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The Performance of DemocraciesPolitical Institutions and Public Policy$

Edeltraud Roller

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780199286423

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0199286426.001.0001

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(p.281) Appendix

(p.281) Appendix

Source:
The Performance of Democracies
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Performance Indicators—Distribution of the Original Variables

The distribution of the original variables for the fourteen performance indicators, with the most important statistical indices, is given in the following Tables (A.1.1–A.1.14). The nations are grouped according to the five different families of nations suggested by Castles (1998a): English‐speaking, Scandinavian (Nordic), Continental Western European, Southern European, and the special cases of Switzerland and Japan. Indications are given, where appropriate, to the data replacement procedures used and the nations to which they apply.

(p.282)

Table A.1.1. Murder and manslaughter (per 100,000 residents) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

1.8

1.9

2.0

1.9

1.9

4.6

7.4

−5.3

6.4

Canada

2.5

2.3

2.1

2.0

2.2

−9.2

−10.4

−5.3

−23.0

Great Britain

1.4

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

−34.1

4.4

−2.5

−32.9

Ireland

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.8

25.3

−14.9

−18.5

−13.1

New Zealand

1.5

1.3

2.0

2.1

1.7

−9.7

50.7

2.3

39.3

USA

9.6

9.4

8.8

9.8

9.4

−2.4

−6.8

12.2

2.0

Denmark

0.7

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.1

68.6

3.4

3.8

80.9

Finland

3.0

2.9

2.9

3.2

3.0

−2.7

0.7

8.3

6.1

Norway

0.7

1.1

1.3

1.2

1.1

55.5

14.0

−11.4

57.1

Sweden

1.2

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.7

11.5

−5.6

6.9

Austria

1.4

1.5

1.3

1.3

1.4

8.6

−17.1

4.5

−6.0

Belgium

1.1

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.5

54.3

6.2

−5.2

55.3

France

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

15.9

0.0

−4.2

11.0

Germany

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.7

−8.2

4.2

−2.8

Italy

1.4

1.9

1.7

2.3

1.8

37.6

−9.6

35.1

68.0

The Netherlands

0.8

0.8

0.9

1.2

1.0

2.9

11.9

25.9

44.9

Greece

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.3

0.9

20.0

14.6

33.0

82.9

Portugal

1.6

1.4

1.4

1.6

1.5

−13.8

0.0

14.3

−1.5

Spain

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

8.9

6.1

−7.4

7.0

Switzerland

0.9

1.2

1.2

1.5

1.2

33.6

3.4

20.1

65.9

Japan

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.9

−20.0

−18.7

−22.5

−49.6

Mean

1.68

1.75

1.75

1.85

1.76

4.2

−0.3

5.7

9.8

Coefficient of variation

1.14

1.04

0.97

1.04

1.05

Correlation with 1974–9

0.99

0.98

0.98

−0.23

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: WHO, World Health Statistics Annual (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.283)

Table A.1.2. Robbery (per 100,000 residents) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

40.3

63.3

60.2

77.6

60.3

57.0

−4.9

28.9

92.5

Canadab

99.0

102.8

92.0

109.1

101.0

3.9

−10.5

18.6

10.3

Great Britain

31.7

45.3

65.8

80.1

55.8

43.0

45.3

21.7

152.9

Ireland

38.2

49.0

45.2

63.9

49.3

28.3

−7.8

41.5

67.3

New Zealand

6.2

10.8

39.4

50.2

26.8

73.5

264.4

27.3

705.2

USA

203.6

225.3

220.0

251.3

225.3

10.7

−2.3

14.2

23.4

Denmark

20.3

30.2

38.6

66.5

39.3

48.9

27.6

72.5

227.5

Finland

41.7

38.2

37.2

48.3

41.7

−8.5

−2.5

29.7

15.8

Norwayc

18.1

22.0

19.5

26.4

21.6

21.8

−11.5

35.5

46.1

Sweden

38.1

41.2

49.8

67.9

49.6

8.1

20.8

36.5

78.2

Austria

30.0

31.7

31.7

53.1

37.1

5.7

−0.2

67.7

76.9

Belgium

24.9

40.8

67.5

74.1

51.6

64.0

65.5

9.8

198.0

France

57.3

84.9

94.2

120.9

89.3

48.2

11.0

28.3

111.1

Germany

34.6

45.5

47.5

68.8

49.3

31.7

4.3

44.8

99.0

Italy

26.9

27.6

48.3

57.5

40.3

2.6

75.1

19.1

114.0

The Netherlands

31.9

43.0

72.9

106.6

64.1

35.1

69.4

46.3

234.7

Greeced

0.8

1.5

4.7

13.4

5.3

88.6

221.1

182.5

1610.9

Portugal

14.5

19.6

28.2

39.1

26.6

35.4

43.5

38.7

169.6

Spain

32.4

86.5

212.9

221.9

154.0

167.0

146.1

4.2

585.1

Switzerlande

22.2

24.4

22.1

30.6

24.9

10.3

−9.7

38.7

38.0

Japan

1.8

1.9

1.5

1.7

1.7

8.1

−23.3

19.7

−0.8

Means

38.77

49.32

61.86

77.58

57.84

27.2

25.4

25.4

100.1

Coefficient of variation

1.11

0.98

0.92

0.78

0.88

Correlation with 1974–9

0.97

0.73

0.76

−0.31

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977. 

b Starting point of the time‐series 1980. 

c Starting point of the time‐series 1985. 

d Missing values for 1974–6 were substituted through extrapolation based on the development from 1977 to 1981. 

e Starting point of the time‐series 1983.

Source: Interpol, International Crime Statistics (starting point of the time‐series 1977; with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.284)

Table A.1.3. Burglary (per 100,000 residents) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

1066.4

1441.1

1868.2

2071.5

1607.9

35.1

29.6

10.9

94.3

Canadab

1480.2

1485.6

1394.6

1468.0

1458.6

0.4

−6.1

5.3

−0.8

Great Britain

1230.4

1475.8

1791.8

2180.9

1673.0

19.9

21.4

21.7

77.2

Ireland

758.2

881.0

867.7

901.2

850.0

16.2

−1.5

3.9

18.9

New Zealand

1602.1

2031.3

2579.8

2662.1

2210.9

26.8

27.0

3.2

66.2

USA

1495.6

1455.4

1309.4

1130.8

1344.7

−2.7

−10.0

−13.6

−24.4

Denmark

1680.3

1991.5

2390.9

2263.3

2071.5

18.5

20.1

−5.3

34.7

Finlandc

1877.2

1893.6

1908.5

1903.9

1895.3

0.9

0.8

−0.2

1.4

Norwayd

120.1

110.8

112.9

94.8

109.4

−7.8

1.9

−16.0

−21.1

Sweden

1748.6

1676.1

1684.3

1737.8

1714.6

−4.1

0.5

3.2

−0.6

Austria

688.5

832.5

848.4

1169.1

888.6

20.9

1.9

37.8

69.8

Belgium

422.1

631.9

604.9

919.0

646.8

49.7

−4.3

51.9

117.7

France

450.8

660.9

715.3

783.1

649.3

46.6

8.2

9.5

73.7

Germany

1179.1

1409.5

1870.0

1900.7

1585.3

19.5

32.7

1.6

61.2

Italye

749.1

1057.7

1345.6

1613.6

1190.6

41.2

27.2

19.9

115.4

The Netherlands

1005.0

1753.7

2689.3

3296.3

2182.9

74.5

53.3

22.6

228.0

Greecef

0.2

55.8

201.9

322.4

146.6

27450.8

261.5

59.7

158990.0

Portugal

76.6

89.0

73.2

108.2

88.3

16.2

−17.8

47.7

41.2

Spain

159.3

610.3

1224.6

948.2

807.4

283.1

100.7

−22.6

495.2

Switzerlandg

1033.5

1023.2

1007.1

1019.1

1021.2

−1.0

−1.6

1.2

−1.4

Japan

269.8

251.8

224.4

190.8

233.8

−6.7

−10.9

−15.0

−29.3

Mean

909.2

1086.6

1272.0

1365.95

1160.8

19.5

17.1

7.4

50.2

Coefficient of variation

0.66

0.59

0.63

0.63

0.60

Correlation with 1974–9

0.95

0.80

0.73

−0.35

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

b Starting point of the time‐series 1980.

c Starting point of the time‐series 1991.

d Starting point of the time‐series 1985.

e Mean of the family of nation (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, and the Netherlands).

f Missing values for 1974–8 were substituted through extrapolation based on the development from 1979 to 1980.

g Starting point of the time‐series 1983.

Source: Interpol, International Crime Statistics (starting point of the time‐series 1977; with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.285)

Table A.1.4. Gross domestic product in US dollars per capita (adjusted for price and purchasing power) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

6175

10040

13688

17585

11873

62.6

36.3

28.5

184.8

Canada

7129

11597

16025

19707

13597

62.7

38.2

23.0

176.4

Great Britain

5766

9271

13237

16843

11282

60.8

42.8

27.2

192.1

Ireland

3578

6159

8483

14211

8179

72.1

37.7

67.5

297.1

New Zealand

5796

9277

12064

14787

10464

60.1

30.0

22.6

155.1

USA

8719

13861

18909

24252

16440

59.0

36.4

28.3

178.2

Denmark

6460

10628

14836

19667

12913

64.5

39.6

32.6

204.5

Finland

5353

9459

13328

16150

11043

76.7

40.9

21.2

201.7

Norway

6023

10772

15161

20517

13132

78.8

40.8

35.3

240.6

Sweden

6583

10691

14514

17416

12274

62.4

35.8

20.0

164.6

Austria

5941

10144

13606

18859

12162

70.7

34.1

38.6

217.4

Belgium

6145

10243

13584

19187

12324

66.7

32.6

41.3

212.3

France

6623

10873

14341

18812

12667

64.2

31.9

31.2

184.0

Germany

5760

9682

13244

18441

11811

68.1

36.8

39.2

220.2

Italy

5605

9700

13354

17974

11670

73.1

37.7

34.6

220.7

The Netherlands

6248

9821

13088

17810

11768

57.2

33.3

36.1

185.1

Greece

3643

5990

7853

10848

7098

64.4

31.1

38.1

197.8

Portugal

3372

5234

7286

11454

7240

55.2

39.2

57.2

239.7

Spain

4845

6744

9298

13213

9159

39.2

37.9

42.1

172.7

Switzerland

8358

13467

17667

23154

15670

61.1

31.2

31.1

177.0

Japan

5509

9752

13958

20307

12429

77.0

43.1

45.5

268.6

Mean

5887

9686

13215

17676

11676

64.5

36.4

33.8

200.2

Coefficient of variation

0.23

0.23

0.22

0.19

0.20

Correlation with 1974–9

0.98

0.96

0.89

−0.54

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: OECD, National Accounts (no missing values).

(p.286)

Table A.1.5. Unemployment rate (standardized) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

5.1

7.6

7.6

9.4

7.4

48.1

−0.5

24.5

83.5

Canada

7.2

9.9

8.8

10.2

9.0

36.4

−10.3

14.8

40.5

Great Britain

5.0

9.9

9.9

9.1

8.3

100.2

−0.04

−7.9

84.4

Irelandb

7.6

11.7

16.2

14.3

12.3

52.9

39.2

−11.8

87.7

New Zealandc

0.8

4.1

5.0

8.7

4.7

445.7

21.0

74.8

1054.6

USA

6.8

8.3

6.2

6.4

6.9

22.6

−25.1

3.1

−5.3

Denmarkd

6.1

9.6

6.3

8.5

7.6

58.8

−34.2

34.3

40.4

Finland

4.4

5.2

5.0

11.9

6.8

17.4

−3.4

136.1

167.9

Norway

1.8

2.6

3.0

5.6

3.3

44.7

14.6

85.7

207.9

Sweden

1.9

3.0

2.2

6.3

3.4

57.2

−24.9

182.5

233.3

Austriae

1.8

3.2

3.4

3.7

3.0

77.2

8.9

6.8

106.1

Belgium

6.3

10.4

9.4

8.2

8.5

64.2

−9.3

−12.6

30.2

France

4.5

7.8

10.0

10.8

8.2

73.0

27.6

8.0

138.5

Germany

3.2

5.6

6.3

6.4

5.3

73.8

13.3

0.9

98.7

Italy

6.6

7.6

9.5

10.1

8.4

15.3

25.6

6.1

53.6

The Netherlands

4.9

8.3

7.8

6.4

6.7

70.1

−6.2

−18.5

30.0

Greecef

1.9

5.7

7.5

8.8

5.9

194.0

31.8

16.4

351.3

Portugalg

7.4

7.7

6.9

5.5

6.8

3.9

−11.0

−20.6

−26.6

Spain

6.8

15.6

20.0

20.1

16.8

130.5

28.5

0.4

197.3

Switzerlandh

0.4

0.6

0.7

2.8

1.1

59.9

22.2

309.1

699.5

Japan

1.9

2.4

2.6

2.5

2.3

23.6

8.8

−4.4

28.5

Mean

4.4

6.99

7.36

8.36

6.8

58.8

5.4

13.6

90.0

Coefficient of variation

0.54

0.52

0.61

0.48

0.51

Correlation with 1974–9

0.85

0.70

0.55

−0.65

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977. 

b 1974–81 unstandardized values. 

c 1974–85 unstandardized values. 

d 1974–87 unstandardized values. 

e 1986–90 unstandardized values. 

f 1974–95 unstandardized values. 

g 1976–82 unstandardized values. 

h 1986–90 unstandardized values.

Source: OECD, Main Economic Indicators (with substitution of missing values through extrapolation).

(p.287)

Table A.1.6. Inflation rate (consumer price index) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

12.2

9.0

7.8

3.3

8.0

−26.1

−13.1

−57.8

−72.9

Canada

9.2

8.7

4.3

2.7

6.2

−5.5

−50.5

−37.8

−71.0

Great Britain

15.7

9.6

5.3

4.4

8.9

−38.9

−45.1

−16.1

−71.9

Ireland

15.0

15.0

3.7

2.7

9.1

−0.1

−75.1

−28.8

−82.3

New Zealand

13.8

12.4

11.3

2.8

9.9

−10.0

−9.2

−75.6

−80.0

USA

8.6

7.5

3.6

3.5

5.8

−12.3

−52.0

−2.7

−59.0

Denmark

10.8

9.5

4.3

2.1

6.6

−12.0

−54.2

−52.1

−80.7

Finland

12.7

9.6

4.8

2.9

7.5

−24.5

−50.1

−39.2

−77.1

Norway

8.7

10.1

6.6

2.7

6.9

16.2

−35.1

−59.4

−69.4

Sweden

9.8

10.3

5.7

5.4

7.8

5.1

−44.5

−4.4

−44.2

Austria

6.2

5.5

2.2

3.2

4.3

−10.8

−60.7

49.8

−47.5

Belgium

8.4

7.4

2.4

2.6

5.2

−12.2

−67.6

9.0

−69.0

France

10.7

11.2

3.6

2.4

6.9

4.3

−68.1

−31.5

−77.2

Germany

4.6

4.5

1.2

3.5

3.5

−1.4

−72.5

176.7

−25.0

Italy

16.8

16.5

6.2

5.2

11.1

−1.7

−62.5

−15.4

−68.8

The Netherlands

7.2

5.0

0.7

2.7

4.0

−30.2

−86.3

287.4

−62.8

Greece

16.2

21.8

17.2

15.0

17.4

34.3

−21.0

−13.0

−7.7

Portugal

25.1

22.7

12.6

8.3

16.3

−9.8

−44.4

−34.4

−67.1

Spain

20.0

13.6

6.9

5.4

10.3

−32.0

−49.3

−21.4

−72.9

Switzerland

4.0

4.4

2.1

3.5

3.5

9.6

−51.7

66.2

−12.0

Japan

10.1

3.9

1.1

1.7

4.3

−61.1

−70.8

44.9

−83.5

Mean

11.7

10.39

5.41

4.09

7.8

−11.2

−47.9

−24.4

−65.0

Coefficient of variation

0.44

0.50

0.76

0.71

0.48

Correlation with 1974–9

0.86

0.69

0.51

−0.32

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: OECD, Main Economic Indicators (no missing values).

(p.288)

Table A.1.7. Infant mortality (per 1,000 live births) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

13.4

10.0

8.8

6.7

9.7

−25.6

−11.4

−24.4

−50.2

Canada

13.0

9.1

7.5

6.4

9.1

−29.8

−17.9

−14.2

−50.6

Great Britain

14.6

10.8

9.1

6.7

10.3

−25.9

−15.9

−25.8

−53.8

Ireland

15.6

10.4

8.2

6.9

10.4

−33.2

−20.9

−16.9

−56.1

New Zealand

14.3

12.1

10.6

7.6

11.1

−15.4

−12.2

−28.6

−47.0

USA

14.8

11.6

10.2

8.5

11.3

−21.8

−12.2

−16.5

−42.7

Denmark

9.6

8.0

8.0

6.3

8.0

−16.9

0.3

−21.5

−34.5

Finland

9.1

6.6

6.1

4.9

6.7

−27.1

−7.9

−18.9

−45.5

Norway

9.8

8.0

8.2

5.6

7.9

−18.3

2.8

−31.7

−42.7

Sweden

8.3

6.8

6.1

5.1

6.6

−18.1

−10.9

−15.6

−38.4

Austria

18.1

12.6

9.5

6.8

11.8

−30.3

−24.4

−28.4

−62.3

Belgium

14.7

11.0

9.3

7.9

10.8

−24.9

−15.2

−15.8

−46.4

France

12.2

9.3

7.9

6.5

9.0

−23.4

−15.5

−18.1

−47.0

Germany

17.0

11.0

8.1

6.1

10.7

−35.3

−26.0

−24.7

−63.9

Italy

19.1

13.1

9.7

7.4

12.4

−31.5

−25.8

−23.9

−61.3

The Netherlands

10.1

8.4

7.4

6.2

8.0

−16.6

−12.1

−15.5

−38.1

Greece

21.5

15.6

11.7

8.6

14.4

−27.1

−24.9

−26.6

−59.9

Portugal

29.7

20.4

14.6

9.2

17.4

−31.4

−28.4

−37.0

−69.1

Spain

15.2

11.4

8.6

6.7

9.8

−25.3

−24.6

−21.7

−55.9

Switzerland

10.1

7.8

6.9

5.9

7.7

−22.8

−11.5

−15.5

−42.3

Japan

9.2

6.7

5.0

4.4

6.4

−27.5

−24.9

−12.7

−52.4

Mean

14.25

10.51

8.65

6.68

9.97

−26.3

−17.7

−22.7

−53.1

Coefficient of variation

0.35

0.31

0.24

0.18

0.27

Correlation with 1974–9

0.98

0.89

0.81

−0.83

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: OECD, Health Data (no missing data).

(p.289)

Table A.1.8. Poverty rate (below 50% of the median of equivalent income) 1974–95 a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australiab

11.9

11.7

12.0

13.6

12.4

−1.6

3.1

13.0

14.5

Canada

13.6

12.3

11.4

10.9

12.1

−9.8

−6.6

−4.3

−19.4

Great Britain

9.1

9.2

10.4

13.9

10.7

0.1

13.8

33.5

52.1

Irelandc

10.4

10.7

11.1

11.5

10.9

3.8

3.3

3.5

11.0

New Zealandd

12.2

12.1

12.5

13.5

12.6

−0.5

3.6

7.8

11.1

USA

15.9

16.7

17.7

17.6

16.9

5.1

6.1

−0.3

11.1

Denmarke

10.2

9.3

9.2

7.5

9.0

−9.0

−0.9

−18.1

−26.2

Finlande

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.5

5.5

−1.0

−0.7

0.1

−1.6

Norway

5.7

5.9

6.9

6.6

6.3

3.9

18.0

−4.4

17.2

Sweden

6.1

5.8

7.2

6.7

6.4

−4.7

24.3

−6.1

11.3

Austriai

5.9

6.3

6.7

7.1

6.5

7.2

6.1

6.3

21.0

Belgiumf

4.5

4.7

4.6

5.1

4.7

4.8

−1.6

10.9

14.3

France

7.7

7.4

8.3

8.4

8.0

−3.8

11.7

1.1

8.6

Germany

6.5

5.8

5.9

6.6

6.2

−11.2

2.3

12.6

2.2

Italyg

9.6

10.7

10.5

11.9

10.7

10.7

−1.4

12.9

23.3

The Netherlandsh

4.5

4.9

4.8

7.2

5.4

7.8

−1.4

49.1

58.5

Greecej

11.9

11.8

10.7

9.9

11.0

−0.8

−8.9

−8.0

−16.8

Portugalj

11.7

11.8

10.7

9.9

10.9

0.3

−8.9

−8.0

−16.0

Spaink

11.7

11.8

10.7

9.9

10.9

0.8

−8.9

−8.0

−15.5

Switzerlandl

7.8

7.9

8.5

9.2

8.3

1.9

6.9

8.9

18.6

Japanm

7.8

7.9

8.5

9.2

8.3

1.9

6.9

8.9

18.6

Mean

9.05

9.04

9.23

9.61

9.23

0.0

2.1

4.1

6.2

Coefficient of variation

0.35

0.35

0.34

0.33

0.33

Correlation with 1974–79

0.99

0.95

0.83

−0.45

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

b Starting point of the time‐series 1981.

c Only one time point available (1987). Missing values were substituted through extrapolation on the basis of the development in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, and the USA.

d Mean of the familiy of nation (Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, and the USA).

e Starting point of the time‐series 1987.

f Starting point of the time‐series 1985.

g Starting point of the time‐series 1986.

h Starting point of the time‐series 1983.

i Only one time point available (1987). Missing values were substituted through extrapolation on the basis of the development of the family of nation (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands).

j Spanish values.

k Starting point of the time‐series 1980.

l Starting point of the time‐series 1982.

m Swiss values.

Source: Luxembourg Income Study (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation; periods with missing original data are underlined).

(p.290)

Table A.1.9. Emissions of sulphur oxides (kg per capita) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australiab

122.9

95.5

78.9

70.4

92.4

−22.3

−17.4

−10.8

−42.7

Canada

222.6

164.1

119.0

104.2

153.5

−26.3

−27.5

−12.4

−53.2

Great Britain

94.4

75.6

67.4

54.8

73.2

−19.9

−10.9

−18.7

−42.0

Ireland

60.7

48.2

44.7

47.7

50.7

−20.5

−7.2

6.6

−21.4

New Zealandb

122.9

95.5

78.9

70.4

92.4

−22.3

−17.4

−10.8

−42.7

USA

114.0

94.2

84.7

75.1

92.2

−17.3

−10.2

−11.3

−34.2

Denmark

85.6

69.8

51.0

34.6

60.2

−18.4

−27.0

−32.0

−59.5

Finland

116.4

97.1

64.4

30.8

76.8

−16.5

−33.7

−52.2

−73.6

Norway

34.5

28.0

18.5

9.3

22.5

−18.9

−33.7

−50.0

−73.1

Sweden

77.5

45.9

27.4

12.3

41.2

−40.7

−40.3

−55.0

−84.1

Austriac

37.8

39.6

19.4

9.3

26.3

4.6

−51.0

−51.8

−75.3

Belgiumc

65.4

66.9

36.9

27.8

49.0

2.3

−44.8

−24.7

−57.5

France

62.6

44.8

23.3

19.5

37.9

−28.5

−48.1

−16.0

−68.8

Germany

53.4

46.4

28.3

35.6

41.2

−13.2

−39.0

25.7

−33.5

Italy

58.7

46.3

32.0

25.7

40.8

−21.0

−31.0

−19.7

−56.2

The Netherlands

33.4

27.7

16.9

11.2

22.3

−17.0

−38.8

−33.8

−66.4

Greeced

40.7

38.8

37.2

35.4

38.0

−4.5

−4.1

−4.8

−12.8

Portugal

23.2

28.1

22.0

29.5

26.0

21.2

−21.5

33.8

27.3

Spainc

62.6

65.2

49.6

53.9

57.1

4.1

−24.0

8.6

−14.0

Switzerland

17.6

16.5

9.6

5.3

12.2

−5.9

−41.9

−44.5

−69.7

Japan

19.8

9.5

7.1

4.9

10.5

−51.9

−25.4

−30.5

−75.1

Mean

72.69

59.24

43.68

36.57

53.16

−18.5

−26.3

−16.3

−49.7

Coefficient of variation

0.66

0.60

0.67

0.73

0.64

Correlation with 1974–9

0.98

0.95

0.85

−0.04

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

b Mean of the family of nation (Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, and the USA).

c Starting point of the time‐series 1980.

d Only two time points available (1980, 1983).

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.291)

Table A.1.10. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (kg per capita) 1974–95 a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rate (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australiab

134.7

129.9

129.1

123.9

129.4

−3.5

−0.7

−4.0

−7.9

Canada

78.3

77.5

80.7

70.8

76.6

−0.9

4.1

−12.4

−9.6

Great Britain

41.0

43.1

46.7

45.0

43.9

5.2

8.2

−3.6

9.7

Irelandc

25.3

24.1

31.1

33.6

28.6

−4.5

28.7

8.0

32.8

New Zealandd

74.6

73.0

74.6

70.8

73.2

−2.1

2.2

−5.1

−5.1

USA

93.8

90.3

85.5

80.9

87.6

−3.7

−5.4

−5.3

−13.8

Denmark

45.6

50.6

58.7

54.1

52.0

11.1

16.0

−8.0

18.6

Finland

45.2

52.1

58.1

56.1

52.7

15.3

11.6

−3.5

24.2

Norway

45.3

45.9

56.5

51.9

49.8

1.3

23.1

−8.2

14.5

Sweden

43.0

53.5

51.6

44.4

47.7

24.3

−3.6

−13.8

3.3

Austriac

32.6

32.2

30.7

24.6

29.9

−1.2

−4.7

−19.8

−24.4

Belgiumc

39.8

40.1

33.9

34.6

37.1

0.9

−15.5

2.0

−13.1

France

30.4

28.3

25.7

27.3

28.0

−6.8

−9.3

6.3

−10.2

Germany

41.5

42.1

39.0

29.5

37.8

1.5

−7.2

−24.4

−28.8

Italy

27.4

27.5

31.2

35.4

30.5

0.2

13.4

13.7

29.3

The Netherlands

37.3

39.9

40.3

36.7

38.4

7.1

1.0

−8.9

−1.4

Greecec

24.6

25.9

32.0

33.7

29.1

5.1

23.5

5.4

36.8

Portugal

14.0

17.3

12.3

23.7

17.3

23.2

−28.9

92.9

69.1

Spainc

24.5

23.9

25.3

31.5

26.8

−2.4

5.9

24.6

28.8

Switzerland

25.8

27.2

26.5

21.8

25.2

5.4

−2.4

−17.8

−15.4

Japan

15.2

12.3

11.1

11.7

12.7

−19.0

−10.1

5.8

−23.0

Mean

44.75

45.56

46.7

44.86

45.44

1.8

2.5

−3.9

0.3

Coefficient of variation

0.64

0.61

0.59

0.57

0.60

Correlation with 1974–9

0.99

0.98

0.97

−0.34

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977. 

b Starting point of the time‐series 1988. 

c Starting point of the time‐series 1980. 

d Mean of the family of nation (Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, and the USA).

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.292)

Table A.1.11. Emissions of carbon dioxide (kg per capita) 1974–95 a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

14.0

14.4

14.6

15.6

14.7

2.8

1.4

6.9

11.4

Canada

17.8

16.8

16.1

15.5

16.5

−5.4

−4.3

−3.8

−12.9

Great Britain

10.8

10.0

10.1

9.9

10.2

−7.9

1.7

−2.3

−8.6

Ireland

7.3

7.7

8.5

9.5

8.3

6.0

10.6

10.8

29.9

New Zealand

6.0

5.9

7.1

7.9

6.7

−2.3

21.8

10.3

31.2

USA

20.8

19.6

19.8

19.7

20.0

−5.6

0.8

−0.4

−5.3

Denmark

11.5

10.9

11.6

11.5

11.4

−5.4

6.3

−0.9

−0.4

Finland

10.7

9.8

11.2

10.9

10.7

−8.5

13.5

−2.6

1.1

Norway

7.2

7.0

7.5

7.6

7.3

−2.6

7.1

1.9

6.2

Sweden

9.9

7.7

7.1

6.2

7.8

−21.8

−8.4

−13.0

−37.6

Austria

7.3

7.3

7.3

7.5

7.4

1.0

0.3

1.7

3.0

Belgium

13.2

11.5

10.8

11.4

11.8

−12.9

−5.8

5.9

−13.1

France

8.8

7.9

6.7

6.5

7.5

−10.9

−15.1

−3.6

−27.1

Germany

12.1

12.0

11.7

11.2

11.7

−0.5

−2.7

−4.0

−7.1

Italy

6.3

6.4

6.6

7.2

6.7

1.6

3.4

8.8

14.4

The Netherlands

12.3

10.3

10.6

11.2

11.2

−15.7

2.6

5.7

−8.6

Greece

4.5

5.2

6.3

7.2

5.8

13.4

21.4

15.5

59.1

Portugal

2.5

2.8

3.2

4.7

3.4

10.2

17.7

43.3

85.8

Spain

5.0

5.2

5.0

5.9

5.3

2.8

−2.7

16.8

16.7

Switzerland

6.3

6.3

6.4

6.4

6.4

0.7

1.8

−1.2

1.3

Japan

8.0

7.6

7.7

8.9

8.1

−5.7

2.1

14.5

10.3

Mean

9.64

9.16

9.34

9.63

9.46

−5.0

2.0

3.1

−0.9

Coefficient of variation

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.39

0.42

Correlation with 1974–9

0.99

0.96

0.93

−0.60

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.293)

TABLE A.1.12. Municipal waste production (kg per capita) 1974–95 a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australiab

684.5

686.5

700.2

704.6

694.0

0.3

2.0

0.6

2.9

Canadab

569.1

556.8

623.3

629.3

595.1

−2.2

12.0

1.0

10.6

Great Britainc

491.4

523.4

577.4

623.3

554.2

6.5

10.3

7.9

26.8

Ireland

174.5

236.9

336.6

404.0

288.1

35.7

42.1

20.0

131.5

New Zealand

466.9

525.1

566.3

662.8

556.2

12.5

7.8

17.1

42.0

USA

562.1

611.8

660.5

715.6

637.6

8.8

8.0

8.3

27.3

Denmarkb

431.5

430.0

488.1

520.8

468.4

−0.3

13.5

6.7

20.7

Finlandd

295.7

304.7

350.5

399.3

338.4

3.1

15.0

13.9

35.1

Norway

414.4

432.5

484.3

565.2

475.5

4.4

12.0

16.7

36.4

Sweden

290.3

308.3

374.3

448.5

356.6

6.2

21.4

19.8

54.5

Austriae

424.5

440.9

455.9

449.4

442.2

3.9

3.4

−1.4

5.9

Belgium

298.8

321.3

341.3

400.9

341.4

7.5

6.2

17.5

34.2

Francee

461.8

467.9

473.5

471.6

468.5

1.3

1.2

−0.4

2.1

Germany

339.5

335.2

340.6

315.4

332.2

−1.3

1.6

−7.4

−7.1

Italy

243.6

254.5

296.4

411.3

303.8

4.5

16.5

38.8

68.9

The Netherlandsb

456.6

473.9

462.6

537.9

484.1

3.8

−2.4

16.3

17.8

Greeceb

280.8

276.9

301.2

300.0

289.8

−1.4

8.8

−0.4

6.8

Portugalb

215.9

214.2

261.5

328.6

260.7

−0.8

22.1

25.7

52.2

Spain

252.1

271.4

294.0

343.6

297.1

7.7

8.3

16.9

36.3

Switzerland

325.1

378.6

417.8

405.8

380.3

16.5

10.3

−2.9

24.8

Japan

374.9

369.3

379.1

404.4

382.6

−1.5

2.6

6.7

7.9

Mean

383.52

400.96

437.41

478.22

426.04

4.5

9.1

9.3

24.7

Coefficient of variation

0.34

0.32

0.29

0.27

0.30

Correlation with 1974–9

0.99

0.95

0.87

−0.58

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977. 

b Starting point of the time‐series 1980. 

c Mean of the family of nation (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and the USA). 

d Only one time point available (1995). Missing values were substituted through extrapolation on the basis of the development of the family of nations (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)

e Only two time points available (1990, 1995).

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.294)

TABLE A.1.13. Fertilizer use (tons per square kilometer) 1974–95 a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australia

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

33.2

11.9

8.5

61.7

Canada

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

39.9

4.6

3.2

50.9

Great Britain

7.8

9.9

10.3

9.1

9.2

27.4

4.3

−11.8

17.1

Ireland

6.9

9.0

9.6

10.1

8.9

29.7

6.7

4.8

45.0

New Zealand

1.8

1.8

1.4

1.9

1.7

−1.1

−25.4

38.2

2.0

USA

2.1

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.0

−1.5

−7.8

6.1

−3.6

Denmark

14.7

15.1

14.6

12.5

14.2

2.6

−3.2

−14.6

−15.2

Finland

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.1

1.4

0.6

−0.3

−26.3

−26.1

Norway

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.7

7.6

−11.7

−9.7

−14.2

Sweden

1.1

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.9

−6.6

−16.7

−21.9

−39.2

Austria

4.1

4.6

4.0

3.3

4.0

10.9

−13.4

−16.5

−19.8

Belgium

14.8

14.1

13.7

11.3

13.4

−4.9

−2.9

−17.5

−23.8

France

9.1

10.4

10.7

9.2

9.8

13.6

3.3

−13.7

1.3

Germany

10.5

10.1

9.4

7.7

9.4

−4.1

−7.3

−17.8

−26.9

Italy

5.6

6.9

6.9

6.5

6.4

22.1

0.4

−5.7

15.6

The Netherlands

15.9

16.6

16.0

13.5

15.4

4.0

−3.4

−15.8

−15.4

Greece

3.6

4.5

5.0

4.7

4.4

24.9

10.1

−7.0

27.9

Portugal

2.7

2.7

3.0

2.8

2.8

−2.0

10.0

−6.4

0.9

Spain

3.1

3.0

3.9

3.7

3.5

−2.2

28.0

−3.9

20.3

Switzerland

3.8

4.2

4.3

3.8

4.0

12.6

0.9

−10.6

1.5

Japan

4.9

5.3

5.3

4.8

5.0

8.8

0.1

−9.6

−1.5

Mean

5.49

5.90

5.87

5.22

5.60

7.6

−0.5

−11.1

−4.9

Coefficient of variation

0.90

0.86

0.85

0.82

0.85

Correlation with 1974–9

0.99

0.98

0.96

−0.33

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation).

(p.295)

TABLE A.1.14. Water consumption (cubic meters per capita) 1974–95a

Level (mean per period)

Growth rates (between periods)

1974–9

1980–4

1985–9

1990–5

1974–95

1974–84

1984–9

1989–95

1974–95

Australiab

840.8

816.3

902.7

850.5

852.0

−2.9

10.6

−5.8

1.2

Canada

1345.4

1608.5

1654.9

1694.1

1570.6

19.6

2.9

2.4

25.9

Great Britainb

229.5

225.7

205.9

184.2

210.9

−1.7

−8.8

−10.5

−19.7

Irelandb

312.6

316.2

317.8

323.4

317.6

1.1

0.5

1.8

3.5

New Zealand

354.0

466.2

586.1

573.1

492.0

31.7

25.7

−2.2

61.9

USA

2221.3

2144.3

1926.6

1911.3

2052.3

−3.5

−10.2

−0.8

−14.0

Denmark

233.9

234.2

230.8

198.9

223.7

0.1

−1.5

−13.8

−15.0

Finland

759.2

791.0

677.3

473.6

669.9

4.2

−14.4

−30.1

−37.6

Norway

575.6

518.1

516.5

496.7

527.6

−10.0

−0.3

−3.8

−13.7

Sweden

500.9

438.7

353.1

327.5

405.9

−12.4

−19.5

−7.3

−34.6

Austria

322.2

286.0

291.8

291.1

298.6

−11.2

2.0

−0.2

−9.6

Belgiumc

916.7

901.4

898.2

902.5

905.1

−1.7

−0.3

0.5

−1.6

France

557.4

643.3

651.4

686.5

633.5

15.4

1.3

5.4

23.2

Germany

590.0

680.1

713.1

744.7

680.6

15.3

4.9

4.4

26.2

Italyb

917.0

962.0

936.1

961.8

943.8

4.9

−2.7

2.7

4.9

The Netherlands

885.9

646.3

614.1

537.6

674.7

−27.1

−5.0

−12.5

−39.3

Greece

600.5

585.3

573.1

539.0

574.0

−2.5

−2.1

−6.0

−10.2

Portugald

796.2

835.2

819.7

704.9

784.4

4.9

−1.9

−14.0

−11.5

Spain

1043.8

1118.2

1098.8

898.7

1032.0

7.1

−1.7

−18.2

−13.9

Switzerland

254.1

409.1

405.0

381.7

358.4

61.0

−1.0

−5.8

50.2

Japan

771.9

745.3

730.5

724.9

743.6

−3.4

−2.0

−0.8

−6.1

Mean

715.66

731.97

719.22

686.02

711.97

2.3

−1.7

−4.6

−4.1

Coefficient of variation

0.64

0.63

0.60

0.64

0.62

Correlation with 1974–9

0.98

0.95

0.93

−0.17

a Portugal from 1976 and Spain from 1977.

b Starting point of the time‐series 1980.

c Only one time point available (1980). Missing values were substituted through extrapolation on the basis of the development of the family of nation (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands).

d Only one time point available (1990). Missing values were substituted through extrapolation on the basis of the development of the family of nation (Greece and Spain).

Source: OECD, Environmental Data Compendium (with substitution of missing values through interpolation and extrapolation).

(p.296)