This chapter claims that investigations into the nature of the self that do not consider the background conditions for being able to think thoughts such as ‘I am thinking’ or ‘I believe that p’, are bound to give a peculiar idea of selfhood. One can take neither the capacity for self-reference nor the unity of the self, as given; such unity as there is comes about through processes of integration. It is argued that Harry Frankfurt’s idea of integrity as wholehearted caring is unsatisfactory because it neglects the roles of other people and an openness to reality in the integrating process.
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