan, D. (1998). False hopes. Why America’s quest for perfect health is a recipe for failure. New York: Simon and Shuster.

Callahan, D. (2009). Taming the beloved beast. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Callahan, D. (2012). Must we ration health care for the elderly? The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 10–16. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2012.00640.x

Callan, M. J., Dawtry, R. J., & Olson, J. M. (2012). Justice motive effects in ageism: The effects of a victim’s age on observer perceptions of injustice and punishment judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1343–1349. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.07.003

Callison, K., & Kaestner, R. (2014). Do higher tobacco taxes reduce adult smoking? New evidence of the effect of recent cigarette tax increases on adult smoking. Economic Inquiry, 52(1), 155–172, doi:10.1111/ecin.12027

Cameron, D. J. (2010). Proof that chronic Lyme disease exists. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 2010, 1–4, doi:doi:10.1155/2010/876450.

Campbell, E. G., Pham-Kanter, G., Vogeli, C., & Iezzoni, L. I. (2013). Physician acquiescence to patient demands for brand-name drugs: Results of a national survey of physicians. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(3), 237–239. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1539

Canguilhem, G. (1991). The normal and the pathological (Normal et le pathologique. English). New York: Zone Books.

Card, D., Dobkin, C., & Maestas, N. (2004). The impact of nearly universal insurance coverage on health care utilization and health: evidence from Medicare. Cambridge (MA): National Bureau of Economic Research.

Carman, K. L., Maurer, M., Yegian, J. M., Dardess, P., McGee, J., Evers, M., et al. (2010). Evidence that consumers are skeptical about evidence-based health care. Health Affairs, 29(7), 1400–1406. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0296

Carpenter, J., Hutchings, A., Raine, R., & Sanderson, C. (2007). An experimental study of the influence of individual participant characteristics on formal consensus development. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 23(01), 108–115.

(p.257) Carr-Hill, R. A. (1989). Assumptions of the QALY procedure. Social Science & Medicine, 29(3), 469–477. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(89)90296-7

Cassel C., & Guest, J. A. (2012). Choosing wisely: Helping physicians and patients make smart decisions about their care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(17), 1801–1802. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.476

Cassell, E. J. (1982). The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 306(11), 639–645. doi:10.1056/NEJM198203183061104

Cassell, E. J. (1983). The relief of suffering. Archives of Internal Medicine, 143(3), 522–523. doi:10.1001/archinte.1983.00350030136022

Cassell, E. J. (1991). Recognizing suffering. Hastings Cent Rep, 21(3), 24–31.

Cassell, E. J. (1999a). Diagnosing suffering: A perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine, 131(7), 531–534.

Cassell, E. J. (1999b). Pain, suffering, and the goals of medicine. In M. J. Hanson, & D. Callahan (Eds.), The goals of medicine: The forgotten issue in health care reform (pp. 101–117). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Catalano, D., Chan, F., Wilson, L., Chiu, C.-Y., & Muller, V. R. (2011). The buffering effect of resilience on depression among individuals with spinal cord injury: A structural equation model. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(3), 200.

Catalona, W. J., D’Amico, A. V., Fitzgibbons, W. F., Kosoko-Lasaki, O., Leslie, S. W., Lynch, H. T., et al. (2012). What the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force missed in its prostate cancer screening recommendation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(2), 137–138. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00463

Catlin, E. A., Cadge, W., Ecklund, E. H., Gage, E. A., & Zollfrank, A. A. (2008). The spiritual and religious identities, beliefs, and practices of academic pediatricians in the United States. Academic Medicine, 83(12), 1146–1152. doi:1110.1097/ACM.1140b1013e31818c31864a31815

Ceaser, J. W. (2012). The origins and character of American exceptionalism. Origins, 1, 1–25.

Cerdá, M., Diez-Roux, A. V., Tchetgen, E. T., Gordon-Larsen, P., & Kiefe, C. (2010). The relationship between neighborhood poverty and alcohol use: Estimation by marginal structural models. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 21(4), 482.

Chahine, T., Subramanian, S. V., & Levy, J. I. (2011). Sociodemographic and geographic variability in smoking in the U.S.: A multilevel analysis of the 2006–2007 Current Population Survey, Tobacco Use Supplement. Social Science & Medicine, 73(5), 752–758. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.032

Chaloupka, F. J., Yurekli, A., & Fong, G. T. (2012). Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy. Tob Control, 21(2), 172–180. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050417

Chan, T., Pinto, N., & Bratton, S. (2012). Racial and Insurance Disparities in Hospital Mortality for Children Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatric Cardiology, 33(7), 1026–1039. doi:10.1007/s00246-012-0221-z

Charlifue, S., Apple, D., Burns, S. P., Chen, D., Cuthbert, J. P., Donovan, W. H., et al. (2011). Mechanical ventilation, health, and quality of life following spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(3), 457–463. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2010.07.237

Charpak, G. (2004). Debunked!: ESP, telekinesis, and other pseudoscience (Devenez sorciers, devenez savants. English). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Chau, N. G., Li, Y. Y., Jo, V. Y., Rabinowits, G., Lorch, J. H., Tishler, R. B., et al. (2016). Incorporation of next-generation sequencing into routine clinical care to direct treatment (p.258) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical Cancer Research. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-15-2314

Chen, D. T., Wynia, M. K., Moloney, R. M., & Alexander, G. C. (2009). U.S. physician knowledge of the FDA-approved indications and evidence base for commonly prescribed drugs: Results of a national survey. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 18(11), 1094–1100. doi:10.1002/pds.1825

Chidi, A. P., Bryce, C. L., Myaskovsky, L., Fine, M. J., Geller, D. A., Landsittel, D. P., et al. (2015). Differences in physician referral drive disparities in surgical intervention for hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study. Annals of Surgery. Advance online publication. doi:10.1097/sla.0000000000001111

Childress, J. F. (2007). Must we always respect religious belief? Hastings Center Report, 37(1), 3.

Churchill, L. R., & Churchill, S. C. (2013). Buying health: The costs of commercialism and an alternative philosophy. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(2), 91.

Clark, P. A. (2009). Prejudice and the medical profession: A five-year update. [Historical Article]. The Journal of law, medicine & ethics: A journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 37(1), 118–133. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00356.x

Clarke, S. (2012). When they believe in miracles. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100677

Clayton, E. W. (1995). Commentary: What is really at stake in Baby K? Response to Ellen Flannery. Journal of Law, Medicinel & Ethics, 23, 13–14.

Steinberg, E., Greenfield, S., Mancher, M., Wolman, D. M., & Graham, R. (2011). Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Coglianese, E., Samsi, M., Liebo, M., & Heroux, A. (2015). The value of psychosocial factors in patient selection and outcomes after heart transplantation. Current Heart Failure Reports, 12(1), 42–47. doi:10.1007/s11897-014-0233-5

Cohen, I. G., Daniels, N., & Eyal, N. M. (Eds.). (2015). Identified versus statistical lives: An interdisciplinary perspective (Population-level bioethics series). Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, J. (1996). Preferences, needs and QALYs. Journal of Medical Ethics, 22(5), 267–272. doi:10.1136/jme.22.5.267

Cohen, J., Wilson, A., & Faden, L. (2009). Off-label use reimbursement. Food and Drug Law Journal, 64(2), 391–403.

Cohen, P., Rogol, A. D., Deal, C. L., Saenger, P., Reiter, E. O., Ross, J. L., et al. (2008). Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: A summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93(11), 4210–4217. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-0509

Collins, F. S. (2006). The language of God: A scientist presents evidence for belief. New York: Free Press.

Collins, S., Rasmussen, P., & Doty, M. (2015). The rise in health care coverage and affordability since health reform took effect: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2014. Issue brief (Commonwealth Fund), 2, 1–16.

Colombo, C., Mosconi, P., Villani, W., & Garattini, S. (2012). Patient organizations’ funding from pharmaceutical companies: Is disclosure clear, complete and accessible to the public? An Italian survey. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e34974.

(p.259) Colver, A., Thyen, U., Arnaud, C., Beckung, E., Fauconnier, J., Marcelli, M., et al. (2012). Association between participation in life situations of children with cerebral palsy and their physical, social, and attitudinal environment: A cross-sectional multicenter European Study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(12), 2154–2164. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.011

Conrad, P., Mackie, T., & Mehrotra, A. (2010). Estimating the costs of medicalization. Social Science & Medicine, 70(12), 1943–1947.

Conroy, T., Desseigne, F., Ychou, M., Bouché, O., Guimbaud, R., Bécouarn, Y., et al. (2011). FOLFIRINOX versus Gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(19), 1817–1825. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1011923

Cooke, B. K., Delalot, D., & Werner, T. L. (2015). Hall v. Florida: Capital punishment, IQ, and persons with intellectual disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 43(2), 230–234.

Cookson, R., McCabe, C., & Tsuchiya, A. (2008). Public healthcare resource allocation and the Rule of Rescue. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Review]. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(7), 540–544. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.021790

Cooper, R. (2006). Classifying madness: A philosophical examination of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Springer Netherlands.

Cooper, R. S., Ferguson, A., Bodurtha, J. N., & Smith, T. J. (2014). AMEN in challenging conversations: Bridging the gaps between faith, hope, and medicine. Journal of Oncology Practice.

Courtney, A. E., & Maxwell, A. P. (2009). The challenge of doing what is right in renal transplantation: Balancing equity and utility. Nephron Clinical Practice, 111(1), c62–c68.

Cousin, G., Schmid Mast, M., & Jaunin-Stalder, N. (2013). When physician-expressed uncertainty leads to patient dissatisfaction: A gender study. Medical Education, 47(9), 923–931. doi:10.1111/medu.12237

Craig, A. (2012). Resilience in people with physical disabilities. In P. Kennedy (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of rehabilitation psychology (pp. 474–491). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Crisp, R. (2002). Treatment according to need: Justice and the British National Health Service. In R. Rhodes, M. P. Battin, & A. Silvers (Eds.), Medicine and social justice (pp. 134–155). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cruden, N., Din, J., Janssen, C., Smith, R., Carere, R., Klinke, W., et al. (2013). Prolonged clopidogrel use improves clinical outcomes following drug eluting but not bare metal stent implantation. European Heart Journal, 34(suppl 1), 2589.

Cruz-Oliver, D. M., Thomas, D. R., Scott, J., Malmstrom, T. K., De Jesus-Monge, W. E., & Paniagua, M. A. (2010). Age as a deciding factor in the consideration of futility for a medical intervention in patients among internal medicine physicians in two practice locations. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 11(6), 421–427. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2010.01.011

Cunningham, P. J. (2010). The growing financial burden of health care: National and state trends, 2001–2006. Health Affairs, 29(5), 1037–1044. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0493

Cunningham, P. J. (2015). The share of people with high medical costs increased prior to implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Health Affairs, 34(1), 117–124. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0216

(p.260) Cupler, E. J., Berger, K. I., Leshner, R. T., Wolfe, G. I., Han, J. J., Barohn, R. J., et al. (2012). Consensus treatment recommendations for late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle Nerve, 45(3), 319–333.

Curlin, F. A., Chin, M. H., Sellergren, S. A., Roach, C. J., & Lantos, J. D. (2006). The association of physicians’ religious characteristics with their attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding religion and spirituality in the clinical encounter. Medical Care, 44(5), 446–453.

Curlin, F. A., Lantos, J. D., Roach, C. J., Sellergren, S. A., & Chin, M. H. (2005). Religious Characteristics of U.S. Physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7), 629–634. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0119.x

Cydulka, R. K., Tamayo-Sarver, J., Gage, A., & Bagnoli, D. (2011). Association of patient satisfaction with complaints and risk management among emergency physicians. The Journal of emergency medicine, 41(4), 405–411.

Daniels, N. (1983). Justice between age groups: Am I my parents’ keeper? The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 61(3), 489–522. doi:10.2307/3349870

Daniels, N. (1991). Is the Oregon rationing plan fair? The Journal of the American Medical Association, 265(17), 2232–2235. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03460170086039

Daniels, N. (2000). Accountability for reasonableness. [Comment Editorial]. BMJ, 321(7272), 1300–1301.

Daniels, N. (2008). Just health:Meeting health needs fairly. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Daniels, N. (2015). Why we should care about the social determinants of health. The American Journal of Bioethics, 15(3), 37–38. doi:10.1080/15265161.2015.1000062

Daniels, N., & Sabin, J. (1998). The ethics of accountability in managed care reform. Health Affairs(Millwood), 17(5), 50–64.

Daniels, N., & Sabin, J. (2008). Setting limits fairly. Learning to share resources for health (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Dart, A. B., Martens, P. J., Rigatto, C., Brownell, M. D., Dean, H. J., & Sellers, E. A. (2014). Earlier onset of complications in youth with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 37(2), 436–443.

David, A., Hwa, V., Metherell, L. A., Netchine, I., Camacho-Hübner, C., Clark, A. J., et al. (2011). Evidence for a continuum of genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical abnormalities in children with growth hormone insensitivity. Endocrine reviews, 32(4), 472–497.

Davis, F. (1960). Uncertainty in medical prognosis clinical and functional. American Journal of Sociology, 66(1), 41–47. doi:10.2307/2773220

Davis, K., & Ballreich, J. (2014). Equitable access to care—how the United States ranks internationally. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(17), 1567–1570. 10.1056/NEJMp1406707

Davis, K., Stremikis, K., Squires, D., & Schoen, C. (2014). Mirror, mirror on the wall. The Commonwealth Fund: www.resbr.net.br/wp-content/uploads/historico/Espelhoespelhomeu.pdf.

De Block, A., & Adriaens, P. R. (2013). Pathologizing sexual deviance: A history. The Journal of Sex Research, 50(3–4), 276–298. doi:10.1080/00224499.2012.738259

de Groot, R. J., Baker, S. C., Baric, R. S., Brown, C. S., Drosten, C., Enjuanes, L., et al. (2013). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Journal of Virology, 87(14), 7790–7792. doi:10.1128/jvi.01244-13

De Nardi, M., French, E., Jones, J. B., & McCauley, J. (2015). Medical spending of the US elderly. No. w21270. National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, MA).

(p.261) Dekay, M. L., Nickerson, C. A. E., Ubel, P. A., Hershey, J. C., Spranca, M. D., & Asch, D. A. (2000). Further explorations of medical decisions for individuals and for groups. Medical Decision Making, 20(1), 39–44. doi:10.1177/0272989x0002000105

DeMarco, V. G., Aroor, A. R., & Sowers, J. R. (2014). The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. [Review]. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(6), 364–376. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.44

Demicheli, V., Rivetti, A., Debalini, M. G., & Di Pietrantonj, C. (2012). Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2), doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3.

Dershowitz, A. M. (2013). Reversal of fortune: Inside the Von Bulow case (reissue ed.), New York: Random House LLC.

Detsky, A. S. (2012). Underestimating the value of reassurance. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(10), 1035–1036. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.235

DeVita, V. T., Jr., Serpick, A. A., & Carbone, P. P. (1970). Combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin’s Disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 73(6), 881.

Dickenson, D. (2013). Me medicine vs. we medicine: Reclaiming biotechnology for the common good. New York: Columbia University Press.

Diem, S. J., Lantos, J. D., & Tulsky, J. A. (1996). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on television. Miracles and misinformation. New England Journal of Medicine, 334(24), 1578–1582.

Disch, L. (1996). Publicity-Stunt Participation and Sound Bite Polemics: The Health Care Debate 1993–94. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21(1), 3–33, doi:10.1215/03616878-21-1-3.

Dixon-Woods, M., Amalberti, R., Goodman, S., Bergman, B., & Glasziou, P. (2011). Problems and promises of innovation: Why healthcare needs to rethink its love/hate relationship with the new. BMJ Quality & Safety, 20(Suppl 1), i47–i51. doi:10.1136/bmjqs.2010.046227

Djulbecovic, B., Hozo, I., & Greenland, S. (2011). Uncertainty in clinical medicine. In F. Gifford (Ed.), Handbook of the philosophy of science (Vol. 16). Oxford, UK/ Burlington, MA: North Holland.

Djulbegovic, B., & Paul, A. (2011). From efficacy to effectiveness in the face of uncertainty: Indication creep and prevention creep. Journal of the American Medical Association, 305(19), 2005–2006. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.650

Doan, T. L., Pollastri, M., Walters, M. A., Georg, G. I., & Macor, J. (2011). The future of drug repositioning: Old drugs, new opportunities. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, 46, 385–401.

Dobbin, F. R. (1992). The origins of private social insurance: Public policy and fringe benefits in America, 1920–1950. American Journal of Sociology, 97(5), 1416–1450. doi:10.2307/2781420

Docter, S. P., Street, J., Braunack-Mayer, A. J., & van der Wilt, G. J. (2011). Public perceptions of pandemic influenza resource allocation: A deliberative forum using Grid/Group analysis. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Journal of Public Health Policy, 32(3), 350–366. doi:10.1057/jphp.2010.49

Doe v. Bolton (1973). U.S. (Vol. 410, pp. 179): U.S. Supreme Court.

Donna, T. C., Matthew, K. W., Rachael, M. M., & Alexander, G. C. (2009). U.S. physician knowledge of the FDA-approved indications and evidence base for commonly prescribed drugs: Results of a national survey. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 18(11), 1094–1100.

Donne, J. (2010). The complete poems of John Donne: Epigrams, verse letters to friends, love-lyrics, love-elegies, satire, religion poems, wedding celebrations, verse epistles to (p.262) patronesses, commemorations and anniversaries (Longman annotated English poets). Harlow, England/New York: Longman.

Doyal, L., & Gough, I. (1991). A theory of human need. New York: Guilford.

Dranove, D., Garthwaite, C., & Ody, C. (2014). Health spending slowdown is mostly due to economic factors, not structural change in the health care sector. Health Affairs, 33(8), 1399–1406.

Drosten, C., Preiser, W., Günther, S., Schmitz, H., & Doerr, H. W. (2003). Severe acute respiratory syndrome: Identification of the etiological agent. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 9(8), 325–327. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4914(03)00133-3

Drummond, M., Brixner, D., Gold, M., Kind, P., McGuire, A., Nord, E., et al. (2009). Toward a Consensus on the QALY. Value in Health, 12, S31–S35. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00522.x

Duffin, J. (2007). The Doctor was surprised: Or, how to diagnose a miracle. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 81(4), 699–729.

Duffy, J. P., Kao, K., Ko, C. Y., Farmer, D. G., McDiarmid, S. V., Hong, J. C., et al. (2010). Long-term patient outcome and quality of life after liver transplantation: Analysis of 20-year survivors. Annals of surgery, 252(4), 652–661. 610.1097/SLA.1090b1013e3181f1095f1023a

Duggan, M., Starc, A., & Vabson, B. (2014). Who Benefits when the Government Pays More? Pass-Through in the Medicare Advantage Program. Cambridge (MA): National Bureau of Economic Research.

Dutkowski, P., Oberkofler, C. E., Slankamenac, K., Puhan, M. A., Schadde, E., Müllhaupt, B., et al. (2011). Are there better guidelines for allocation in liver transplantation? A novel score targeting justice and utility in the model for end-stage liver disease era. Annals of Surgery, 254(5), 745–754. 710.1097/SLA.1090b1013e3182365081

Dworkin, R. (1981). What is equality? Part 2: Equality of resources. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 10(4), 283–345.

Dworkin, R. (2003). Equality, luck and hierarchy. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 31(2), 190–198. doi:10.1111/j.1088-4963.2003.00190.x

Dworkin, R. H., Turk, D. C., Peirce-Sandner, S., Burke, L. B., Farrar, J. T., Gilron, I., et al. (2012). Considerations for improving assay sensitivity in chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain, 153(6), 1148–1158. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.03.003

Dwyer-Lindgren, L., Mokdad, A. H., Srebotnjak, T., Flaxman, A. D., Hansen, G. M., & Murray, C. J. (2014). Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996–2012. Population Health Metrics, 12(1), 5.

Dyrbye, L. N., West, C. P., Burriss, T. C., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2012). Providing primary care in the United States: The work no one sees. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(18), 1420–1421. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3166

Dzau, V. J., Ackerly, D. C., Sutton-Wallace, P., Merson, M. H., Williams, R. S., Krishnan, K. R., et al. (2010). The role of academic health science systems in the transformation of medicine. The Lancet, 375(9718), 949–953.

Ecklund, E. H., & Park, J. Z. (2009). Conflict between religion and science among academic scientists? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(2), 276–292. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01447.x

Eddy, D. M. (1984). Variations in physician practice: The role of uncertainty. Health Affairs, 3(2), 74–89. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.3.2.74

(p.263) Eddy, D. M. (1992a). Clinical decision making: From theory to practice. Applying cost-effectiveness analysis. The inside story. [Practice Guideline]. : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(18), 2575–2582.

Eddy, D. M. (1992b). Clinical decision making: From theory to practice. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Is it up to the task? [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 267(24), 3342–3348.

Eddy, D. M. (1992c). Clinical decision making: From theory to practice. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Will it be accepted? : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(1), 132–136.

Eddy, D. M. (1996). Benefit language: Criteria that will improve quality while reducing costs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275(8), 650–657. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03530320074047

Eddy, D. M. (1997). Investigational treatments. How strict should we be? : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(3), 179–185.

Eddy, D. M., Adler, J., Patterson, B., Lucas, D., Smith, K. A., & Morris, M. (2011). Individualized guidelines: The potential for increasing quality and reducing costs. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(9), 627–634. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-9-201105030-00008

Eichler, H.-G., Kong, S. X., Gerth, W. C., Mavros, P., & Jönsson, B. (2004). Use of cost-effectiveness analysis in health-care resource allocation decision-making: How are cost-effectiveness thresholds expected to emerge? Value in Health, 7(5), 518–528. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2004.75003.x

Eisenberg, D., Freed, G. L., Davis, M. M., Singer, D., & Prosser, L. A. (2011). Valuing health at different ages. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 9(3), 149–156. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11587340-000000000-00000

Ellis, L., Coleman, M. P., & Rachet, B. (2012). How many deaths would be avoidable if socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in England were eliminated? A national population-based study, 1996–2006. European Journal of Cancer, 48(2), 270–278.

Ellis, L. M., Bernstein, D. S., Voest, E. E., Berlin, J. D., Sargent, D., Cortazar, P., et al. (2014). American Society of Clinical Oncology perspective: Raising the bar for clinical trials by defining clinically meaningful outcomes. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(12), 1277–1280.

Ellis, S. D., Carpenter, W. R., Minasian, L. M., & Weiner, B. J. (2012). Effect of state-mandated insurance coverage on accrual to community cancer clinical trials. Contemp Clin Trials, 33(5), 933–941. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.06.001

Emanuel, E. J. (1999). What is the great benefit of legalizing euthanasia or physican-assisted suicide? Ethics, 109(3), 629–642. doi:10.1086/233925

Emanuel, E. J. (2002). Patient v. population: Resolving the ethical dilemmas posed by treating patients as members of populations. In M. Danis, C. Calncy, & L. R. Churchill (Eds.), Ethical dimensions of health policy (pp. 227–245). New York: Oxford University Press.

Emanuel, E. J. (2012, October 27). Four myths about doctor-assisted suicide. NY Times.

Emanuel, E. J. (2014). Why I hope to die at 75. The Atlantic. http://www.garyvollbracht.com/wp-content/uploads/14.09.17-TheAtlantic-Why-I-Hope-Do-Die-at-75.pdf

Emanuel, E. J., & Fuchs, V. R. (2008). The perfect storm of overutilization. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(23), 2789–2791. doi:10.1001/jama.299.23.2789

Emanuel, E. J., & Wertheimer, A. (2006). Public health. Who should get influenza vaccine when not all can? Science, 312(5775), 854–855.

(p.264) Epstein, R. M., Alper, B. S., & Quill, T. E. (2004). Communicating evidence for participatory decision making. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(19), 2359–2366. doi:10.1001/jama.291.19.2359

Epstein, R. M., & Gramling, R. E. (2013). What is shared in shared decision making? Complex decisions when the evidence is unclear. Medical Care Research and Review, 70(1 Suppl), 94S–112S. doi:10.1177/1077558712459216

Epstein, R. M., Korones, D. N., & Quill, T. E. (2010). Withholding information from patients—when less is more. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(5), 380.

Esserman, L. J., Thompson, I. M., Jr, & Reid, B. (2013). Overdiagnosis and overtreatment in cancer: An opportunity for improvement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(8), 797–798. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.108415

Estelle, et al. v. Gamble (1976). (Vol. 429 U.S. 97): Supreme Court of the United States.

Evans, D. A. P. (1968). Genetic variations in the acetylation of isoniazid and other drugs. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 151(2), 723–733. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb48255.x

Evans, D. A. P., Manley, K. A., & McKusick, V. A. (1960). Genetic control of isoniazid metabolism in man. British Medical Journal, 2(5197), 485.

Evans, J. H., & Evans, M. S. (2008). Religion and science: Beyond the epistemological conflict narrative. Annual Review of Sociology, 34(1), 87–105. 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134702

Eyal, N. (2011). Why treat noncompliant patients? Beyond the decent minimum account. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 36(6), 572–588. doi:10.1093/jmp/jhr051

Fagerlin, A., Wang, C., & Ubel, P. A. (2005). Reducing the influence of anecdotal reasoning on people’s health care decisions: Is a picture worth a thousand statistics? Medical Decision Making, 25(4), 398–405. doi:10.1177/0272989x05278931

Fairrow, A. M., McCallum, T. J., & Messinger-Rapport, B. J. (2004). Preferences of older African-Americans for long-term tube feeding at the end of life. Aging & mental health, 8(6), 530–534.

Fang, A., Matheny, N. L., & Wilhelm, S. (2014). Body dysmorphic disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37(3), 287–300. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2014.05.003

Feder, H. M., Johnson, B. J. B., O’Connell, S., Shapiro, E. D., Steere, A. C., & Wormser, G. P. (2007). A critical appraisal of “chronic lyme disease.” New England Journal of Medicine, 357(14), 1422–1430. doi:10.1056/NEJMra072023

Feiring, E. (2008). Lifestyle, responsibility and justice. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(1), 33–36. doi:10.1136/jme.2006.019067

Fenton, J. J., Jerant, A. F., Bertakis, K. D., & Franks, P. (2012). The cost of satisfaction: A national study of patient satisfaction, health care utilization, expenditures, and mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(5), 405–411. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.1662

Feroze, U., Noori, N., Kovesdy, C. P., Molnar, M. Z., Martin, D. J., Reina-Patton, A., et al. (2011). Quality-of-life and mortality in hemodialysis patients: Roles of race and nutritional status. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 6, 1100–1111.

Committee on Child Health Financing (2013). Essential contractual language for medical necessity in children. Pediatrics, 132(2), 398–401. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1637

Finer, L. B., & Zolna, M. R. (2011). Unintended pregnancy in the United States: Incidence and disparities, 2006. Contraception, 84(5), 478–485.

Finkelstein, A., & McKnight, R. (2008). What did Medicare do? The initial impact of Medicare on mortality and out of pocket medical spending. Journal of Public Economics, 92(7), 1644–1668. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.10.005

(p.265) Fiore, A. E., Shay, D. K., Broder, K., Iskander, J. K., Uyeki, T. M., Mootrey, G., et al. (2008). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. MMWR Recommendations andReports, 57(RR-7), 1–60.

Fitch, K., Bernstein, S. J., Aguilar, M. D., Burnand, B., & LaCalle, J. R. (2001). The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method user’s manual. No. RAND/MR-1269-DG-XII/RE, Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Flannery, B., Clippard, J., Zimmerman, R. K., Nowalk, M. P., Jackson, M. L., Jackson, L. A., et al. (2015). Early estimates of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness-United States, January 2015. Morbitity and Mortality Weekly Reprt, 64(1), 10–15.

Flannery, E. J. (1995). One advocate’s viewpoint: Conflicts and tensions in the Baby K case. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 23(1), 7–12.

Fleck, L. M. (2009). Just caring. Health care rationing and democratic deliberation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fleck, L. M. (2010). Just caring: In defense of limited age-based healthcare rationing. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 19(1), 27–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180109990223

Fleck, L. M. (2011). Just caring: Health care rationing, terminal illness, and the medically least well off. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(2), 156–171.

Flexner, A. (1910). Medical educatuon in The United States and Canada. Boston: D.B. Updike.

Fojo, T., Mailankody, S., & Lo, A. (2014). Unintended consequences of expensive cancer therapeutics—the pursuit of marginal indications and a me-too mentality that stifles innovation and creativity: The John Conley lecture. JAMA Otolaryngol – Head Neck Surgery, 140(12), 1225–1236.

Fox, D. M., & Leichter, H. M. (1991). Rationing care in Oregon: The new accountability. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Health Affairs, 10(2), 7–27.

Fox, N. J., & Ward, K. J. (2008). Pharma in the bedroom … and the kitchen… . The pharmaceuticalisation of daily life. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30(6), 856–868. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2008.01114.x

Fox, R. C. (1957). Training for uncertainty. In R. K. Meron, G. G. Reader, & P. L. Kendall (Eds.), The student-physician (pp. 207–244). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Frankfurt, H. G. (1984). Necessity and desire. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 45(1), 1–13. doi:10.2307/2107323

Frankfurt, H. G. (2015). On inequality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Franzini, L., Mikhail, O. I., & Skinner, J. S. (2010). McAllen and El Paso revisited: Medicare variations not always reflected in the under-sixty-five population. Health Affairs, 29(12), 2302–2309. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0492

Freda, P. U., Beckers, A. M., Katznelson, L., Molitch, M. E., Montori, V. M., Post, K. D., … & the Endocrine Society. Pituitary incidentaloma: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline (2011). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(4), 894–904. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-1048

Freeman, V. G., Rathore, S. S., Weinfurt, K. P., Schulman, K. A., & Sulmasy, D. P. (1999). Lying for patients: Physician deception of third-party payers. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(19), 2263–2270. doi:10.1001/archinte.159.19.2263

Freiherr, G. (1995). Product promotion strategy links drugs and devices. MDDI News Retrieved from http://www.mddionline.com/article/product-promotion-strategy-links-drugs-and-devices

(p.266) Fried, C. (1969). The value of life. Harvard Law Review, 82(7), 1415–1437.

Gabbay, E., Meyer, K. B., Griffith, J. L., Richardson, M. M., & Miskulin, D. C. (2010). Temporal trends in health-related quality of life among hemodialysis patients in the United States. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 5(2), 261–267. doi:10.2215/cjn.03890609

Gagliardi, A. R., Brouwers, M. C., Palda, V. A., Lemieux-Charles, L., & Grimshaw, J. M. (2011). How can we improve guideline use? A conceptual framework of implementability. Implementation Science, 6(1), 26.

Galesic, M., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2010). Statistical numeracy for health: A cross-cultural comparison with probabilistic national samples. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(5), 462–468. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.481

Gallin, E. K., Bond, E., Califf, R. M., Crowley, W. F. J., Davis, P., Galbraith, R., et al. (2013). Forging stronger partnerships between academic health centers and patient-driven organizations. Academic Medicine, 88(9), 1220–1224.

Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2013). Communicating health risks with visual aids. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(5), 392–399.

Garcia-Retamero, R., & Galesic, M. (2010). How to reduce the effect of framing on messages about health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(12), 1323–1329. doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1484-9

Garcia-Retamero, R., & Hoffrage, U. (2013). Visual representation of statistical information improves diagnostic inferences in doctors and their patients. Social Science & Medicine, 83(0), 27–33. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.01.034

Gargus, R. A., Vohr, B. R., Tyson, J. E., High, P., Higgins, R. D., Wrage, L. A., et al. (2009). Unimpaired outcomes for extremely low birth weight infants at 18 to 22 months. Pediatrics, 124(1), 112–121. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2742

Gaskin, D. J., Thorpe, R. J., Jr., McGinty, E. E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J. H., et al. (2014). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, 104 (11), 2147–2155.

Geist, P., & Hardesty, M. (2014). Negotiating the crisis: DRGs and the transformation of hospitals. New York: Routledge.

Geller, B. M., Bogart, A., Carney, P. A., Sickles, E. A., Smith, R., Monsees, B., et al. (2014). Educational interventions to improve screening mammography interpretation: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(6), W586–W596.

Gerber, A. S., Patashnik, E. M., Doherty, D., & Dowling, C. (2010a). A national survey reveals public skepticism about research-based treatment guidelines. Health Affairs, 29(10), 1882–1884. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0185

Gerber, A. S., Patashnik, E. M., Doherty, D., & Dowling, C. (2010b). The public wants information, not board mandates, from comparative effectiveness research. Health Affairs, 29(10), 1872–1881. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0655

Gerber, A. S., Patashnik, E. M., Doherty, D., & Dowling, C. M. (2014). Doctor knows best: Physician endorsements, public opinion, and the politics of comparative effectiveness research. Journal of Health, Politics, and Policy Law, 39(1), 171–208. doi:10.1215/03616878-2395208

Gigerenzer, G. (2002). Calculated risks: How to know when numbers deceive you. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gigerenzer, G. (2009). Making sense of health statistics. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(8), 567.

(p.267) Gigerenzer, G., Gaissmaier, W., Kurz-Milcke, E., Schwartz, L. M., & Woloshin, S. (2007). Helping doctors and patients make sense of health statistics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8(2), 53–96. doi:10.2307/40062369

Gilens, M. (2012). Affluence and influence: Economic inequality and political power in America. Princeton, NJ/New York: Princeton University Press/Sage.

Gilmer, T., Schneiderman, L. J., Teetzel, H., Blustein, J., Briggs, K., Cohn, F., et al. (2005). The costs of nonbeneficial treatment in the intensive care setting. Health Affairs, 24(4), 961–971. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.24.4.961

Glassman, P. A., Jacobson, P. D., & Asch, S. (1997). Medical necessity and defined coverage benefits in the Oregon Health Plan. Am J Public Health, 87(6), 1053–1058.

Glod, S. A. (2014). Miracle. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(15), 1499–1499.

Glover, J. (1977). Causing death and saving lives (Pelican books). Harmondsworth; New York: Penguin.

Golan, O. (2010). The right to treatment for self-inflicted conditions. Journal of Medical Ethics 36(11), 683–686. doi:10.1136/jme.2010.036525.

Goldsteen, R. L., Goldsteen, K., Swan, J. H., & Clemeña, W. (2001). Harry and Louise and health care reform: Romancing public opinion. Journal of Health, Politics, and Policy Law, 26(6), 1325–1352. doi:10.1215/03616878-26-6-1325

Goldstein, M. M., & Bowers, D. (2015). The patient as consumer: Empowerment or commodification? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43(1), 162–165.

Goldstone, A. R., Callaghan, C. J., Mackay, J., Charman, S., & Nashef, S. A. (2004). Should surgeons take a break after an intraoperative death? Attitude survey and outcome evaluation. BMJ, 328(7436), 379.

Golenski, J. D., & Nelson, L. J. (1992). The Wanglie case: A demand for treatment clashes with medical integrity. Clinical ethics report, 6(1), 1–8.

Gonsalkorale, K., Sherman, J. W., & Klauer, K. C. (2013). Measures of implicit attitudes may conceal differences in implicit associations: The case of antiaging bias. Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi:10.1177/1948550613499239

Goodman, S. N. (1999). Probability at the bedside: The knowing of chances or the chances of knowing? Annals of Internal Medicine, 130(7), 604–606. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-7-199904060-00022

Goodwin, K., Viboud, C., & Simonsen, L. (2006). Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: A quantitative review. Vaccine, 24(8), 1159–1169. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.105

Gostin, L. O. (2014). Legal and ethical responsibilities following brain death: The McMath and Muñoz cases. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(9), 903–904. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.660

Gould, S. J. (1985). The median isn’t the message. Discover, 6(6), 40–42.

Gould, S. J. (1997). Nonoverlapping magisteria. Natural History, 16.

Graf, M. D., Needham, D. F., Teed, N., & Brown, T. (2013). Genetic testing insurance coverage trends: A review of publicly available policies from the largest US payers. [Report]. Personalized Medicine, 10(3), 235–243.

Graham, R., Mancher, M., Wolman, D. M., Greenfield, S., & Steinberg, E. (2011). Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Gray, A. M., Clarke, P. M., Wolsetnholme, J. L., & Wordsworth, S. (2011). Applied methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gray, B. H., Gusmano, M. K., & Collins, S. R. (2003). AHCPR and the changing politics of health services research. Health Affairs, 22(3; Suppl.), 283–307.

(p.268) Greco, M. (2015). What is the DSM? Diagnostic manual, cultural icon, political battleground: An overview with suggestions for a critical research agenda. Psychology & Sexuality, 7(1), 1–17. doi:10.1080/19419899.2015.1024470

Green, E. P. (2014). Payment systems in the healthcare industry: An experimental study of physician incentives. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 106(0), 367–378. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2014.05.009

Green, J. (2015). Living in hope and desperate for a miracle: NICU nurses perceptions of parental anguish. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(2), 731–744. doi:10.1007/s10943-014-9971-7

Greene, J., & Haidt, J. (2002). How (and where) does moral judgment work? Trends Cogn Sci, 6(12), 517–523.

Greene, J. A. (2007). Prescribing by numbers: Drugs and the definition of disease. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Grey, M. R. (1989). Poverty, politics, and health: The Farm Security Administration medical care program, 1935–1945. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 44(3), 320–350. doi:10.1093/jhmas/44.3.320

Grey, M. R. (1994). The medical care programs of the Farm Security Administration, 1932 through 1947: A rehearsal for national health insurance? Am J Public Health, 84(10), 1678–1687.

Griffin, M. D., & Prieto, M. (2008). Case studies in transplant ethics. Transplant Review (Orlando), 22(3), 178–183.

Grimes, D. A. (1993). Technology follies: The uncritical acceptance of medical innovation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269(23), 3030–3033. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03500230112038

Guallar, E., & Laine, C. (2014). Controversy over clinical guidelines: Listen to the evidence, not the noise. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(5), 361–362.

Gupta, S. (2009). Cheating death: The doctors and medical miracles that are saving lives against all odds. New York: Wellness Central.

Gustavsson, E. (2013). From needs to health care needs. Health Care Annal. 22 (1), 22–35. doi:10.1007/s10728-013-0241-8.

Guyatt, G., Akl, E. A., Hirsh, J., Kearon, C., Crowther, M., Gutterman, D., et al. (2010). The vexing problem of guidelines and conflict of interest: A potential solution. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(11), 738–741.

Hacker, J. D. (2010). Decennial life tables for the white population of the United States, 1790–1900. Historical methods, 43(2), 45–79. doi:10.1080/01615441003720449

Hadler, N. M. (2008). Worried sick: A prescription for health in an overtreated America (H. Eugene and Lillian Youngs Lehman series). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Hadorn, D. C. (1991). Setting health care priorities in Oregon. Cost-effectiveness meets the rule of rescue. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265(17), 2218–2225.

Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychology Review, 108(4), 814–834.

Hall, D. V., Jones, S. C., & Hoek, J. (2011). Direct to consumer advertising versus disease awareness advertising: Consumer perspectives from down under. Journal of Public Affairs, 11(1), 60–69. doi:10.1002/pa.379

Hall, D. V., Jones, S. C., & Iverson, D. C. (2011). Consumer perceptions of sponsors of disease awareness advertising. Health Education, 111(1), 5–19.

(p.269) Hall, M. A. (2003). State regulation of medical necessity: The case of weight-reduction surgery. Duke Law Journal, 53 (2), 653–672.

Hall v. Florida. (2014). S. Ct. (Vol. 134, pp. 1986): U.S. Supreme Court.

Halpern, N. A., & Pastores, S. M. (2010). Critical care medicine in the United States 2000–2005: An analysis of bed numbers, occupancy rates, payer mix, and costs. Critical Care Medicine, 38(1), 65–71. doi: 10.1097/CCM.1090b1013e3181b1090d1090

Hamel, L., Norton, M., Politz, K., Levitt, L., Claxton, G., & Brodie, M. (2016). The burden of medical debt: Results from the Kaiser Family Foundation/New York Times Medical Bills Survey. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Hamilton, D. F., Lane, J. V., Gaston, P., Patton, J. T., MacDonald, D., Simpson, A. H. R. W., et al. (2013). What determines patient satisfaction with surgery? A prospective cohort study of 4709 patients following total joint replacement. BMJ Open, 3(4), e002525. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002525.

Han, P. K. J. (2013). Conceptual, methodological, and ethical problems in communicating uncertainty in clinical evidence. Medical Care Research and Review, 70(1 Suppl.), 14S–36S. doi:10.1177/1077558712459361

Han, P. K. J., Klein, W. M. P., & Arora, N. K. (2011). Varieties of uncertainty in health care: A conceptual taxonomy. Medical Decision Making, 31(6), 828–838. doi:10.1177/0272989x10393976

Hanchate, A., Kronman, A. C., Young-Xu, Y., Ash, A. S., & Emanuel, E. (2009). Racial and ethnic differences in end-of-life costs: Why do minorities cost more than Whites? Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(5), 493–501. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.616

Hankey, H. J. (2007). Are n-of-1 trials of any practical value to clinicians and researchers? In P. M. Rothwell (Ed.), Treating individuals: From randomised trials to personalised medicine (pp. 231–243). London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hanson, M. J. (1999). The idea of progress and the goals of medicine. In M. J. Hanson, & D. Callahan (Eds.), The goals of medicine: The forgotten issue in health care reform (pp. 137–151). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Hanson, M. J., & Callahan, D. (Eds.). (1999). The goals of medicine: The forgotten issue in health care reform (Hastings Center studies in ethics). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Haque, O. S., & Waytz, A. (2012). Dehumanization in medicine: Causes, solutions, and functions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(2), 176–186. doi:10.1177/1745691611429706

Harrington, K., Barney, J., Mcgiffin, D., Diaz-Guzman, E., Wille, K., & Sharma, N. (2014). Regional differences in access to lung transplantation before and after introduction of lung allocation score. victoria, 1(2), 3.

Harrington, R. A., & Califf, R. M. (2010). There is a role for industry-sponsored education in cardiology. Circulation, 121(20), 2221–2227.

Harris, J. (1985). The value of life. An introduction to medical ethics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Harris, J. (1987). QALYfying the value of life. Journal of Medical Ethics, 13(3), 117–123. doi:10.1136/jme.13.3.117

Hartman, M., Martin, A. B., Lassman, D., & Catlin, A. (2015). National health spending in 2013: growth slows, remains in step with the overall economy. Health Affairs, 34(1), 150–160.

Hartzband, P., & Groopman, J. (2012). The new language of medicine. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119(2, Part 1), 369–370.

(p.270) Hasman, A., Hope, T., & ØSterdal, L. P. (2006). Health care need: Three interpretations. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(2), 145–156. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5930.2006.00325.x

Hatchett, R. J., Mecher, C. E., & Lipsitch, M. (2007). Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(18), 7582–7587. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610941104

Heard, E., & Martienssen, R. A. (2014). Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: Myths and mechanisms. Cell, 157(1), 95–109.

Hemmerich, J. A., Elstein, A. S., Schwarze, M. L., Moliski, E. G., & Dale, W. (2012). Risk as feelings in the effect of patient outcomes on physicians’ future treatment decisions: A randomized trial and manipulation validation. Social Science & Medicine, 75(2), 367–376. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.020

Hemminki, E., Toiviainen, H. K., & Vuorenkoski, L. (2010). Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland. Social Science & Medicine, 70(8), 1171–1175.

Hendrick, R. E., & Helvie, M. A. (2011). United States Preventive Services Task Force screening mammography recommendations: Science ignored. American Journal of Roentgenology, 196(2), W112–W116. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5609

Hennig-Schmidt, H., Selten, R., & Wiesen, D. (2011). How payment systems affect physicians’ provision behaviour—An experimental investigation. Journal of Health Economics, 30(4), 637–646. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.05.001

Henry, M. S. (2006). Uncertainty, responsibility, and the evolution of the physician/patient relationship. Journal of Medical Ethics, 32(6), 321–323. doi:10.1136/jme.2005.013987

Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve. Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press.

Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2009). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Version 5.0.2). London: The Cochrane Collaborative, Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.

Higham, J. (1957). Social discrimination against Jews in America, 1830–1930. Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 47(1), 1–33.

Hill, A. B. (1952). The clinical trial. New England Journal of Medicine, 247(4), 113–119. doi:10.1056/NEJM195207242470401

Hill, A. B. S. (1984). Principles of medical statistics (11th ed.): New York: Oxford University Press.

Hilts, P. J. (1996). Smokescreen: The truth behind the tobacco industry cover-up. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ho, B., & Liu, E. (2011). Does sorry work? The impact of apology laws on medical malpractice. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 43(2), 141–167. doi:10.1007/s11166-011-9126-0

Hoffman, A., & Pearson, S. D. (2009). “Marginal medicine”: Targeting comparative effectiveness research to reduce waste. Health Affairs, 28(4), w710–w718. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.28.4.w710

Hoffman, J. R., & Cooper, R. J. (2012). Overdiagnosis of disease: A modern epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(15), 1123–1124. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3319

Hoffman, L. R., & Ramsey, B. W. (2013). Cystic fibrosis therapeutics: The road ahead. CHEST Journal, 143(1), 207–213. doi:10.1378/chest.12-1639

Holgate, S. T., Komaroff, A. L., Mangan, D., & Wessely, S. (2011). Chronic fatigue syndro me: Understanding a complex illness. [10.1038/nrn3087]. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(9), 539–544.

(p.271) Holland, R. F. (1965). The miraculous. American Philosophical Quarterly, 2(1), 43–51. doi:10.2307/20009151

Holmes, M. V., Perel, P., Shah, T., Hingorani, A. D., & Casas, J. P. (2011). Cyp2c19 genotype, clopidogrel metabolism, platelet function, and cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(24), 2704–2714. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1880

Honeybul, S., Gillett, G. R., Ho, K. M., & Lind, C. R. P. (2011). Neurotrauma and the rule of rescue. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(12), 707–710. doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100081

Hope, T. (2001). Rationing and life-saving treatments: Should identifiable patients have higher priority? Journal of Medical Ethics, 27(3), 179–185. doi:10.1136/jme.27.3.179

Hope, T., ØSterdal, L. P., & Hasman, A. (2010). An inquiry into the principles of needs-based allocation of health care. Bioethics, 24(9), 470–480. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2009.01734.x

Horbar, J. D., Carpenter, J. H., Badger, G. J., Kenny, M. J., Soll, R. F., Morrow, K. A., et al. (2012). Mortality and neonatal morbidity among infants 501 to 1500 grams from 2000 to 2009. Pediatrics, 129(6), 1019–1026. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3028

Horton, R. (2000). Common sense and figures: The rhetoric of validity in medicine (Bradford Hill Memorial Lecture 1999). Statistics in Medicine, 19(23), 3149–3164. doi:10.1002/1097-0258(20001215)19:23<3149:AID-SIM617>3.0.CO;2-E

Hu, Y.-Y., Kwok, A. C., Jiang, W., Taback, N., Loggers, E. T., Ting, G. V., et al. (2012). High-cost imaging in elderly patients with stage IV cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 104(15), 1165–1173. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs286

Hume, D. (1999). An enquiry concerning human understanding (Oxford Philosophical Texts). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., O’Brien, L. T., Greenwald, A. G., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). Using the implicit association test to measure age differences in implicit social cognitions. Psychology and Aging, 17(3), 482–495. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.17.3.482

Humphreys, G. (2009). Direct-to-consumer advertising under fire. World Health Organization marketing and dissemination. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Hurley, E. H., Krishnan, S., Parton, L. A., & Dozor, A. J. (2014). Differences in perspective on prognosis and treatment of children with trisomy 18. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 164(10), 2551–2556. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36687

Hurst, S. A., & Danis, M. (2007). A framework for rationing by clinical judgment. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 17(3), 247–266.

Hurst, S. A., Slowther, A.-M., Forde, R., Pegoraro, R., Reiter-Theil, S., Perrier, A., et al. (2006). Prevalence and determinants of physician bedside rationing: Data from Europe. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(11), 1138–1143. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00551.x

Hutchings, A., & Raine, R. (2006). A systematic review of factors affecting the judgments produced by formal consensus development methods in health care. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 11(3), 172–179. doi:10.1258/135581906777641659

Hutchings, A., Raine, R., Sanderson, C., & Black, N. (2005). An experimental study of determinants of the extent of disagreement within clinical guideline development groups. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 14(4), 240–245. doi:10.1136/qshc.2004.013227

Hyde, D. (2014). Sorites Paradox. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter, 2014), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/sorites-paradox/

Iglehart, J. K. (1982). New Jersey’s experiment with DRG-based hospital reimbursement. New England Journal of Medicine, 307(26), 1655–1660. doi:10.1056/NEJM198212233072632

(p.272) Illich, I. (1976). Limits to medicine. London: Marion Boyars.

Irving, M. J., Tong, A., Jan, S., Wong, G., Cass, A., Allen, R. D., et al. (2013). Community preferences for the allocation of deceased donor organs for transplantation: A focus group study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. E-pub ahead of print: doi:10.1093/ndt/gft208

Israni, A. K., Salkowski, N., Gustafson, S., Snyder, J. J., Friedewald, J. J., Formica, R. N., et al. (2014). New national allocation policy for deceased donor kidneys in the United States and possible effect on patient outcomes. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 25(8), 1842–1848.

Jacobs, L. M., Burns, K., & Jacobs, B. B. (2008). Trauma death: Views of the public and trauma professionals on death and dying from injuries. Archives of Surgery, 143(8), 730–735. doi:10.1001/archsurg.143.8.730

Jacobson, M., O’Malley, A. J., Earle, C. C., Pakes, J., Gaccione, P., & Newhouse, J. P. (2006). Does reimbursement influence chemotherapy treatment for cancer patients? Health Affairs(Millwood), 25(2), 437–443.

Jacobson, P. D., & Parmet, W. E. (2007). A new era of unapproved drugs: The case of Abigail Alliance v. Von Eschenbach. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(2), 205–208. doi:10.1001/jama.297.2.205

Janvier, A., Farlow, B., & Wilfond, B. S. (2012). The experience of families with children with Trisomy 13 and 18 in social networks. Pediatrics, 130(2), 293–298. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0151

Jecker, N. S. (2013). The problem with rescue medicine. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 38(1), 64–81.

Jeffers, J. R., Bognanno, M. F., & Bartlett, J. C. (1971). On the demand versus need for medical services and the concept of “shortage.” Am J Public Health, 61(1), 46–63.

Jha, A. K., Staiger, D. O., Lucas, F. L., & Chandra, A. (2007). Do race-specific models explain disparities in treatments after acute myocardial infarction? American Heart Journal, 153(5), 785–791.

Jha, P., & Peto, R. (2014). Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(1), 60–68. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1308383

Johansson, L.-O. (2005). Fairness of allocations among groups of unknown others. Social Justice Research, 18(1), 43–61. doi:10.1007/s11211-005-3392-4

Johnson, J., & Kline, J. (2010). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement of the interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs. Emergency Radiology, 17(4), 285–290. doi:10.1007/s10140-009-0854-2

Johnson, K. S., Elbert-Avila, K. I., & Tulsky, J. A. (2005). The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the treatment preferences of African Americans: A review of the literature. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53(4), 711–719. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53224.x

Johnson, N. P., & Mueller, J. (2002). Updating the accounts: Global mortality of the 1918–1920 “Spanish” influenza pandemic. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 76(1), 105–115.

Jones, D. E., Carson, K. A., Bleich, S. N., & Cooper, L. A. (2012). Patient trust in physicians and adoption of lifestyle behaviors to control high blood pressure. Patient Education and Counseling, 89(1), 57–62. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2012.06.003

Jones, D. J., Barkun, A. N., Lu, Y., Enns, R., Sinclair, P., Martel, M., et al. (2012). Conflicts of interest ethics: Silencing expertise in the development of international clinical practice guidelines. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(11), 809–816. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-156-11-201206050-00008

(p.273) Jones, K. (2008). In whose interest? Relationships between health consumer groups and the pharmaceutical industry in the UK. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30(6), 929–943.

Jong, G., Stricker, B. H. C., & Sturkenboom, M. C. (2004). Marketing in the lay media and prescriptions of terbinafine in primary care: Dutch cohort study. BMJ, 328(7445), 931.

Jonsen, A. R. (1986). Bentham in a box: Technology assessment and health care allocation. Law and Medical Health Care, 14(3-4), 172–174.

Joshi, S., Gaynor, J. J., Bayers, S., Guerra, G., Eldefrawy, A., Chediak, Z., et al. (2013). Disparities among Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites in time from starting dialysis to kidney transplant waitlisting. Transplantation, 95(2), 309–318.

Juth, N. (2013). Challenges for principles of need in health care. Health Care Analysis. 23(1), 1–15. doi:10.1007/s10728-013-0242-7

Kahan, J. P., Bernstein, S. J., Leape, L. L., Hilborne, L. H., Park, R. E., Parker, L., et al. (1994). Measuring the necessity of medical procedures. Medical Care, 32(4), 357–365.

Kahn, S. E., Cooper, M. E., & Del Prato, S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Perspectives on the past, present, and future. The Lancet, 383(9922), 1068–1083. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62154-6

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Kaiser, J. (2012). New cystic fibrosis drug offers hope, at a price. Science, 335(10), 645.

Kaiser, K., Rauscher, G. H., Jacobs, E. A., Strenski, T. A., Ferrans, C. E., & Warnecke, R. B. (2011). The import of trust in regular providers to trust in cancer physicians among White, African American, and Hispanic breast cancer patients. [Comparative Study Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(1), 51–57. doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1489-4

Kantarjian, H. M., Fojo, T., Mathisen, M., & Zwelling, L. A. (2013). Cancer drugs in the United States: Justum pretium—the just price. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31(28), 3600–3604. doi:10.1200/jco.2013.49.1845

Karlan, P. S. (2002). Ballots and bullets: The exceptional history of the right to vote. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 71, 1345.

Kassirer, J. P. (2005). On the take: How America’s complicity with big business can endanger your health. New York: Oxford University Press.

Katz, M. B. (2013). The undeserving poor: America’s enduring confrontation with poverty (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Keehan, S. P., Cuckler, G. A., Sisko, A. M., Madison, A. J., Smith, S. D., Stone, D. A., et al. (2015). National health expenditure projections, 2014–24: Spending growth faster than recent trends. Health Affairs, 34(8), 1407–1417. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0600

Keir, A., McPhee, A., & Wilkinson, D. (2014). Beyond the borderline: Outcomes for inborn infants born at ≤500 grams. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50(2), 146–152. doi:10.1111/jpc.12414

Keller, A. C., & Packel, L. (2013). Going for the Cure: Patient Interest Groups and Health Advocacy in the United States. J Health Polit Policy Law, 39(2), 331–367, doi:10.1215/03616878-2416238.

Kelley, A. S., Ettner, S. L., Morrison, R. S., Du, Q., Wenger, N. S., & Sarkisian, C. A. (2011). Determinants of medical expenditures in the last 6 months of life. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(4), 235–242. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-4-201102150-00004

Kelley, M. (2005). Limits on patient responsibility. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(2), 189–206. doi:10.1080/03605310590926858

(p.274) Kemmer, N., Zacharias, V., Kaiser, T., & Neff, G. (2009). Access to liver transplantation in the MELD era: Role of ethnicity and insurance. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54(8), 1794–1797. doi:10.1007/s10620-008-0567-5

Kenkel, D. S., & Wang, H. (2013). The Economics of Personalization in Prevention and Public Health. Forum for Health Economics and Policy, 16(2), S53–S71.

Kerns, R. D., Sellinger, J., & Goodin, B. R. (2011). Psychological treatment of chronic pain. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 411–434.

King, C. D. (1945). The meaning of normal. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 17(3), 493.

King V. Burwell, 135 U.S. 2480, 2496 (2014)

Kingma, E. (2007). What is it to be healthy? Analysis, 67(2), 128–133.

Kirch, D. G., Henderson, M. K., & Dill, M. J. (2012). Physician workforce projections in an era of health care reform. Annual Review of Medicine, 63, 435–445.

Kircher, S. M., Benson, A. B., Farber, M., & Nimeiri, H. S. (2011). Effect of the Accountable Care Act of 2010 on Clinical Trial Insurance Coverage. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(5), 548–553, doi:10.1200/jco.2011.37.8190.

Kishnani, P. S., Steiner, R. D., Bali, D., Berger, K., Byrne, B. J., Case, L. E., et al. (2006). Pompe disease diagnosis and management guideline. Genetics in Medicine, 8(5), 267–288.

Kitzhaber, J. A. (1993). Prioritising health services in an era of limits: The Oregon experience. [Article]. British Medical Journal,

Klein, R. (1994). Can we restrict the health care menu? Health Policy, 27(2), 103–112. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-8510(94)90075-2

Klein, R. (1995). Big bang health care reform: Does it work? The case of Britain’s 1991 National Health Service reforms. Milbank Quarterly, 73(3), 299–337. doi:10.2307/3350370

Klevit, H. D., Bates, A. C., Castanares, T., Kirk, E. P., Sipes-Metzler, P. R., & Wopat, R. (1991). Prioritization of health care services: A progress report by the Oregon Health Services Commission. Archives of Internal Medicine, 151(5), 912–916. doi:10.1001/archinte.1991.00400050062012

Kocher, R., & Roberts, B. (2014). The calculus of cures. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(16), 1473–1475. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1400868

Kocher, R., & Sahni, N. R. (2011). Rethinking health care labor. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(15), 1370–1372. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1109649

Kogut, T., & Ritov, I. (2005). The “identified victim” effect: An identified group, or just a single individual? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18(3), 157–167. doi:10.1002/bdm.492

Kogut, T., & Ritov, I. (2007). “One of us”: Outstanding willingness to help save a single identified compatriot. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 104(2), 150–157. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.04.006

Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M., & Donaldson, M. S. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Kohn, R., Rubenfeld, G. D., Levy, M. M., Ubel, P. A., & Halpern, S. D. (2011). Rule of rescue or the good of the many? An analysis of physicians’ and nurses’ preferences for allocating ICU beds. Intensive Care Medicine, 37(7), 1210–1217. doi:10.1007/s00134-011-2257-6

Kontos, E. Z., & Viswanath, K. (2011). Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising: A critical review. [10.1038/nrc2999]. Nature Reviews Cancer, 11(2), 142–150. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v11/n2/suppinfo/nrc2999_S1.html

Kosko, J., Klassen, T. P., Bishop, T., & Hartling, L. (2006). Evidence-based medicine and the anecdote: Uneasy bedfellows or ideal couple? Paediatrics & Child Health, 11(10), 665–668.

(p.275) Krag, E. (2013). Health as normal function: A weak link in Daniels’s Theory of just health distribution. Bioethics, 28(8), 427–435. doi:10.1111/bioe.12007

Krahn, M., & Naglie, G. (2008). The next step in guideline development: Incorporating patient preferences. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(4), 436–438. doi:10.1001/jama.300.4.436

Kravitz, R. L., Epstein, R. M., Feldman, M. D., & et al. (2005). Influence of patients’ requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(16), 1995–2002. doi:10.1001/jama.293.16.1995

Kruskal, W. (1988). Miracles and statistics: The casual assumption of independence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 929–940. doi:10.2307/2290117

Kucirka, L. M., Grams, M. E., Balhara, K. S., Jaar, B. G., & Segev, D. L. (2012). Disparities in provision of transplant information affect access to kidney transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 12(2), 351–357doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03865.x

Kung, J., Miller, R. R., & Mackowiak, P. A. (2012). Failure of clinical practice guidelines to meet institute of medicine standards: Two more decades of little, if any, progress. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(21), 1628–1633. doi:10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.56

Ladin, K., & Hanto, D. W. (2011). Rational rationing or discrimination: Balancing equity and efficiency considerations in kidney allocation. American Journal of Transplantation, 11(11), 2317–2321. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03726.x

Lala, A., Berger, J., Sharma, G., Hochman, J., Scott Braithwaite, R., & Ladapo, J. (2013). Genetic testing in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of thrombosis and Haemostasis, 11(1), 81–91.

Lane, C. (2007). Shyness: How normal behavior became a sickness. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lantos, J. (2006). When parents request seemingly futile treatment for their children. Mt Sinai J Med, 73(3), 587–589.

Lantos, P. M., Auwaerter, P. G., & Wormser, G. P. (2013). A systematic review of Borrelia burgdorferi morphologic variants does not support a role in chronic lyme disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases, e-pub 12/13/2013. doi:10.1093/cid/cit810.

Lapostolle, F., Montois, S., Alhéritière, A., De Stefano, C., Le Toumelin, P., & Adnet, F. (2013). Dr House, TV, and Reality… . American Journal of Medicine, 126(2), 171–173, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.07.019.

Largent, E. A., & Pearson, S. D. (2012). Which orphans will find a home? The rule of rescue in resource allocation for rare diseases. Hastings Center Report, 42(1), 27–34.

Larmer, R. A. H. (1988). Water into wine?: An investigation of the concept of miracle. Kingston, Ont.: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Larson, B. A. (2013). Calculating disability-adjusted-life-years lost (DALYs) in discrete-time. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 11(1), 1–6.

Larson, R. J., Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., & Welch, H. (2005). Advertising by academic medical centers. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(6), 645–651, doi:10.1001/archinte.165.6.645.

Lawson, E. H., Gibbons, M. M., Ko, C. Y., & Shekelle, P. G. (2012). The appropriateness method has acceptable reliability and validity for assessing overuse and underuse of surgical procedures. J Clin Epidemiol, 65(11), 1133–1143, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.07.002.

(p.276) Lean, W. L., Arnup, S., Danchin, M., & Steer, A. C. (2014). Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 134(4), 771–781, doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1094.

Leavitt, M. (2005). HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. (pp. http://www.hhs.gov/pandemicflu/plan/appendixd.html). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Health and Human Services.

Lee, H., Andrew, M., Gebremariam, A., Lumeng, J. C., & Lee, J. M. (2014). Longitudinal Associations Between Poverty and Obesity From Birth Through Adolescence. Am J Public Health(0), e1–e7.

Lee, T. H., Rouan, G. W., Weisberg, M. C., Brand, D. A., Acampora, D., Stasiulewicz, C., et al. (1987). Clinical characteristics and natural history of patients with acute myocardial infarction sent home from the emergency room. Am J Cardiol, 60(4), 219–224, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(87)90217-7.

Lee, Y.-T., Ottati, V., & Hussain, I. (2001). Attitudes toward “Illegal” Immigration into the United States: California Proposition 187. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci., 23(4), 430–443.

Leff B, F. T. E. (2008). GIzmo idolatry. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(15), 1830–1832. doi:10.1001/jama.299.15.1830

Leidner, A. J., Chesson, H. W., Xu, F., Ward, J. W., Spradling, P. R., & Holmberg, S. D. (2015). Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment for patients in early stages of liver disease. Hepatology, 61(6), 1860–1869. doi:10.1002/hep.27736

Lenzer, J. (2013). Why we can’t trust clinical guidelines. BMJ, 346(58), f3830.

Leonard, E. W. (2011). Can you really keep your health plan? The limits of grandfathering under the Affordable Care Act. Journal of Corporation Law, 36(4), 753.

Leveque, D. (2008). Off-label use of anticancer drugs. Lancet Oncology, 9(11), 1102–1107.

Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2001). Cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Levine, J. A. (2011). Poverty and obesity in the U.S. Diabetes, 60(11), 2667–2668. doi:10.2337/db11-1118

Levinsky, N. G. (1993). The organization of medical care. Lessons from the Medicare end stage renal disease program. New England Journal of Medicine, 329(19), 1395–1399.

Levinson, J. D., Smith, R. J., & Young, D. M. (2014). Devaluing death: An empirical study of implicit racial bias on jury-eligible citizens in six death penalty states. New York University Law Review, 89, 513.

Lewis, T. (2013). Divided highways: Building the interstate highways, transforming American life. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Lillie, E. O., Patay, B., Diamant, J., Issell, B., Topol, E. J., & Schork, N. J. (2011). The n-of-1 clinical trial: The ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine? Personalized Medicine, 8(2), 161–173.

Linas, B. P., Barter, D. M., Morgan, J. R., Pho, M. T., Leff, J. A., Schackman, B. R., et al. (2015). The cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based regimens for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 infection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(9), 619–629.

Lindsay, R. A. (2009). Oregon’s experience: Evaluating the record. American Journal of Bioethics, 9(3), 19–27.

Lipworth, L., Mumma, M. T., Cavanaugh, K. L., Edwards, T. L., Ikizler, T. A., Tarone, R. E., et al. (2012). Incidence and predictors of end stage renal disease among low-income blacks and whites. PLoS ONE, 7(10), e48407.

Liss, P.-E. (2003). The significance of the goal of health care for the setting of priorities. Health Care Analysis, 11(2), 161–169.

(p.277) Liu, Q., & Gupta, S. (2011). The impact of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs on physician visits and drug requests: Empirical findings and public policy implications. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 28(3), 205–217.

Liu, R., Paxton, W. A., Choe, S., Ceradini, D., Martin, S. R., Horuk, R., et al. (1996). Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection. Cell, 86(3), 367–377.

Loewenstein, G., Volpp, K. G., & Asch, D. A. (2012). Incentives in health: Different prescriptions for physicians and patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(13), 1375–1376. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.387

Loomes, G., & McKenzie, L. (1989). The use of QALYs in health care decision making. Social Science & Medicine, 28(4), 299–308. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(89)90030-0

Lostao, L., Blane, D., Gimeno, D., Netuveli, G., & Regidor, E. (2014). Socioeconomic patterns in use of private and public health services in Spain and Britain: Implications for equity in health care. Health & Place, 25, 19–25. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.09.011

Lott, D. A. (Ed.). (1992). Designing a fair and reasonable basic benefit plan using clinical guidelines. Sacramento, CA: California Public Employees’ Retirement System (PERS).

Lubell, S., & Everett, W. (1938, December 17). Rehearsal for state medicine. The Saturday Evening Post.

Ludmerer, K. M. (2015). Let me heal: The opportunity to preserve excellence in American medicine. Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.

Luetke, A., Meyers, P. A., Lewis, I., & Juergens, H. (2014). Osteosarcoma treatment—Where do we stand? A state of the art review. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 40(4), 523–532. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2013.11.006

Lunde, P., Frislid, K., & Hansleen, V. (1977). Disease and acetylation polymorphism. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2(3), 182–197. doi:10.2165/00003088-197702030-00003

Lyon, D. M. (1942). What do we mean by “normal?” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 71, 239–243.

Ma, J., Dushoff, J., & Earn, D. J. D. (2011). Age-specific mortality risk from pandemic influenza. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 288(0), 29–34. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.08.003

Macfarlane, J., Holmes, W., Macfarlane, R., & Britten, N. (1997). Influence of patients’ expectations on antibiotic management of acute lower respiratory tract illness in general practice: Questionnaire study. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 315(7117), 1211.

Machida, M., Irwin, B., & Feltz, D. (2013). Resilience in competitive athletes with spinal cord injury: The role of sport participation. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Qualitative Health Research, 23(8), 1054–1065. doi:10.1177/1049732313493673

Mack, J. W., Wolfe, J., Cook, E. F., Grier, H. E., Cleary, P. D., & Weeks, J. C. (2007). Hope and prognostic disclosure. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(35), 5636–5642.

Mackenbach, J. P. (2006). The origins of human disease: A short story on “where diseases come from.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (1979–), 60(1), 81–86. doi:10.2307/40795079

Mackey, T., & Liang, B. (2012). Globalization, evolution and emergence of direct-to-consumer advertising: Are emerging markets the next pharmaceutical marketing frontier. J Commer Biotechnol, 18, 58–64.

Mackie, J. L. (1982). The miracle of theism: Arguments for and against the existence of God. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

(p.278) Magi, M., & Allander, E. (1981). Towards a theory of perceived and medically defined need. Sociology of Health & Illness, 3(1), 49–71. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.ep11343652

Magnus, D. C., Wilfond, B. S., & Caplan, A. L. (2014). Accepting brain death. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(10), 891–894. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1400930

Malin, J. L., Weeks, J. C., Potosky, A. L., Hornbrook, M. C., & Keating, N. L. (2013). Medical oncologists’ perceptions of financial incentives in cancer care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31(5), 530–535. doi:10.1200/jco.2012.43.6063

Manganello, J. A., & Clayman, M. L. (2011). The association of understanding of medical statistics with health information seeking and health provider interaction in a national sample of young adults. Journal of Health Communication, 16(sup3), 163–176. doi:10.1080/10810730.2011.604704

Manning, S., & Schneiderman, L. (1996). Miracles or limits: What message from the medical marketplace? HEC Forum, 8(2), 103–108. doi:10.1007/BF00119174

Manning, W. G., Newhouse, J. P., Duan, N., Keeler, E. B., & Leibowitz, A. (1987). Health insurance and the demand for medical care: Evidence from a randomized experiment. The American Economic Review, 77(3), 251–277. doi:10.2307/1804094

Mansfield, C. J., Mitchell, J., & King, D. E. (2002). The doctor as God’s mechanic? Beliefs in the southeastern United States. Social Science and Medicine, 54(3), 399–409.

Mantel, J. (2013). The myth of the independent physician: Implications for health law, policy, and ethics. Case Western Reserve Law Review, 64(2), 455–520.

Marchman Andersen, M., Dalton, S. O., Lynch, J., Johansen, C., & Holtug, N. (2013). Social inequality in health, responsibility and egalitarian justice. Journal of Public Health, 35(1), 4–8, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdt012.

Marden, S., Thomas, P. W., Sheppard, Z. A., Knott, J., Lueddeke, J., & Kerr, D. (2012). Poor numeracy skills are associated with glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 29(5), 662–669. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03466.x

Marewski, J. N., & Gigerenzer, G. (2012). Heuristic decision making in medicine. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1), 77–89.

Marik, P. E. (2014). The cost of inappropriate care at the end of life: Implications for an aging population. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 32(7), 703–708. doi:10.1177/1049909114537399

Markel, H., Lipman, H. B., Navarro, J., & et al. (2007). Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by us cities during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(6), 644–654. doi:10.1001/jama.298.6.644

Marmor, T. R., & Sullivan, K. (2015). Medicare at 50: Why medicare-for-all did not take place. Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, & Ethics, 15, 141.

Marrow, H. B., & Joseph, T. D. (2015). Excluded and Frozen Out: Unauthorised Immigrants’ (Non)Access to Care after US Health Care Reform. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(14), 2253–2273, doi:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1051465

Martin, A. B., Hartman, M., Whittle, L., & Catlin, A. (2014). National health spending in 2012: rate of health spending growth remained low for the fourth consecutive year. Health Affairs, 33(1), 67–77.

Maslow, A. H. (1948). “Higher” and “lower” needs. The Journal of Psychology, 25(2), 433–436.

Maslow, A. H. (1948). Some theoretical consequences of basic need gratification. Journal of Personality, 16(4), 402–416. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1948.tb02296.x

Mathisen, M. S., Kantarjian, H. M., Cortes, J., & Jabbour, E. J. (2014). Practical issues surrounding the explosion of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood Reviews 28(5), 179–187.

(p.279) Mathur, A. K., Schaubel, D. E., Gong, Q., Guidinger, M. K., & Merion, R. M. (2010). Racial and ethnic disparities in access to liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation, 16(9), 1033–1040. doi:10.1002/lt.22108

Mathur, A. K., Schaubel, D. E., Gong, Q., Guidinger, M. K., & Merion, R. M. (2011). Sex-based disparities in liver transplant rates in the United States. American Journal of Transplantation, 11(7), 1435–1443. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03498.x

Mayberry, R. (2014). Racial disparities in health care access in the United States. In W. C. Cockerham, R. Dingwall, & S. R. Quah (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of health, illness, behavior, and society (pp. 1–8). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Mazur, D., & Hickam, D. (1991). Patients’ interpretations of probability terms. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 6(3), 237–240. doi:10.1007/BF02598968

McCall, M. G. (1966). Normality. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 19(11–12), 1127–1132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(66)90013-0

McCormick, D., Hanchate, A. D., Lasser, K. E., Manze, M. G., Lin, M., Chu, C., et al. (2015). Effect of Massachusetts healthcare reform on racial and ethnic disparities in admissions to hospital for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: Retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics. BMJ, 350, h1480.

McGee, S. A., Durham, D. D., Tse, C.-K., & Millikan, R. C. (2013). Determinants of breast cancer treatment delay differ for African American and White Women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 22(7), 1227–1238, doi:10.1158/1055-9965.epi-12-1432.

McGoldrick, T. A. (1945). Report of Special Committee of the Conference on Extension of the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care Program, postwar. Journal of the American Medical Association, 129, 1185.

McGregor, J. A., Camfield, L., & Woodcock, A. (2009). Needs, wants and goals: Wellbeing, quality of life and public policy. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4(2), 135–154.

McKay, A., & Yackee, S. W. (2007). Interest group competition on federal agency rules. American Politics Research, 35(3), 336–357.

McKenna, K., Leykum, L. K., & McDaniel, R. R., Jr. (2013). The role of improvising in patient care. Health Care Management Review, 38(1), 1–8.

McKie, J., & Richardson, J. (2003). The rule of rescue. Social Science & Medicine, 56(12), 2407–2419. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)00244-7

McKneally, M. F., & Sade, R. M. (2003). The prisoner dilemma: Should convicted felons have the same access to heart transplantation as ordinary citizens? Opposing views. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, 125(3), 451–453.

McNeil, C. (2015). NCI-MATCH launch highlights new trial design in precision-medicine era. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 107(7), djv193.

McWilliams, J., Zaslavsky, A. M., Meara, E., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2003). Impact of Medicare coverage on basic clinical services for previously uninsured adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(6), 757–764. doi:10.1001/jama.290.6.757

McWilliams, J. M., Meara, E., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2007). Use of health services by previously uninsured Medicare beneficiaries. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(2), 143–153. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa067712

Mechanic, D. (1992). Professional judgment and the rationing of medical care. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 140(5), 1713–1754. doi:10.2307/3312429

Mechanic, D. (1995). Dilemmas in rationing health care services: The case for implicit rationing. BMJ, 310(6995), 1655–1659.

Mechanic, D. (2004). In my chosen doctor I trust. BMJ, 329(7480), 1418–1419. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1418

(p.280) Meekings, K. N., Williams, C. S. M., & Arrowsmith, J. E. (2012). Orphan drug development: An economically viable strategy for biopharma R&D. Drug Discovery Today, 17(13–14), 660–664. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2012.02.005

Mehta, C., & Brady, W. (2012). Pulseless electrical activity in cardiac arrest: Electrocardiographic presentations and management considerations based on the electrocardiogram. The American journal of emergency medicine, 30(1), 236–239. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2010.08.017

Mehta, J. L., Bursac, Z., Mehta, P., Bansal, D., Fink, L., Marsh, J., et al. (2010). Racial disparities in prescriptions for cardioprotective drugs and cardiac outcomes in Veterans Affairs hospitals. American Journal of Cardiology, 105(7), 1019–1023. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.11.031

Melichar, L. (2009). The effect of reimbursement on medical decision making: Do physicians alter treatment in response to a managed care incentive? Journal of Health Economics, 28(4), 902–907. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.03.004

Menchik, D. A., & Jin, L. (2014). When do doctors follow patients’ orders? Organizational mechanisms of physician influence. Social Science Research, 48, 171–184.

Mendelson, T. B., Meltzer, M., Campbell, E. G., Caplan, A. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. N. (2011). Conflicts of interest in cardiovascular clinical practice guidelines. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(6), 577–584.

Meyers, C. (2002). A new liver for a prisoner. Hastings Center Report, 32(4), 12; discussion 12–13.

Meyers, D. S., Mishori, R., McCann, J., Delgado, J., O’Malley, A. S., & Fryer, E. (2006). Primary care physicians’ perceptions of the effect of insurance status on clinical decision making. Annals of Family Medicine, 4(5), 399–402.

Miles, S. H. (1991). Legal procedures in Wanglie: A two-step, not a sidestep. Journal of Clinical Ethics, 2(4), 285–286.

Miller, A. C., Ziad-Miller, A., & Elamin, E. M. (2014). Brain death and Islam: The interface of religion, culture, history, law, and modern medicine. Chest, 146(4), 1092–1101. doi:10.1378/chest.14-0130

Mohamed, M. A., Nada, A., & Aly, H. (2010). Day-by-day postnatal survival in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics, 126(2), e360–e366. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2810

Monson, R. S., Kemerley, P., Walczak, D., Benedetti, E., Oberholzer, J., & Danielson, K. K. (2015). Disparities in completion rates of the medical prerenal transplant evaluation by race or ethnicity and gender. Transplantation, 99(1), 236–242. doi:10.1097/tp.0000000000000271

Montez, J., Hummer, R., & Hayward, M. (2012). Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: A systematic analysis of functional form. Demography, 49(1), 315–336. doi:10.1007/s13524-011-0082-8

Montgomery, K. (2006). How doctors think. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moraes Vinícius, Y., Lenza, M., Tamaoki Marcel, J., Faloppa, F., & Belloti João, C. (2014). Platelet-rich therapies for musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4). Available from doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010071.pub3

Morden, N. E., Chang, C.-H., Jacobson, J. O., Berke, E. M., Bynum, J. P. W., Murray, K. M., et al. (2012). End-of-life care for Medicare beneficiaries with cancer is highly intensive overall and varies widely. Health Affairs, 31(4), 786–796. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0650

Moriyama, I. M., Loy, R. M., Robb-Smith, A. H. T., Rosenberg, H. M., Hoyert, D. L., & National Center for Health Statistics. (2011). History of the statistical classification of diseases and causes of death. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human (p.281) Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

Morra, D., Nicholson, S., Levinson, W., Gans, D. N., Hammons, T., & Casalino, L. P. (2011). US physician practices versus Canadians: Spending nearly four times as much money interacting with payers. Health Affairs, 30(8), 1443–1450.

Morreim, E. H. (2001). The futility of medical necessity. Regulation, 24, 22–26.

Morris, J., Swier-Vosnos, A., Dusold, J., & Woodworth, C. (2013). Comparison of able-bodied and spinal cord injured individuals’ appraisals of disability. Spinal Cord, 51(4), 338–340. doi:10.1038/sc.2012.169

Moyer, V. A. (2012a). Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(2), 120–134. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00459

Moyer, V. A. (2012b). What we don’t know can hurt our patients: Physician innumeracy and overuse of screening tests. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(5), 392–393.

Moylan, C. A., Brady, C. W., Johnson, J. L., Smith, A. D., Tuttle-Newhall, J. E., & Muir, A. J. (2008). Disparities in liver transplantation before and after introduction of the MELD score. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(20), 2371–2378.

Moynihan, R., & Cassels, A. (2005). Selling sickness: How the world’s biggest pharmaceutical companies are turning us all into patients. New York: Nation Books.

Moynihan, R. N., Cooke, G. P., Doust, J. A., Bero, L., Hill, S., & Glasziou, P. P. (2013). Expanding disease definitions in guidelines and expert panel ties to industry: A cross-sectional study of common conditions in the United States. PLoS Med, 10(8), e1001500.

Mukherjee, S. (2011). The emperor of all maladies: A biography of cancer. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Murphy, E. A. (1965). A scientific viewpoint on normalcy. Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 9(3), 333–348.

Murphy, E. A., & Abbey, H. (1967). The normal range—A common misuse. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 20(2), 79–88. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(67)90099-9

Murray, C. J., Ezzati, M., Flaxman, A. D., Lim, S., Lozano, R., Michaud, C., et al. (2013). GBD 2010: Design, definitions, and metrics. The Lancet, 380(9859), 2063–2066.

Murray, C. J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (2013). Measuring the global burden of disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(5), 448–457. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1201534

Murray, C. J. L., Lopez, A. D., Chin, B., Feehan, D., & Hill, K. H. (2006). Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918–20 pandemic: A quantitative analysis. The Lancet, 368(9554), 2211–2218. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69895-4

Murray, R., Godfrey, K., & Lillycrop, K. (2015). The early life origins of cardiovascular disease. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, 9(4), 1–8. doi:10.1007/s12170-015-0442-9

Nakagawa, K., & Obana, K. K. (2014). Willingness to favor aggressive care and live with disability following severe traumatic brain injury: A survey of healthy young adults in Hawai’i. Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 73(7), 212–216.

Nakhoul, G. N., & Hickner, J. (2013). Management of adults with acute streptococcal pharyngitis: Minimal value for backup strep testing and overuse of antibiotics. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(6), 830–834.

Nathan, D. M., Cleary, P. A., Backlund, J., Genuth, S., Lachin, J., Orchard, T., et al. (2005). Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(25), 2643–2653.

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius. 567 U. S. ____ (2012).

(p.282) Naughton, K., Schmid, C., Yackee, S. W., & Zhan, X. (2009). Understanding commenter influence during agency rule development. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(2), 258–277. doi:10.1002/pam.20426

Nelson, K. E., Hexem, K. R., & Feudtner, C. (2012). Inpatient hospital care of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the United States. Pediatrics, 129(5), 869–876.

Neuberger, J. (2007). Public and professional attitudes to transplanting alcoholic patients. Liver Transplantation, 13(S2), S65–S68. doi:10.1002/lt.21337

Neuberger, J. (2012). Rationing life-saving resources—how should allocation policies be assessed in solid organ transplantation. Transplant International, 25(1), 3–6. doi:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2011.01327.x

Neuman, J. (2011). Prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among panel members producing clinical practice guidelines in Canada and United States: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 343, d56521. doi:ARTN d7063 DOI 10.1136/bmj.d7063

Neuman, M. D., Goldstein, J. N., Cirullo, M. A., & Schwartz, J. (2014). Durability of class I American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guideline recommendations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(20), 2092–2100. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.4949

Neumann, P. J., Cohen, J. T., & Weinstein, M. C. (2014). Updating cost-effectiveness—The curious resilience of the $50,000-per-QALY threshold. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(9), 796–797. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1405158

Neumann, P. J., & Greenberg, D. (2009). Is the United States ready for QALYs? Health Affairs, 28(5), 1366–1371. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.1366

Neumann, P. J., Rosen, A. B., & Weinstein, M. C. (2005). Medicare and cost-effectiveness analysis. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(14), 1516–1522.

Neuzil, K. M. (2009). Pandemic influenza vaccine policy—Considering the early evidence. New England Journal of Medicine, 361(25), e59. doi:10.1056/NEJMe0908224

Nevitt, D. A. (1977). Demand and need. In H. Heisler (Ed.), Foundations of social administration. London: Macmillan. Pp. 113–128.

New York State Department of Health. (2008). New York State Department of Health pandemic influenza plan. Retrieved from https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/influenza/pandemic/

Ngo-Metzger, Q., Sorkin, D., Billimek, J., Greenfield, S., & Kaplan, S. (2012). The effects of financial pressures on adherence and glucose control among racial/ethnically diverse patients with diabetes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27(4), 432–437. doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1910-7

Nguyen, G. C., LaVeist, T. A., Harris, M. L., Datta, L. W., Bayless, T. M., & Brant, S. R. (2009). Patient trust-in-physician and race are predictors of adherence to medical management in inflammatory bowel disease. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 15(8), 1233–1239. doi:10.1002/ibd.20883

Niederdeppe, J., Byrne, S., Avery, R., & Cantor, J. (2013). Direct-to-consumer television advertising exposure, diagnosis with high cholesterol, and statin use. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(7), 886–893. doi:10.1007/s11606-013-2379-3

Nikles, C. J., Clavarino, A. M., & Del Mar, C. B. (2005). Using n-of-1 trials as a clinical tool to improve prescribing. British Journal of General Practice, 55(512), 175–180.

Niu, X., Roche, L. M., Pawlish, K. S., & Henry, K. A. (2013). Cancer survival disparities by health insurance status. Cancer Medicine, 2(3), 403–411. doi:10.1002/cam4.84

Nord, E. (2005). Concerns for the worse off: Fair innings versus severity. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 257–263. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.003

(p.283) Nord, E., & Johansen, R. (2014). Concerns for severity in priority setting in health care: A review of trade-off data in preference studies and implications for societal willingness to pay for a QALY. Health Policy, 116(2–3), 281–288. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.02.009

Nordenfelt, L. (2001). On the goals of medicine, health enhancement and social welfare. Health Care Analysis, 9(1), 15–23. doi:10.1023/A:1011350927112

Norris, S. L., Holmer, H. K., Ogden, L. A., & Burda, B. U. (2011). Conflict of interest in clinical practice guideline development: A systematic review. [Article]. PLoS ONE, 6(10), 1–6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025153

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., et al. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18(1), 36–88. doi:10.1080/10463280701489053

Nunn, R. (2011). Mere anecdote: Evidence and stories in medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17(5), 920–926. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2011.01727.x

Nurgat, Z. A., Craig, W., Campbell, N. C., Bissett, J. D., Cassidy, J., & Nicolson, M. C. (2005). Patient motivations surrounding participation in phase I and phase II clinical trials of cancer chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer, 92(6), 1001–1005.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2000). Women and human development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nussbaum, M. C., & Sen, A. K. (1993). Capability and well-being. In M. C. Nussbaum, & A. K. Sen (Eds.), The quality of life (pp. 30–53). New York/Oxford, UK: Clarenden Press.

Oberlander, J. (2007). Health reform interrupted: The unraveling of the Oregon Health Plan. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Health Affairs, 26(1), w96–w105. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.26.1.w96

Oberlander, J., Marmor, T., & Jacobs, L. (2001). Rationing medical care: Rhetoric and reality in the Oregon Health Plan. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(11), 1583–1587.

Ollendorf, D. A., Migliaccio-Walle, K., Colby, J. A., & Pearson, S. D. (2013). Management options for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A regional perspective on value. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2(3), 261–271.

Ollendorf, D. A., & Pearson, S. D. (2010). An integrated evidence rating to frame comparative effectiveness assessments for decision makers. Medical Care, 48(6), S145–S152.

Ollendorf, D. A., & Pearson, S. D. (2013). Through the looking glass: Making the design and output of economic models useful for setting medical policy. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 3(1), 53–61. doi:10.2217/cer.13.82

Olshansky, S. J., Antonucci, T., Berkman, L., Binstock, R. H., Boersch-Supan, A., Cacioppo, J. T., et al. (2012). Differences in life expectancy due to race and educational differences are widening, and many may not catch up. Health Affairs, 31(8), 1803–1813. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0746

Oostvogels, A., DE WIT, G., Jahn, B., Cassini, A., Colzani, E., DE WAURE, C., et al. (2015). Use of DALYs in economic analyses on interventions for infectious diseases: A systematic review. Epidemiology and infection, 143(09), 1791–1802.

Oprea, T. I., Bauman, J. E., Bologa, C. G., Buranda, T., Chigaev, A., Edwards, B. S., et al. (2011). Drug repurposing from an academic perspective. Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies, 8(3–4), 61–69. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ddstr.2011.10.002

Orr, R. D., & Genesen, L. B. (1997). Requests for “inappropriate” treatment based on religious beliefs. Journal of Medical Ethics, 23(3), 142–147.

Osler, W. (1910). The faith that heals. British Medical Journal, 1(2581), 1470–1472.

(p.284) Osterholm, M. T. (2005). Preparing for the next pandemic. Foreign Affairs, 84(4), 24–37. doi:10.2307/20034418

O’Sullivan, B. P., Orenstein, D. M., & Milla, C. E. (2013). Pricing for orphan drugs: Will the market bear what society cannot? Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(13), 1343–1344. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278129

Owens, D. K. (2011). Improving practice guidelines with patient-specific recommendations. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(9), 638–639. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-9-201105030-00010

Ozar, D. T. (1983). What should count as basic health care? Theoretical Medicine, 4(2), 129–141. doi:10.1007/BF00562886

Paley, W. (2006). Natural theology or evidence of the existence and attributes of the deity, collected from the appearances of nature. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Park, R. E., Fink, A., Brook, R. H., Chassin, M. R., Kahn, K. L., Merrick, N. J., et al. (1986). Physician ratings of appropriate indications for six medical and surgical procedures. American Journal of Public Health, 76(7), 766–772.

Parry, V. (2003). The art of branding a condition. Med Mark Media, 38(5), 43–49.

Patel, R. M., Kandefer, S., Walsh, M. C., Bell, E. F., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., et al. (2015). Causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants from 2000 through 2011. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(4), 331–340. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1403489

Pawlikowski, J. (2007). The history of thinking about miracles in the West. Southern Medical Journal, 100(12), 1229–1235.

Pearson, S. D., & Bach, P. B. (2010). How Medicare could use comparative effectiveness research in deciding on new coverage and reimbursement. Health Affairs, 29(10), 1796–1804. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0623

Peck, B. M., Ubel, P. A., Roter, D. L., Goold, S. D., Asch, D. A., Mstat, A. S. J., et al. (2004). Do unmet expectations for specific tests, referrals, and new medications reduce patients’ satisfaction? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(11), 1080–1087. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30436.x

Peiris, J. S. M., de Jong, M. D., & Guan, Y. (2007). Avian influenza virus (H5N1): A threat to human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 20(2), 243–267. doi:10.1128/cmr.00037-06

Pellegrino, E. D. (1999). The goals and ends of medicine: How are they to be defined? In M. J. Hanson, & D. Callahan (Eds.), The goals of medicine: The forgotten issue in health care reform. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Pellegrino, E. D., & Thomasma, D. C. (1981). A philosophical basis of medical practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pepin, J. (2011). The origins of AIDS. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Perneger, T., & Agoritsas, T. (2011). Doctors and patients’ susceptibility to framing bias: A randomized trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(12), 1411–1417. doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1810-x

Peschel, R. E., & Peschel, E. R. (1988). Medical miracles from a physician-scientist’s viewpoint. Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 31(3), 391–404.

Phelps A. C., Maciejewski, P. K., Nilsson, M., et al. (2009). Religious coping and use of intensive life-prolonging care near death in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(11), 1140–1147. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.341

Phillips, P. S. (2009). Balancing randomized trials with anecdote. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 885–886. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-150-12-200906160-00014

Pickett, J. T., Welch, K., Chiricos, T., & Gertz, M. (2014). Racial crime stereotypes and offender juvenility: Comparing public views about youth-specific and nonyouth-specific sanctions. Race and Justice, 4(4), 381–405. doi:10.1177/2153368714542007

(p.285) Pilon, R. (1995). Liberty, responsibility, and philanthropy: Individual responsibility in a free society. Contemporary Philosophy(Boulder), 17, 9–24.

Pinsky, P. F., Gierada, D. S., Nath, P. H., Kazerooni, E., & Amorosa, J. (2013). National lung screening trial: Variability in nodule detection rates in chest CT studies. Radiology, 268(3), 865–873. doi:10.1148/radiol.13121530

Pittler, M., Mavergames, C., Ernst, E., & Antes, G. (2011). Evidence-based medicine and Web 2.0: Friend or foe? British Journal of General Practice, 61(585), 302–303. doi:10.3399/bjgp11X567342

Politi, M. C., Clark, M. A., Ombao, H., Dizon, D., & Elwyn, G. (2011). Communicating uncertainty can lead to less decision satisfaction: A necessary cost of involving patients in shared decision making? Health Expectations, 14(1), 84–91. doi:10.1111/j.1369-7625.2010.00626.x

Politi, M. C., Han, P. K. J., & Col, N. F. (2007). Communicating the uncertainty of harms and benefits of medical interventions. Medical Decision Making, 27(5), 681–695. doi:10.1177/0272989x07307270

Pont, S. J., Robbins, J. M., Bird, T. M., Gibson, J. B., Cleves, M. A., Tilford, J. M., et al. (2006). Congenital malformations among liveborn infants with trisomies 18 and 13. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 140A(16), 1749–1756. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31382

Powers, B. J., Trinh, J. V., & Bosworth, H. B. (2010). Can this patient read and understand written health information? Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(1), 76–84. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.896

Powers, B. W., Navathe, A. S., Aung, K.-K., & Jaim, S. (2013). Patients as customers: Applying service industry lessons to health care. Healthcare, 1(3–4), 59–60.

Preda, A., & Voigt, K. (2015). The social determinants of health: Why should we care? The American Journal of Bioethics, 15(3), 25–36. doi:10.1080/15265161.2014.998374

Proctor, R. (2011). Golden holocaust: Origins of the cigarette catastrophe and the case for abolition. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Pronovost, P. J. (2013). Enhancing physicians’ use of clinical guidelines. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(23), 2501–2502. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281334

Qaseem, A., Forland, F., Macbeth, F., Ollenschläger, G., Phillips, S., & van der Wees, P. (2012). Guidelines International Network: Toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(7), 525–531. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-7-201204030-00009

Quadagno, J. (2011). Interest-group influence on the patient protection and affordability act of 2010: Winners and losers in the health care reform debate. Journal of Health, Politics, and Policy Law, 36(3), 449–453.

Quale, A. J., & Schanke, A.-K. (2010). Resilience in the face of coping with a severe physical injury: A study of trajectories of adjustment in a rehabilitation setting. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55(1), 12–22. doi:10.1037/a0018415

Quigley, M., & Harris, J. (2008). Personal or public health? In M. Boylan (Ed.), International public health policy and ethics: Vol. 42, International library of ethics, law, and the new medicine (pp. 15–29). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Quill, T. E. (1993). Uncertainty and control: Learning to live with medicine’s limitations. Humane medicine, 9(2), 109–120.

Rabkin, J. (2012). American exceptionalism and the healthcare reform debate. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 35, 153–170.

Rahma, O. E., Duffy, A., Liewehr, D. J., Steinberg, S. M., & Greten, T. F. (2013). Second-line treatment in advanced pancreatic cancer: A comprehensive analysis of published clinical trials. Annals of Oncology, 24(8), 1972–1979. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdt166

(p.286) Rakowski, E. (1991). Equal justice. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Ransohoff, D. F., Pignone, M., & Sox, H. C. (2013). How to decide whether a clinical practice guideline is trustworthy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 309(2), 139–140. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.156703

Rao, G., & Kanter, S. L. (2010). Physician numeracy as the basis for an evidence-based medicine curriculum. Academic Medicine, 85(11), 1794–1799.

Ratcliffe, J. (2000). Public preferences for the allocation of donor liver grafts for transplantation. Health Economics, 9(2), 137–148.

Rawlins, M. D., & Culyer, A. J. (2004). National Institute for Clinical Excellence and its value judgments. BMJ, 329(7459), 224.

Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice (revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Belknap (Harvard University Press).

Rayner, J.-A., Pyett, P., & Astbury, J. (2010). The medicalisation of “tall” girls: A discourse analysis of medical literature on the use of synthetic oestrogen to reduce female height. Social Science & Medicine, 71(6), 1076–1083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.06.026

Reddy, S. R., Ross-Degnan, D., Zaslavsky, A. M., Soumerai, S. B., & Wharam, J. F. (2014). Impact of a high-deductible health plan on outpatient visits and associated diagnostic tests. Medical Care, 52(1), 86–92. doi:10.1097/mlr.0000000000000008

Redelmeier, D. A., Koehler, D. J., Liberman, V., & Tversky, A. (1995). Probability judgment in medicine: Discounting unspecified possibilities. Medical Decision Making, 15(3), 227–230. doi:10.1177/0272989x9501500305

Redelmeier, D. A., & Shafir, E. (1995). Medical decision making in situations that offer multiple alternatives. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(4), 302–305. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520280048038

Redelmeier, D. A., & Tversky, A. (1990). Discrepancy between medical decisions for individual patients and for groups. New England Journal of Medicine, 322(16), 1162–1164 doi:10.1056/NEJM199004193221620

Redman, E. (2001). The dance of legislation: An insider’s account of the workings of the United States Senate. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Reese, P. P., Caplan, A. L., Bloom, R. D., Abt, P. L., & Karlawish, J. H. (2010). How should we use age to ration health care? Lessons from the case of kidney transplantation. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(10), 1980–1986. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03031.x

Reimers, D. M. (1998). Unwelcome strangers: American identity and the turn against immigration. New York: Columbia University Press.

Resnic, F. S., & Normand, S.-L. T. (2012). Postmarketing surveillance of medical devices: Filling in the gaps. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(10), 875–877. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1114865

Resnick, D. (2003). The Jesica Santillan tragedy: Lessons learned. Hastings Center Report, 33(4), 15–20. doi:10.2307/3528375

Rettig, R. A., Jacobson, P. D., Farquhar, C. M., & Aubry, W. M. (2007). False hope. Bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer. New York: Oxford University Press.

Reyna, V. F. (2008). A theory of medical decision making and health: Fuzzy trace theory. Medical Decision Making. doi:10.1177/0272989x08327066

Reynolds, P. P. (1997). Hospitals and civil rights, 1945–1963: The case of Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126(11), 898–906. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-126-11-199706010-00009

(p.287) Rice, C. M., & Saeed, M. (2014). Hepatitis C: Treatment triumphs. Nature, 510(7503), 43–44.

Riley, G. F., & Lubitz, J. D. (2010). Long-term trends in Medicare payments in the last year of life. Health Services Research, 45(2), 565–576. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01082.x

Risinger, C. F. (2003). Encouraging students to participate in the political process. Social Education, 67(6), 338–339.

Ritsinger, V., Malmberg, K., Mårtensson, A., Rydén, L., Wedel, H., & Norhammar, A. (2014). Intensified insulin-based glycaemic control after myocardial infarction: Mortality during 20 year follow-up of the randomised Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI 1) trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2(8), 627–633.

Rivers, T. J. (2008). Technology’s role in the confusion of needs and wants. Technology in Society, 30(1), 104–109.

Robertson, C., Rose, S., & Kesselheim, A. S. (2012). Effect of financial relationships on the behaviors of health care professionals: A review of the evidence. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 40(3), 452–466. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2012.00678.x

Robinson, R. (1993). Cost-effectiveness analysis. BMJ, 307(6907), 793–795. doi:10.1136/bmj.307.6907.793

Roehrig, C., Turner, A., Hughes-Cromwick, P., & Miller, G. (2012). When the cost curve bent: Pre-recession moderation in health care spending. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(7), 590–593. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1205958

Rombach, S., Dijkgraaf, M., Linthorst, G., & Hollak, C. (2012). Cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 105(2), 5.

Rosoff, P. M. (2012). Unpredictable drug shortages: An ethical framework for short-term rationing in hospitals. American Journal of Bioethics, 12(1), 1–9.

Rosoff, P. M. (2014). Rationing is not a four-letter word: Setting limits on healthcare. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rosoff, P. M., & Coleman, D. L. (2011). The case for legal regulation of physicians’ off-label prescribing. Notre Dame Law Review, 86(2), 649–691.

Rosoff, P. M., Patel, K. R., Scates, A., Rhea, G., Bush, P. W., & Govert, J. A. (2012). Coping with critical drug shortages: An ethical approach for allocating scarce resources in hospitals. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(19), 1494–1499. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.4367

Rothman, R. L., Housam, R., Weiss, H., Davis, D., Gregory, R., Gebretsadik, T., et al. (2006). Patient understanding of food labels: The role of literacy and numeracy. American journal of preventive medicine, 31(5), 391–398.

Rothwell, P. M. (2007). Treating individuals: From randomised trials to personalised medicine. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Rothwell, P. M., McDowell, Z., Wong, C. K., & Dorman, P. J. (1997). Doctors and patients don’t agree: Cross sectional study of patients’ and doctors’ perceptions and assessments of disability in multiple sclerosis. BMJ, 314, 1580–1583.

Rowley, D. L., & Hogan, V. (2012). Disparities in infant mortality and effective, equitable care: Are infants suffering from benign neglect? Annual Review of Public Health, 33(1), 75–87. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031811-124542

Ryle, J. A. (1961). The meaning of normal. In B. Lush (Ed.), Concepts of medicine: A collection of essays on aspects of medicine (pp. 137–149). New York: Pergamon.

Ryu, A. J., Gibson, T. B., McKellar, M. R., & Chernew, M. E. (2013). The slowdown in health care spending in 2009–11 reflected factors other than the weak economy and thus may persist. Health Affairs, 32(5), 835–840. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1297

(p.288) Sabbatini, A. K., Tilburt, J. C., Campbell, E. G., Sheeler, R. D., Egginton, J. S., & Goold, S. D. (2014). Controlling health costs: Physician responses to patient expectations for medical care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(9), 1234–1241.

Sadegh-Zadeh, K. (2000). Fuzzy health, illness, and disease. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 25(5), 605–638.

Safranek, T. J., Lawrence, D. N., Kuriand, L. T., Culver, D. H., Wiederholt, W. C., Hayner, N. S., et al. (1991). Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barré Syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976–1977: Results of a two-state study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 133(9), 940–951.

Sandel, M. J. (2012). What money can’t buy. The moral limits of markets. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Sanmartin, C., Murphy, K., Choptain, N., Conner-Spady, B., McLaren, L., Bohm, E., et al. (2008). Appropriateness of healthcare interventions: Concepts and scoping of the published literature. Int J Technol Assess Health Care, 24(03), 342–349.

Santiago-Delpin, E. A. (2003). Ethical dilemmas: Transplantation in prisoners and the mentally disabled. Transplant Proc, 35(5), 2057–2059.

Saran, R., Li, Y., Robinson, B., Ayanian, J., Balkrishnan, R., Bragg-Gresham, J., et al. (2015). US Renal Data System 2014 annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 65(6 Suppl. 1), A7.

Sarkar, R. R., & Banerjee, S. (2005). Cancer self remission and tumor stability—a stochastic approach. Mathematical Biosciences, 196(1), 65–81. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2005.04.001

Sassi, F. (2006). Calculating QALYs, comparing QALY and DALY calculations. Health policy and planning, 21(5), 402–408.

Satz, D. (2010). Why some things should not be for sale: The moral limits of markets. New York: Oxford University Press.

Saul, S. (2008, August 30). Government gets hooked on tobacco tax billions. New York Times. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/31/weekinreview/31saul.html?_r=0.

Savage, M. O., Burren, C. P., & Rosenfeld, R. G. (2010). The continuum of growth hormone–IGF-I axis defects causing short stature: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(6), 721–728.

Savulescu, J. (1998). Two worlds apart: Religion and ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics, 24(6), 382–384. doi:10.1136/jme.24.6.382

Savulescu, J., & Clarke, S. (2007). Waiting for a miracle … miracles, miraclism, and discrimination. Southern Medical Journal, 100(12), 1259–1262.

Schelling, T. C. (1968). The life you save may be your own. In I. Brookings, & S. B. Chase (Eds.), Problems in public expenditure analysis: Papers presented at a conference of experts held Sept. 15–16, 1966 (pp. 127–162). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Schenker, Y., Arnold, R. M., & London, A. J. (2014). The ethics of advertising for health care services. The American Journal of Bioethics, 14(3), 34–43. doi:10.1080/15265161.2013.879943

Schleifer, D., & Rothman, D. J. (2012). “The ultimate decision is yours”: Exploring patients’ attitudes about the overuse of medical interventions. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e52552.

Schneider, K. M., O’Donnell, B. E., & Dean, D. (2009). Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States’ Medicare population. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 7(82), 82.

Schneiderman, L. J., & Jecker, N. S. (1996). Should a criminal receive a heart transplant? Medical justice vs. societal justice. Theorerical Medicine, 17(1), 33–44.

(p.289) Schneiderman, L. J., & Jecker, N. S. (2011). Wrong medicine: Doctors, patients, and futile treatment (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Schneiderman, L. J., Jecker, N. S., & Jonsen, A. R. (1990). Medical futility: Its meaning and ethical implications. Annals of Internal Medicine, 112(12), 949–954. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-112-12-949

Schneiderman, L. J., Jecker, N. S., & Jonsen, A. R. (1996). Medical futility: Response to critiques. Annals of Internal Medicine, 125(8), 669–674. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00007

Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M. M., Pierson, R., & Applebaum, S. (2010). How health insurance design affects access to care and costs, by income, in eleven countries. Health Affairs, 29(12), 2323–2334. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0862

Schoening, W. N., Buescher, N., Rademacher, S., Andreou, A., Kuehn, S., Neuhaus, R., et al. (2013). Twenty-year longitudinal follow-up after orthotopic liver transplantation: A single-center experience of 313 consecutive cases. American Journal of Transplantation, 13(9), 2384–2394. doi:10.1111/ajt.12384

Scholes, S., Bajekal, M., Love, H., Hawkins, N., Raine, R., O’Flaherty, M., et al. (2012). Persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in England over 1994–2008: A time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 129.

Schöne-Seifert, B. (2009). The “rule of rescue”in medical priority setting: Ethical plausibilities and implausibilities. Rationality, Markets and Morals 0, 421–430.

Schrag, P. (2010). Not fit for our society: Immigration and nativism in America. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Schroeder, S. A., & Frist, W. (2013). Phasing out fee-for-service payment. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(21), 2029–2032. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1302322

Schroeder-Lein, G. R. (2008). The encyclopedia of Civil War medicine. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Schultheiss, C. (2002). A note on the semantics of rationing as limitation. In F. Breyer, H. Kliemt, & F. Thiele (Eds.), Rationing in medicine: Ethical, legal and practical aspects (pp. 21–29). Berlin/New York: Springer.

Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., Black, W. C., & Welch, H. G. (1997). The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(11), 966–972.

Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., & Welch, H. (2011). Not so silver lining. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(6), 489–490. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.73

Scofea, L. A. (1994). The development and growth of employer-provided health insurance. Monthly Labor Review, 117(3), 3.

Scott, S. A., Sangkuhl, K., Stein, C. M., Hulot, J. S., Mega, J. L., Roden, D. M., et al. (2013). Clinical pharmacogenetics implementation consortium guidelines for CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 update. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 94(3), 317–323. doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.105

Secunda, K., Gordon, E. J., Sohn, M. W., Shinkunas, L. A., Kaldjian, L. C., Voigt, M. D., et al. (2012). A national survey of provider opinions on controversial characteristics of liver transplant candidates. Liver Transplantation. 19 (4), 395–403. doi:10.1002/lt.23581

Seely, A. J. (2013). Embracing the certainty of uncertainty: Implications for health care and research. Perspect Biol Med, 56(1), 65–77.

Segall, S. (2007). In solidarity with the imprudent: a defense of luck egalitarianism. Social Theory and Practice, 33(2), 177–198.

(p.290) Segev, D. L. (2009). Evaluating options for utility-based kidney allocation. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(7), 1513–1518. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02667.x

Sen, A. (2002). Why health equity? Health Economics, 11(8), 659–666. doi:10.1002/hec.762

Sen, A. (2005). Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development, 6(2), 151–166. doi:10.1080/14649880500120491

Sen, A. (2009). The idea of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap (Harvard University Press).

Sendi, P., & Al, M. J. (2003). Revisiting the decision rule of cost–effectiveness analysis under certainty and uncertainty. Social Science & Medicine, 57(6), 969–974. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00477-X

Shafrin, J. (2010). Operating on commission: Analyzing how physician financial incentives affect surgery rates (Comparative Study). Health Economics, 19(5), 562–580. doi:10.1002/hec.1495

Shah, K. K., Cookson, R., Culyer, A. J., & Littlejohns, P. (2013). NICE’s social value judgements about equity in health and health care. Health Economics, Policy and Law, 8(02), 145–165.

Sharis, P. J., Cannon, C. P., & Loscalzo, J. (1998). The antiplatelet effects of Ticlopidine and Clopidogrel. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129(5), 394–405. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-129-5-199809010-00009

Sharpe, V. A. (1997). The politics, economics, and ethics of “appropriateness.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 7(4), 337–343.

Sheaff, W. (2002). The need for health care. London: Routledge.

Sheehan, M. (2007). Resources and the rule of rescue. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24(4), 352–366. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5930.2007.00383.x

Shekelle, P. (2004). The appropriateness method. Medical Decision Making, 24(2), 228–231.

Shekelle, P., Woolf, S., Grimshaw, J. M., Schünemann, H. J., & Eccles, M. P. (2012). Developing clinical practice guidelines: Reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development. Implementation Science, 7(1), 62.

Shekelle, P. G. (2014). Updating practice guidelines. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(20), 2072–2073. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.4950

Shekelle, P. G., Kravitz, R. L., Beart, J., Marger, M., Wang, M., & Lee, M. (2000). Are nonspecific practice guidelines potentially harmful? A randomized comparison of the effect of nonspecific versus specific guidelines on physician decision making. Health Services Research, 34(7), 1429.

Shekelle, P. G., & Schriger, D. L. (1996). Evaluating the use of the appropriateness method in the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guideline Development process. Health Services Research, 31(4), 453.

Shermer, M. (2004). Miracle on probability street. Scientific American, 291, 32.

Shinall, M. C., Ehrenfeld, J. M., & Guillamondegui, O. D. (2014). Religiously affiliated intensive care unit patients receive more aggressive end-of-life care. Journal of Surgical Research, 190(2), 623–627.

Shinall, M. C., Jr. (2014). Fighting for dear life: Christians and aggressive end-of-life care. Perspectives in Biological Medicine, 57(3), 329–340.

Shinall, M. C., Jr., & Guillamondegui, O. D. (2015). Effect of religion on end-of-life care among trauma patients. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(3), 977–983.

Shipman, S. A., & Sinsky, C. A. (2013). Expanding primary care capacity by reducing waste and improving the efficiency of care. Health Affairs, 32(11), 1990–1997.

(p.291) Simoens, S., Picavet, E., Dooms, M., Cassiman, D., & Morel, T. (2013). Cost-effectiveness assessment of orphan drugs. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 11(1), 1–3.

Simoni, R. D., Hill, R. L., & Vaughan, M. (2002). The discovery of insulin: The work of Frederick Banting and Charles Best. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277(26), e15.

Sinclair, D., Isba, R., Kredo, T., Zani, B., Smith, H., & Garner, P. (2013). World Health Organization guideline development: An evaluation. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e63715.

Singal, A. K., Guturu, P., Hmoud, B., Kuo, Y.-F., Salameh, H., & Wiesner, R. H. (2013). Evolving frequency and outcomes of liver transplantation based on etiology of liver disease. Transplantation, 95(5), 755–760.

Singer, S., & Bergthold, L. (2001). Cosmetic vs reconstructive surgery for cleft palate: A window into the medical necessity debate. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(17), 2162–2162. doi:10.1001/jama.286.17.2162-JMS1107-6-1

Singh, H., Giardina, T., Meyer, A. D., Forjuoh, S. N., Reis, M. D., & Thomas, E. J. (2013). Types and origins of diagnostic errors in primary care settings. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(6), 418–425. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2777

Singh, J., Fanaroff, J., Andrews, B., Caldarelli, L., Lagatta, J., Plesha-Troyke, S., et al. (2007). Resuscitation in the “gray zone” of viability: Determining physician preferences and predicting infant outcomes. Pediatrics, 120(3), 519–526. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2966

Singh, T. P., Naftel, D. C., Addonizio, L., Mahle, W., Foushee, M. T., Zangwill, S., et al. (2010). Association of race and socioeconomic position with outcomes in pediatric heart transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation, 10(9), 2116–2123. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03241.x

Sirovich, B., Gallagher, P. M., Wennberg, D. E., & Fisher, E. S. (2008). Discretionary decision making by primary care physicians and the cost of U.S. health care. Health Affairs, 27(3), 813–823, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.813.

Skirbekk, H., & Nortvedt, P. (2012). Inadequate treatment for elderly patients: Professional norms and tight budgets could cause “ageism” in hospitals. Health Care Analysis, 22(2), 192–201.

Skocpol, T. (2010). The political challenges that may undermine health reform. Health Affairs, 29(7), 1288–1292.

Skowronski, D., Chambers, C., Sabaiduc, S., De Serres, G., Dickinson, J., Winter, A., et al. (2015). Interim estimates of 2014/15 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A (H3N2) from Canada’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network, January 2015. Euro Surveillance, 20(4), 21022.

Slashinski, M. J., McCurdy, S. A., Achenbaum, L. S., Whitney, S. N., & McGuire, A. L. (2012). “Snake-oil,”“quack medicine,” and “industrially cultured organisms”: Biovalue and the commercialization of human microbiome research. BMC Medical Ethics, 13(1), 28.

Small, D. A., & Verrochi, N. M. (2009). The face of need: Facial emotion expression on charity advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(6), 777–787.

Smith, A. (1969 (1759)). The theory of moral sentiments. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House.

Smith, A. (1994). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. New York: Modern Library.

Smith, A. K., Sudore, R. L., & Pérez-Stable, E. J. (2009). Palliative care for Latino patients and their families: Whenever we prayed, she wept. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(10), 1047–1057. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.308

Smith, T. J. (2013). Commentary: “The Lake Wobegon effect, a natural human tendency to overestimate one’s capabilities” (Wikipedia). Milbank Quarterly, 91(4), 729–737. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12031

(p.292) Smith, T. J., & Hillner, B. E. (2010). Explaining marginal benefits to patients, when “marginal” means additional but not necessarily small. Clinical Cancer Research, 16(24), 5981–5986. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-10-1278

Soares, M. O. (2012). Is the QALY blind, deaf and dumb to equity? NICE’s considerations over equity. British medical bulletin, 101(1), 17–31. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds003

Solanki, D. R., Koyyalagunta, D., Shah, R. V., Silverman, S., & Manchikanti, L. (2011). Monitoring opioid adherence in chronic pain patients: Assessment of risk of substance misuse. Pain Physician, 14(2), E119–E131.

Sondak, V. K., Swetter, S. M., & Berwick, M. A. (2012). Gender disparities in patients with melanoma: Breaking the glass ceiling. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(18), 2177–2178. doi:10.1200/jco.2011.41.3849

Song, Y., Skinner, J., Bynum, J., Sutherland, J., Wennberg, J. E., & Fisher, E. S. (2010). Regional variations in diagnostic practices. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(1), 45–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa0910881

Sorenson, C., & Drummond, M. (2014). Improving medical device regulation: The United States and Europe in perspective. Milbank Quarterly, 92(1), 114–150. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12043

Sorenson, C., Gusmano, M. K., & Oliver, A. (2014). The politics of comparative effectiveness research: Lessons from recent history. Journal of Health, Politics, and Policy Law, 39(1), 139–170. doi:10.1215/03616878-2395199

Sotos, J. F., & Tokar, N. J. (2014). Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: Comparison of subgroups and benefit. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology, 2014(1), 15.

Special Supplement: The goals of medicine: Setting new priorities. (1996). Hastings Center Report, 26(6), S1–S27. doi:10.2307/3528765

Spence, M. M., Teleki, S. S., Cheetham, T. C., Schweitzer, S. O., & Millares, M. (2005). Direct-to-consumer advertising of COX-2 inhibitors: Effect on appropriateness of Prescribing. Medical Care Research and Review, 62(5), 544–559. doi:10.1177/1077558705279314

Spiro, T., Lee, E. O., & Emanuel, E. J. (2012). Price and utilization: Why we must target both to curb health care costs. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(8), 586–590. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-8-201210160-00014

Sponga, S., Travaglini, C., Pisa, F., Piani, D., Guzzi, G., Nalli, C., et al. (2015). Does psychosocial compliance have an impact on long-term outcome after heart transplantation? European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 49(1), 64–72. doi:10.1093/ejcts/ezv120

Squiers, L. B., Holden, D. J., Dolina, S. E., Kim, A. E., Bann, C. M., & Renaud, J. M. (2011). The public’s response to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force’s 2009 recommendations on mammography screening. American journal of preventive medicine, 40(5), 497–504. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.027.

Sreenivasan, G. (2015). HESC and equitable residues. The American Journal of Bioethics, 15(3), 54–55. doi:10.1080/15265161.2014.998388

Stabile, M., Thomson, S., Allin, S., Boyle, S., Busse, R., Chevreul, K., et al. (2013). Health care cost containment strategies used in four other high-income countries hold lessons for the United States. Health Affairs, 32(4), 643–652. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1252

Stahl, J. E., Tramontano, A. C., Swan, J. S., & Cohen, B. J. (2008). Balancing urgency, age and quality of life in organ allocation decisions—what would you do?: A survey. Journal of Medical Ethics, 34(2), 109–115. doi:10.1136/jme.2006.018291

Starfield, B. (2009). Primary care and equity in health: The importance to effectiveness and equity of responsiveness to peoples’ needs. Humanity & Society, 33(1–2), 56–73.

(p.293) Starr, P. (1982). The social transformation of American medicine. New York: Basic Books.

Starr, P. (2011). Remedy and reaction: The peculiar American struggle over health care reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Statistics in medicine. (1950). The British Medical Journal, 1(4644), 68–69. doi:10.2307/25374724

Steiker, C. S., & Steiker, J. M. (2015). The American death penalty and the (in) visibility of race. The University of Chicago Law Review, 82(1), 243–294.

Steinbrook, R., & Lo, B. (2012). Medical journals and conflicts of interest. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 40(3), 488–499. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2012.00681.x

Steiner, J. F. (1999). Talking about treatment: The language of populations and the language of individuals. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130(7), 618–622. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-7-199904060-00029

Stempsey, W. (2015). Hope for health and health care. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 18(1), 41–49. doi:10.1007/s11019-014-9572-y

Stempsey, W. E. (2002). Miracles and the limits of medical knowledge. Medicine and Health Care Philosophy, 5(1), 1–9.

Stern, R. S., & Epstein, A. M. (1985). Institutional responses to prospective payment based on diagnosis-related groups: Implications for cost, quality, and access. New England Journal of Medicine, 312(10), 621–627.

Steven, H. W., & Laudan, A. (Eds.). (2013). U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Stevenson, B. (2014). Just mercy: A story of justice and redemption. New York: Spiegel & Grau.

Stolk, E. A., Brouwer, W. B. F., & Busschbach, J. J. V. (2002). Rationalising rationing: Economic and other considerations in the debate about funding of Viagra. Health Policy, 59(1), 53–63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8510(01)00162-2

Stolk, E. A., Pickee, S. J., Ament, A. H. J. A., & Busschbach, J. J. V. (2005). Equity in health care prioritisation: An empirical inquiry into social value. Health Policy, 74(3), 343–355. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.01.018

Stoll, B. J., Hansen, N. I., Bell, E. F., Shankaran, S., Laptook, A. R., Walsh, M. C., et al. (2010). Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics, 126(3), 443–456. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2959

Strech, D., Synofzik, M., & Marckmann, G. (2008). How physicians allocate scarce resources at the bedside: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 33(1), 80–99.

Struijk, E. A., May, A. M., Beulens, J. W. J., de Wit, G. A., Boer, J. M. A., Onland-Moret, N. C., et al. (2013). Development of methodology for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculation based on real-life data. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e74294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074294

Stuebe, A. M. (2011). Level IV evidence: Adverse anecdote and clinical practice. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(1), 8–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1102632

Sulmasy, D. P. (2007). What is a miracle? Southern Medical Journal, 100(12), 1223–1228.

Sunderman, F. W. (1949). Normal values in clinical medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Sunderman, F. W. (1975). Current concepts of “normal values,” “reference values,” and “discrimination values” in clinical chemistry. Clinical Chemistry, 21(13), 1873–1877.

Szasz, T. S. (1961). The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Harper & Row.

Taffé, P., Burnand, B., Wietlisbach, V., & Vader, J.-P. (2004). Influence of clinical and economical factors on the expert rating of appropriateness of preoperative use of (p.294) recombinant erythropoietin in elective orthopedic surgery patients. Medical Decision Making, 24(2), 122–130. doi:10.1177/0272989x04263153

Taitsman, J. K. (2011). Educating physicians to prevent fraud, waste, and abuse. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(2), 102–103. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1012609

Tamblyn, R., Abrahamowicz, M., Dauphinee, D., Wenghofer, E., Jacques, A., Klass, D., et al. (2007). Physician scores on a national clinical skills examination as predictors of complaints to medical regulatory authorities. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(9), 993–1001. doi:10.1001/jama.298.9.993

Tappero, J. W., & Tauxe, R. V. (2011). Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 2087+.

Taubenberger, J. K., & Morens, D. M. (2006). 1918 influenza: The mother of all pandemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(1), 15–22.

Taubenberger, J. K., Reid, A. H., Lourens, R. M., Wang, R., Jin, G., & Fanning, T. G. (2005). Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature, 437(7060), 889–893. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7060/suppinfo/nature04230_S1.html

Tavaglione, N., & Hurst, S. A. (2012). Why physicians ought to lie for their patients. The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(3), 4–12. doi:10.1080/15265161.2011.652797

Tenner, E. (1996). Why things bite back: Technology and the revenge of unintended consequences. New York: Knopf.

Thom, D. H., & Campbell, B. (1997). Patient-physician trust: An exploratory study. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Journal of Family Practice, 44(2), 169–176.

Thomas, W. J. (1995–1996). The Clinton health care reform plan: a failed dramatic presentation. Stanford Law and Policy Review, 7, 83–105.

Thomasson, M. A. (2002). From Sickness to Health: The Twentieth-Century Development of U.S. Health Insurance. Explorations in Economic History, 39(3), 233–253, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exeh.2002.0788.

Thomson, G. (2005). Fundamental needs. In S. Reader (Ed.), The philosophy of needs (pp. 175–186). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thomson, G. E. (1997). Discrimination in health care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126(11), 910–912. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-126-11-199706010-00011

Thorpe, K. E., & Philyaw, M. (2012). The medicalization of chronic disease and costs. Annual Review of Public Health, 33, 409–423.

Tibau, A., Bedard, P. L., Srikanthan, A., Ethier, J.-L., Vera-Badillo, F. E., Templeton, A. J., et al. (2015). Author financial conflicts of interest, industry funding, and clinical practice guidelines for anticancer drugs. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(1), 100–106. doi:10.1200/jco.2014.57.8898

Tilburt, J. C, & Cassel, C. K. (2013). Why the ethics of parsimonious medicine is not the ethics of rationing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 309(8), 773–774. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.368

Tilburt, J. C., Wynia, M. K., Sheeler, R. D., & et al. (2013). VIews of us physicians about controlling health care costs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(4), 380–388. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.8278

Tomlinson, T., & Brody, H. (1990). Futility and the ethics of resuscitation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264(10), 1276–1280. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450100066027

Tong, A., Howard, K., Jan, S., Cass, A., Rose, J., Chadban, S., et al. (2010). Community preferences for the allocation of solid organs for transplantation: A systematic (p.295) review. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Review]. Transplantation, 89(7), 796–805. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181cf1ee1

Tong, A., Jan, S., Wong, G., Craig, J. C., Irving, M., Chadban, S., et al. (2013). Rationing scarce organs for transplantation: Healthcare provider perspectives on wait-listing and organ allocation. Clinical transplantation, 27(1), 60–71. doi:10.1111/ctr.12004

Torrance, G. W. (1987). Utility approach to measuring health-related quality of life. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 40(6), 593–600. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(87)90019-1

Tsai, T. C., Orav, E. J., & Jha, A. K. (2015). Patient satisfaction and quality of surgical care in US hospitals. Annals of Surgery, 261(1), 2–8. doi:10.1097/sla.0000000000000765

Tsuchiya, A. (1999). Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits. Social Science & Medicine, 48(2), 267–276. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00343-8

Tsuchiya, A. (2000). QALYs and ageism: Philosophical theories and age weighting. Health Economics, 9(1), 57–68. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(200001)9:1<57:AID-HEC484>3.0.CO;2-N

Tsuchiya, A., Dolan, P., & Shaw, R. (2003). Measuring people’s preferences regarding ageism in health: Some methodological issues and some fresh evidence. Social Science & Medicine, 57(4), 687–696. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)00418-5

Tsuchiya, A., Miguel, L. S., Edlin, R., Wailoo, A., & Dolan, P. (2005). Procedural justice in public health care resource allocation. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 4(2), 119–127.

Turpcu, A., Bleichrodt, H., Le, Q. A., & Doctor, J. N. (2012). How to aggregate health? Separability and the effect of framing. Medical Decision Making, 32(2), 259–265. doi:10.1177/0272989x11418521

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), 207–232. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(73)90033-9

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211(4481), 453–458.

Twight, C. (2002). Dependent on D.C.: The rise of federal control over the lives of ordinary Americans. New York: Palgrave for St. Martin’s Press.

Ubel, P. A., & Arnold, R. M. (1995). The unbearable rightness of bedside rationing: Physician duties in a climate of cost containment. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155(17), 1837–1842.

Ubel, P. A., Arnold, R. M., & Caplan, A. L. (1993). Rationing failure: The ethical lessons of the retransplantation of scarce vital organs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270(20), 2469–2474. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03510200075035

Ubel, P. A., & Goold, S. (1997). Recognizing bedside rationing: Clear cases and tough calls. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126(1), 74–80.

Ubel, P. A., & Loewenstein, G. (1996a). Distributing scarce livers: The moral reasoning of the general public. Social Science & Medicine, 42(7), 1049–1055. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(95)00216-2

Ubel, P. A., & Loewenstein, G. (1996b). Public perceptions of the importance of prognosis in allocating transplantable livers to children. Medical Decision Making, 16(3), 234–241. doi:10.1177/0272989x9601600307

(p.296) Ubel, P. A., Nord, E., Marthe, G., Menzel, P., Prades, J.-L. P., & Richardson, J. (2000). Improving value measurement in cost-effectiveness analysis. Medical Care, 38(9), 892–901. doi:10.2307/3766898

Ulmer, C., Ball, J., McGlynn, E., & Hamdounia, S. B. (2012). Essential health benefits: Balancing coverage and cost. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Ulmer, C., McFadden, B., & Cacace, C. (2012). Perspectives on essential health benefits (Workshop report). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for breast cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement (2009). Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(10), 716–726. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-151-10-200911170-00008

van Dijk, C. E., van den Berg, B., Verheij, R. A., Spreeuwenberg, P., Groenewegen, P. P., & de Bakker, D. H. (2013). Moral hazard and supplier-induced demand: Empirical evidence in general practice. Health Economics, 22(3), 340–352. doi:10.1002/hec.2801

Vandvik, P. O., Brandt, L., Alonso-Coello, P., Treweek, S., Akl, E. A., Kristiansen, A., et al. (2013). Creating clinical practice guidelines we can trust, use, and share: A new era is imminent. CHEST Journal, 144(2), 381–389. doi:10.1378/chest.13-0746

Vater, L. B., Donohue, J. M., Arnold, R., White, D. B., Chu, E., & Schenker, Y. (2014). What are cancer centers advertising to the public?A content analysis of cancer center advertisements. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(12), 813–820. doi:10.7326/M14-0500

Verdin, E., & Ott, M. (2015). 50 years of protein acetylation: From gene regulation to epigenetics, metabolism and beyond. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 16(4), 258–264. doi:10.1038/nrm3931

Vesely, M. D., Kershaw, M. H., Schreiber, R. D., & Smyth, M. J. (2011). Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer. Annual Review of Immunology, 29(1), 235–271. doi:10.1146/annurev-immunol-031210-101324

Vidal, M., Chan, D. W., Gerstein, M., Mann, M., Omenn, G. S., Tagle, D., et al. (2012). The human proteome: A scientific opportunity for transforming diagnostics, therapeutics, and healthcare. Clinical Proteomics, 9(1), 6.

Villanueva, M. T. (2015). Epigenetics: Chromatin marks the spot. Nature Reviews Cancer, 15(4), 196–197.

Vogeli, C., Shields, A. E., Lee, T. A., Gibson, T. B., Marder, W. D., Weiss, K. B., et al. (2007). Multiple chronic conditions: Prevalence, health consequences, and implications for quality, care management, and costs. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(3), 391–395.

Volk, R. J., & Wolf, A. D. (2011). Grading the new us preventive services task force prostate cancer screening recommendation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(24), 2715–2716. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1893

Volpp, K. G., Loewenstein, G., & Asch, D. A. (2012). Choosing wisely: Low-value services, utilization, and patient cost sharing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(16), 1635–1636. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.13616

Vos, T., Barber, R. M., Bell, B., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Biryukov, S., Bolliger, I., et al. (2015). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, 386(9995), 743–800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4

Vranic, G. M., Ma, J. Z., & Keith, D. S. (2014). The role of minority geographic distribution in waiting time for deceased donor kidney transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 14(11), 2526–2534. doi:10.1111/ajt.12860

(p.297) Wailoo, A., & Anand, P. (2005). The nature of procedural preferences for health-care rationing decisions. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 223–236. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.036

Wailoo, K., Livingston, J., & Guarnaccia, P. (Eds.). (2006). A death retold. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Ward, A. (2007). Needs, medical necessity, and the problem of helping the uninsured. Theoria, 54(112), 73–98.

Ward, A., & Johnson, P. (2013). Necessary health care and basic needs: Health insurance plans and essential benefits. Health Care Analysis, 21(4), 355–371. doi:10.1007/s10728-011-0197-5

Ward, B. W., & Schiller, J. S. (2013). Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions among US adults: Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E65. doi:10.5888/pcd10.120203

Wastfelt, M., Fadeel, B., & Henter, J. I. (2006). A journey of hope: Lessons learned from studies on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Journal of Internal Medicine, 260(1), 1–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01666.x

Wegwarth, O., Gaissmaier, W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2011). Deceiving numbers: Survival rates and their impact on doctors’ risk communication. Medical Decision Making, 31(3), 386–394, doi:10.1177/0272989x10391469.

Wegwarth, O., Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., Gaissmaier, W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2012). Do physicians understand cancer screening statistics? A national survey of primary care physicians in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(5), 340–349. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-5-201203060-00005

Weinstein, M., C. (2008). How much are americans willing to pay for a quality-adjusted life year? Medical Care, 46(4), 343–345. doi:10.2307/40221666

Weinstein, M. C., & Stason, W. B. (1977). Foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis for health and medical practices. New England Journal of Medicine, 296(13), 716–721. doi:10.1056/NEJM197703312961304

Welch, H., Sharp, S. M., Gottlieb, D. J., Skinner, J. S., & Wennberg, J. E. (2011). Geographic variation in diagnosis frequency and risk of death among medicare beneficiaries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 305(11), 1113–1118. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.307

Welch, H. G. (2011). Overdiagnosed: Making people sick in the pursuit of health. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Welch, H. G., & Black, W. C. (2010). Overdiagnosis in cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 102(9), 605–613. doi:10.1093/jnci/djq099

Wells, R. E., & Kaptchuk, T. J. (2012). To tell the truth, the whole truth, may do patients harm: The problem of the nocebo effect for informed consent. The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(3), 22–29. doi:10.1080/15265161.2011.652798

Wells, S. A. (2009). Health disparities in kidney transplantation: An equity analysis. J. Health Disparitiers Research and Practice, 3(2), 1–12.

Wennberg, J. E. (2002). Unwarranted variations in healthcare delivery: Implications for academic medical centres. British Medical Journal, 325(7370), 961.

Werner, R. M., Alexander, G. C., Fagerlin, A., & Ubel, P. A. (2004). Lying to insurance companies: The desire to deceive among physicians and the public. The American Journal of Bioethics, 4(4), 53–59. doi:10.1080/15265160490518566

Whitehead, S. J., & Ali, S. (2010). Health outcomes in economic evaluation: The QALY and utilities. British medical bulletin, 96(1), 5–21. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldq033

(p.298) Whitmarsh, T. (2015). Battling the gods: Atheism in the ancient world. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Whitty, J. A., & Littlejohns, P. (2014). Social values and health priority setting in Australia: An analysis applied to the context of health technology assessment. Health Policy. 119 (2), 127–136. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.09.003

Widera, E. W., Rosenfeld, K. E., Fromme, E. K., Sulmasy, D. P., & Arnold, R. M. (2011). Approaching patients and family members who hope for a miracle. J Pain Symptom Manage, 42(1), 119–125. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.03.008

Wiechers, I. R., Perin, N. C., & Cook-Deegan, R. (2013). The emergence of commercial genomics: Analysis of the rise of a biotechnology subsector during the Human Genome Project, 1990 to 2004. Genome Medicine, 5(9), 83.

Wiesner, R., Edwards, E., Freeman, R., Harper, A., Kim, R., Kamath, P., et al. (2003). Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and allocation of donor livers. Gastroenterology, 124(1), 91–96. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2003.50016

Wiggins, D. (1998). Needs, values, truth: Essays in the philosophy of value (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Wiggins, D., & Dermen, S. (1987). Needs, need, needing. Journal of Medical Ethics, 13(2), 62–68. doi:10.2307/27716574

Wille, K. M., Harrington, K. F., deAndrade, J. A., Vishin, S., Oster, R. A., & Kaslow, R. A. (2013). Disparities in lung transplantation before and after introduction of the lung allocation score. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 32(7), 684–692. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2013.03.005

Williams, A. (1997). Intergenerational equity: An exploration of the “fair innings” argument. Health Economics, 6(2), 117–132. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-1050(199703)6:2<117:Aid-hec256>3.0.co;2-b

Williams, A. W. (2015). Health policy, disparities, and the kidney. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 22(1), 54–59. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2014.06.002

Williams, W. W., Cherikh, W. S., Young, C. J., Fan, P. Y., Cheng, Y., Distant, D. A., et al. (2015). First report on the OPTN national variance: Allocation of A2/A2B deceased donor kidneys to blood group B increases minority transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 15(12), 3134–3142. doi:10.1111/ajt.13409

Wilmot, S., & Ratcliffe, J. (2002). Principles of distributive justice used by members of the general public in the allocation of donor liver grafts for transplantation: A qualitative study. Health Expectations, 5(3), 199–209. doi:10.1046/j.1369-6513.2002.00176.x

Wish, D., Johnson, D., & Wish, J. (2014). Rebasing the Medicare payment for dialysis: Rationale, challenges, and opportunities. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 9(12), 2195–2202. doi:10.2215/cjn.03830414

Wolf, J. H., & Wolf, K. S. (2013). The Lake Wobegon effect: Are all cancer patients above average? Milbank Quarterly, 91(4), 690–728. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12030

Wolfe, B., Del Rio, E., Weiss, S., Mendelson, A., Elbaga, T., Huser, F., et al. (2001). Validation of a single-patient drug trial methodology for personalized management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 8(6), 459–468.

Woloshin, S., & Schwartz, L. M. (2006). Giving legs to restless legs: A case study of how the media helps make people sick. PLoS Med, 3(4), e170.

Woloshin, S., & Schwartz, L. M. (2011). Communicating data about the benefits and harms of treatment: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(2), 87–96. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-155-2-201107190-00004

(p.299) Wong, D. A., Bishop, G. A., Lowes, M. A., Cooke, B., Barnetson, R. S. C., & Halliday, G. M. (2000). Cytokine profiles in spontaneously regressing basal cell carcinomas. British Journal of Dermatology, 143(1), 91–98. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03596.x

Wong, S. S., & Yuen, K. Y. (2006). Avian influenza virus infections in humans. Chest, 129(1), 156–168.

Woolf, S. H. (2012). The price of false beliefs: Unrealistic expectations as a contributor to the health care crisis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 10(6), 491–494. doi:10.1370/afm.1452

World Health Organization. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health: Commission on Social Determinants of Health final report. Geneva: Author.

World Health Organization. (2011). Closing the gap: Policy into practice on social determinants of health (Discussion paper). Geneva: Author.

World Health Organization. (2012). International classification of diseases (ICD). Geneva: Author.

Wynia, M. K., Cummins, D. S., VanGeest, J. B., & Wilson, I. B. (2000). Physician manipulation of reimbursement rules for patients: Between a rock and a hard place. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(14), 1858–1865. doi:10.1001/jama.283.14.1858

Wynia, M. K., VanGeest, J. B., Cummins, D. S., & Wilson, I. B. (2003). Do physicians not offer useful services because of coverage restrictions? Health Affairs, 22(4), 190–197. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.22.4.190

Yackee, J. W., & Yackee, S. W. (2006). A bias towards business? Assessing interest group influence on the US bureaucracy. Journal of Politics, 68(1), 128–139.

Yackee, S. W. (2006). Sweet-talking the fourth branch: The influence of interest group comments on federal agency rulemaking. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(1), 103–124.

Yackee, S. W. (2012). The politics of ex parte lobbying: Pre-proposal agenda building and blocking during agency rulemaking. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(2), 373–393. doi:10.1093/jopart/mur061

Yang, Y., & Lee, L. C. (2010). Dynamics and heterogeneity in the process of human frailty and aging: Evidence from the U.S. older adult population. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B(2), 246–255. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp102

Yankelovich, D. (1995). The debate that wasn't: the public and the Clinton plan. Health Affairs, 14(1), 7–23, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.14.1.7.

Zarcadoolas, C. (2011). The simplicity complex: exploring simplified health messages in a complex world. Health Promotion International, 26(3), 338–350, doi:10.1093/heapro/daq075.

Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., & Miller, M. M. (2014). Impact of patient satisfaction ratings on physicians and clinical care. Patient preference and adherence, 8, 437.

Zhang, Y., Baicker, K., & Newhouse, J. P. (2010). Geographic variation in the quality of prescribing. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(21), 1985–1988.

Zier, L. S., Burack, J. H., Micco, G., Chipman, A. K., Frank, J. A., Luce, J. M., et al. (2008). Doubt and belief in physicians’ ability to prognosticate during critical illness: The perspective of surrogate decision makers. Critical Care Medicine, 36(8), 2341–2347. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318180ddf9

Zier, L. S., Burack, J. H., Micco, G., Chipman, A. K., Frank, J. A., & White, D. B. (2009). Surrogate decision makers’ responses to physicians’ predictions of medical futility. Chest, 136(1), 110–117. doi:cHest.08-2753 [pii]10.1378/chest.08-2753

(p.300) Zier, L. S., Sottile, P. D., Hong, S. Y., Weissfield, L. A., & White, D. B. (2012). Surrogate decision makers’ interpretation of prognostic information: A mixed-methods study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(5), 360–366. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-5-201203060-00008

Ziv, T. A., & Lo, B. (1995). Denial of care to illegal immigrants. Proposition 187 in California. New England Journal of Medicine, 332(16), 1095–1098.

Zoungas, S., Woodward, M., Li, Q., Cooper, M. E., Hamet, P., Harrap, S., et al. (2014). Impact of age, age at diagnosis and duration of diabetes on the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications and death in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 57(12), 2465–2474.

Zuckerman, D. M., Brown, P., & Nissen, S. E. (2011). Medical device recalls and the FDA approval process. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(11), 1006–1011. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.30