Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA$

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199286119

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0199286116.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.279) References

(p.279) References

Source:
Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.279) References

Bibliography references:

Aarts, L. J. M., Burkhauser, R. V., and de Jong, P. R. (eds.) (1996). Curing the Dutch Disease: An International Perspective on Disability Policy Reform. Aldershot: Avebury.

—— —— —— (1996b). ‘Introduction and Overview’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 1–19.

—— and de Jong, P. R. (1993). ‘Early Retirement of Older Male Workers under the Dutch Social Security Disability Insurance Programme’, in A. B. Atkinson and M. Rein (eds.), Age, Work and Social Security. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 20–50.

—— —— (1996a). ‘The Dutch Disability Program and How it Grew’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease: An International Perspective on Disability Policy Reform. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 21–46.

—— —— (1996b). ‘Evaluating the 1987 and 1993 Social Welfare Reforms: From Disappointment to Potential Success’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 47–69.

Adema, W. (1999). ‘Net Public Social Expenditure’, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 39.

Alber, J. (1982). Vom Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat: Analysen zur Entwicklung der Sozialversicherung in Westeuropa. Frankfurt: Campus.

Albert, M. (1991). Capitalisme contre Capitalisme. Paris: Le Seuil.

Allmendinger, J. (1994). Lebensverlauf und Sozialpolitik: Die Ungleichheit von Mann und Frau und ihr öffentlicher Ertrag. Frankfurt: Campus.

—— and Hinz, T. (1998). ‘Occupational Careers under Different Welfare Regimes: West Germany, Great Britain and Sweden’, in L. Leisering and R. Walker (eds.), The Dynamics of Modern Society: Poverty, Policy and Welfare. Bristol: Policy Press, University of Bristol.

Amable, B. (2005). Les Cinq Capitalismes. Diversité des systèmes économiques et sociaux dans la mondialisation. Paris: Seuil.

Anderson, K. M. and Meyer, T. (2003). ‘Social Democracy, Unions, and Pension Politics in Germany and Sweden’. Journal of Public Policy, 23/1: 23–54.

—— Immergut, E. M. and Schulze, I. (eds.) (2006). Oxford Handbook of West European Pension Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.

Aoki, M. (2001). Towards a Comparative Institutional Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

(p.280) apRoberts, L. and Turner, J. (1997). ‘Enterprise and the State: Interactions in the Provision of Employees’ Retirement Income in the United States', in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 352–79.

Arthur, W. B. (1994). Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Ascoli, U. (1988). ‘The Italian Welfare State in the 1980s: Less State and More Market?’ in R. Morris (ed.), Testing the Limits of Social Welfare: International Perspectives on Policy Changes in Nine Countries. Hanover, CT: University Press of New England, pp. 165–92.

Ashford, D. E. (1991). ‘Advantages of Complexity: Social Insurance in France’, in J. S. Ambler (ed.), The French Welfare State: Surviving Social and Ideological Change. New York: New York University Press, pp. 32–57.

Atchley, R. C. (1982). ‘Retirement as a Social Institution’. Annual Review of Sociology, 8: 263–87.

Auer, P. and Speckesser, S. (1998). ‘Labour Markets and Organisational Change: Future Working Structures for an Ageing Work Force’. Journal of Management and Governance, 1/2: 177–206.

Baccaro, L. (2002). ‘Negotiating the Italian Pension Reform with the Unions: Lessons for Corporatist Theory’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55/3: 413–31.

Baldacci, E. and De Santis, G. (2003). ‘Disability Pensions in Italy: The Law and the Numbers’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 225–52.

Baldwin, P. (1990). The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class Bases of the European Welfare States 1875–1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Baltes, P. B. (1997). ‘On the Incomplete Architecture of Human Ontogeny: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation as Foundation of Developmental Theory’. American Psychologist, 52/4: 366–80.

Barkholdt, C. (2001). ‘Rentenzugang und Altersteilzeit’, in C. Barkholdt (ed.), Prekärer Übergang in den Ruhestand. Handlungsbedarf aus arbeitsmarktpolitischer, rentenrechtlicher und betrieblicher Perspektive. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 149–75.

Batstone, E., Boraston, I., and Frenkel, S. (1977). Shop Stewards in Action: The Organization of Workplace Conflict and Accommodation. Oxford: Blackwell.

Behrendt, C. (2000). ‘Private Pensions—A Viable Alternative? Their Distributive Effects in a Comparative Perspective’, International Social Security Review, 53/3: 3–26.

Benner, M. and Vad, T. B. (2000). ‘Sweden and Denmark: Defending the Welfare State’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 399–466.

(p.281) Berger, S. and Compston, H. (eds.) (2002). Policy Concertation and Social Partnership in Western Europe: Lessons for the 21st Century. New York: Berghahn Books.

Berkowitz, E. D. and Burkhauser, R. V. (1996). ‘A United States Perspective on Disability Programs’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 71–91.

Bertelsmann Stiftung and BDA (eds.) (2005). Beschäftigungschancen für ältere Arbeitnehmer: internationaler Vergleich und Handlungsempfehlungen. Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Berthold, N. and Hank, R. (1999). Bündnis für Arbeit: Korporatismus statt Wettbewerb. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Bison, I. and Esping‐Andersen, G. (2000). ‘Unemployment, Welfare Regime, and Income Packaging’, in D. Gallie and S. Paugam (eds.), Welfare Regimes and the Experience of Unemployment in Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 69–86.

Bispinck, R. (1997). ‘The Chequered History of the Alliance for Jobs’, in G. Fajertag and P. Pochet (eds.), Social Pacts in Europe. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 63–78.

—— (2002). ‘Tarifpolitischer Jahresbericht 2001: Moderate Lohnabschlüsse plus “Altersvorsorge” ’. WSI Mitteilungen, 55/2: 67–76.

Björklund, A. (2000). ‘Going Different Ways: Labour Market Policy in Denmark and Sweden’, in G. Esping‐Andersen and M. Regini (eds.), Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 148–80.

Blanchet, D. and Pelé, L.‐P. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in France’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 101–33.

Blomsma, M. and Jansweijer, R. (1997). ‘The Netherlands: Growing Importance of Private Sector Arrangements’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 220–65.

Blöndal, S. and Scarpetta, S. (1998). ‘The Retirement Decision in OECD Countries’, OECD Economic Working Papers, No. 202.

Blossfeld, H.‐P., Buchholz, S., and Hofäcker, D. (eds.) (2006). Globalization, Uncertainty and Late Careers in Society. London: Routledge (forthcoming).

Blundell, R. and Johnson, P. (1999). ‘Pensions and Retirement in the United Kingdom’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 403–35.

Boeri, T. Brugiavini, A., and Maignan, C. (2001). ‘Early Retirement: Reasons and Consequences’, in T. Boeri, A. Börsch‐Supan, A. Brugiavini, R. Disney, A. Kapteyn, and F. Peracchi (eds.), Pensions: More Information, Less Ideology. Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 29–53.

Bonoli, G. (2000). The Politics of Pension Reform: Institutions and Policy Change in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2003). ‘Social Policy through Labour Markets: Understanding National Differences in the Provision of Economic Security to Wage‐Earners’. Comparative Political Studies, 36/9: 1007–30.

(p.282) Bonoli, G. and Sarfati, H. (2002). ‘Conclusions: The Policy Implications of a Changing Labour Market–Social Protection Relationship’, in H. Sarfati and G. Bonoli (eds.), Labour Market and Social Protection Reforms in International Perspective: Parallel or Converging Tracks? Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 453–86.

Börsch‐Supan, A., Brugiavini, A., Jürgens, H., Mackenbach, J., Siegrist, J., and Weber, G. (2005). Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe—First Results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Mannheim: MEA, University of Mannheim.

—— and Schmidt, P. (2001). ‘Early Retirement in East and West Germany’, in R. Riphahn, D. J. Snower, and K. F. Zimmermann (eds.), Employment Policy in Transition: The Lessons of German Integration for the Labor Market. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 83–102.

—— and Schnabel, R. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in Germany’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 135–80.

Bosworth, B. and Burtless, G. (eds.) (1998a). Aging Societies: The Global Dimension. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

——  —— (1998b). ‘Population Aging and Economic Performance’, in B. Bosworth and G. Burtless (eds.), Aging Societies. The Global Dimension. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 1–32.

Boudon, R. (1977). Effets pervers et ordre social. Paris: Presse Universitaire de France.

Bound, J. and Burkhauser, R. V. (1999). ‘Economic Analysis of Transfer Programs Targeted on People with Disabilities’, in O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3C. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 3417–528.

Bovens, M., ‘t Hart, P., and Peters, B. G. (eds.) (2001). Success and Failure in Public Governance: A Comparative Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Bozec, G. and Mays, C. (2000). ‘The Pension Reform Process in France’. Innovation, 13/4: 373–88.

Brinton, M. C. (1993). Women and the Economic Miracle. Gender and Work in Postwar Japan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

—— (1998). ‘Institutional Embeddedness in Japanese Labor Markets’, in M. C. Brinton and V. Nee (eds.), The New Institutionalism in Sociology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 181–207.

Brown, M. K. (ed.) (1988). Remaking the Welfare State: Retrenchment and Social Policy in America and Europe. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Brugiavini, A. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in Italy’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 181–237.

—— Ebbinghaus, B., Freeman, R., Garibaldi, P., Holmund, B., Schludi, M., and Verdier, T. (2001). ‘Part II: What Do Unions Do to the Welfare States?’ in T. Boeri, A. Brugiavini, and L. Calmfors (eds.), The Role of Unions in the Twenty‐First Century: A Report to the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 157–277.

(p.283) Buechtemann, C. F. (ed.) (1993a). Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior: Interdisciplinary Approaches and International Evidence. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

—— (1993b). ‘Introduction: Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior’, in C. F. Buechtemann (ed.), Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, pp. 1–66.

—— and Walwei, U. (1996). ‘Employment Security and Dismissal Protection’, in G. Schmid, J. O'Reilly, and K. Schömann (eds.), International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 652–92.

Calmfors, L., Booth, A., Burda, M., Checchi, D., Naylor, R., and Visser, J. (2001). ‘Part I: The Future of Collective Bargaining in Europe’, in T. Boeri, A. Brugiavini, and L. Calmfors (eds.), The Role of Unions in the Twenty‐First Century: A Report to the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–134.

Card, D. and Freeman, R. B. (1993). ‘Small Differences that Matter: Canada vs. the United States’, in R. B. Freeman (ed.), Working under Different Rules. New York: Russell Sage, pp. 189–222.

Carlsson, B. (1995). ‘Developments in the Swedish Early Retirement Scheme: The Drive Against High Welfare Expenditure and Ill‐health’. Journal of Social Policy, 24/2: 193–217.

Casey, B. (1989). ‘Early Retirement: The Problem of “Instrument Substitution” and “Cost Shifting” and their Implications for Restructuring the Process of Retirement’, in W. Schmähl (ed.), Redefining the Process of Retirement: An International Perspective. Berlin: Springer‐Verlag, pp. 133–50.

—— (1992). ‘Redundancy and Early Retirement: The Interaction of Public and Private Policy in Britain, Germany and the USA’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 30/3: 425–43.

—— (1996). ‘Exit Options from the Labour Force’, in G. Schmid, J. O'Reilly, and K. Schömann (eds.), International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 379–401.

—— (1997). Incentives and Disincentives to Early and Late Retirement, ILO Conference, Geneva, Sept. 1997.

—— (2004). ‘The OECD Jobs Strategy and the European Employment Strategy: Two Views of the Labour Market and the Welfare State’. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 10: 329–52.

—— and Bruche, G. (1983). Work or Retirement? Labor Market and Social Policy for Older Workers in France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. Aldershot: Gower.

—— and Laczko, F. (1989). ‘Early Retired or Long‐Term Unemployed? The Situation of Non‐working Men Aged 55–64 from 1979 to 1986’. Work, Employment & Society, 3/4: 509–26.

—— and Wood, S. (1994). ‘Great Britain: Firm Policy, State Policy and the Employment and Unemployment of Older Workers’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 363–94.

(p.284) Castles, F. G. and Mitchell, D. (1993). ‘Worlds of Welfare and Families of Nations’, in F. G. Castles (ed.), Families of Nations: Patterns of Public Policy in Western Democracies. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 93–128.

Chen, Y.‐P. (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in the United States: Macro Issues and Policies’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 164–85.

Chiarini, B. (1999). ‘The Composition of Union Membership: The Role of Pensioners in Italy’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 37/4: 577–600.

Clark, R. L. (1991). Retirement Systems in Japan. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

—— and Anker, R. (1993). ‘Cross‐national Analysis of Labor Force Participation of Older Men and Women’. Econmic Development and Cultural Change, 41/3: 489–512.

—— York, E. A., and Anker, R. (1999). ‘Economic Development and Labor Force Participation of Older Persons’. Population Research and Policy Review, 18/5: 411–32.

Clasen, J. (2005). Reforming European Welfare States: Germany and the United Kingdom Compared. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clayton, R. and Pontusson, J. (1998). ‘Welfare‐State Retrenchment Revisited: Entitlement Cuts, Public Sector Restructuring, and Inegalitarian Trends in Advanced Capitalist Societies’. World Politics, 51/1: 67–98.

Clemens, E. S. and Cook, J. M. (1999). ‘Politics and Institutionalism: Explaining Durability and Change’. Annual Review of Sociology, 25: 441–66.

Clemens, W. (2001). Ältere Arbeitnehmer im sozialen Wandel. Von der verschmähten zur gefragten Humanressource? Opladen: Leske & Budrich.

Cochrane, A. and Clarke, J. (eds.) (1993). Comparing Welfare States: Britain in International Context. London: Sage.

Compston, H. (ed.) (1997). The New Politics of Unemployment: Radical Policy Initiatives in Western Europe. London: Routledge.

Contini, B. and Rapiti, F. M. (1999). ‘ “Young in, Old out” Revisited: New Patterns of Employment Replacement in the Italian Economy’. International Review of Applied Economics, 13/3: 395–415.

Crouch, C. (1986). ‘Sharing Public Space: States and Organized Interests in Western Europe’, in J. A. Hall (ed.), States in History. Oxford: B. Blackwell, pp. 177–210.

—— (1993). Industrial Relations and European State Traditions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— (1999). ‘Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Policy: New Life in an Old Connection’. Social Policy & Administration, 33/4: 437–57.

—— (2001). ‘Welfare State Regimes and Industrial Relations Systems: The Questionable Role of Path Dependency Theory’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 105–24.

Crouch, C., Finegold, D., and Sako, M. (1999). Are Skills the Answer? The Political Economy of Skill Creation in Advanced Industrial Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— le Galès, P., Trigilia, C., and Voelzkow, H. (eds.) (2001). Local Production Systems in Europe: Rise or Demise? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.285) Crouch, C. and Pizzorno, A. (eds.) (1978). The Resurgence of Class Conflict in Western Europe since 1968 (2 vols.). London: Macmillan.

—— and Streeck, W. (eds.) (1997). Political Economy of Modern Capitalism: Mapping Convergence and Diversity. London: Sage.

Culpepper, P. and Finegold, D. (eds.) (1999). The German Skill Machine. New York: Berghahn Books.

Daly, M. (1997). ‘Welfare States under Pressure: Cash Benefits in European Welfare States over the Last Ten Years’. Journal of European Social Policy, 7/2: 129–46.

—— (2000). ‘A Fine Balance: Women's Labor Market Participation in International Comparison’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 467–510.

Davis, E. P. (1995). Pension Funds, Retirement‐Income Security, and Capital Markets: An International Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— (1997). ‘Private Pensions in OECD Countries—The United Kingdom’, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 21.

—— (1998). ‘Population Aging and Retirement Income Provision in the European Union’, in B. Bosworth and G. Burtless (eds.), Aging Societies. The Global Dimension. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 33–110.

De Deken, J. (2003). ‘The Role of Benchmarking and the Open Method of Co‐ordination in the Transformation of European Welfare States: The Case of Old‐Age Pensions and Labour Market Reform’, ESPAnet Conference, Copenhagen.

de Jong, P. R. (2003a). ‘Disability and Disability Insurance’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 77–106.

—— (2003b). ‘The Dutch Disability Experience’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot. Ashgate, pp. 253–76.

de Vroom, B. and Blomsma, M. (1991). ‘The Netherlands: An Extreme Case’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 97–126.

—— and Naschold, F. (1994). ‘The Dialectics of Work and Welfare’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 1–18.

Delsen, L. (1996a). ‘Employment Opportunities for the Disabled’, in G. Schmid, J. O'Reilly, and K. Schömann (eds.), International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 520–50.

—— (1996b). ‘Gradual Retirement in the Netherlands’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 111–32.

—— (1996c). ‘Gradual Retirement: Lessons from the Nordic Countries and the Netherlands’. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 2/1: 55–67.

—— (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in the Netherlands’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 299–344.

(p.286) Delsen, L. Hutsebaut, M., and Reissert, B. (1999). ‘From Early to Phased Retirement in the European Union’, in J.‐Y. Boulin and R. Hoffmann (eds.), New Paths in Working Time Policy. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 183–211.

—— and Reday‐Mulvey, G. (eds.) (1996a). Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries: Macro and Micro Issues and Policies. Aldershot: Dartmouth.

—— —— (1996b). ‘Macro Issues and Policies’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 3–12.

Di Biase, R., Gandiglio, A., Cozzolino, M., and Proto, G. (1997). ‘The Retirement Provisions Mix in Italy: The Dominant Role of the Public System’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 149–94.

Diamond, P. and Gruber, J. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in the United States’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 437–73.

Doeringer, P. B. (ed.) (1990). Bridges to Retirement: Older Workers in a Changing Labor Market. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Dogan, M. and Pelassy, D. (1990). How to Compare Nations: Strategies in Comparative Politics. London: Chatham House.

Dore, R. (1997). ‘The Distinctiveness of Japan’, in C. Crouch and W. Streeck (eds.), Political Economy of Modern Capitalism. London: Sage, pp. 19–32.

—— (2000). Stock Market Capitalism: Welfare Capitalism. Japan and Germany versus the Anglo‐Saxons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dudley, G. and Richardson, J. (2001). ‘Managing Decline: Governing National Steel Production under Economic Adversity’, in M. Bovens, P. 't Hart, and B. G. Peters (eds.), Success and Failure in Public Governances. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 33–44.

Ebbinghaus, B. (1995). ‘The Siamese Twins: Citizenship Rights, Cleavage Formation, and Party‐Union Relations’, in C. Tilly (ed.), Citizenship, Identity and Social History (International Review of Social History, Supplement 3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–89.

—— (1999). ‘Does a European Social Model Exist and Can it Survive?’ in G. Huemer, M. Mesch, and F. Traxler (eds.), The Role of Employer Associations and Labour Unions in the EMU: Institutional Requirements for European Economic Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 1–26.

—— (2000). ‘Any Way out of “Exit from Work”? Reversing the Entrenched Pathways of Early Retirement’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 511–33.

—— (2001). ‘When Labour and Capital Collude: The Political Economy of Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 76–101.

—— (2002). ‘Trade Unions' Changing Role: Membership Erosion, Organisational Reform, and Social Partnership in Europe’. Industrial Relations Journal, 33/5: 465–83.

—— (2003). ‘Ever Larger Unions: Organisational Restructuring and its Impact on Union Confederations’. Industrial Relations Journal, 34/5: 446–60.

(p.287) Ebbinghaus, B. (2004). Reforming Welfare States and Social Partnership in Europe: Variations in Social Governance and Institutional Change, ISA‐RC19 Conference ‘Welfare State Restructuring’. Paris, 2–4 Sep. 2004.

—— (2005a). ‘Can Path Dependence Explain Institutional Change? Two Approaches Applied to Welfare State Reform’, MPIfG Discussion Paper, 05/02.

—— (2005b). ‘When Less is More: Selection Problems in Large‐N and Small‐N Cross‐National Comparison’. International Sociology, 20/2: 133–52.

—— and Hassel, A. (2000). ‘Striking Deals: Concertation in the Reform of Continental European Welfare States’. Journal of European Public Policy, 7/1: 44–62.

—— and Kittel, B. (2005). ‘European Rigidity vs. American Flexibility? The Institutional Adaptability of Collective Bargaining’. Work and Occupations, 32/2: 163–95.

—— and Kraus, P. A. (1997). ‘Die variable Geometrie der Subsidiarität: Zur Problematik territorialer und funktionaler Integration in Europa’, in T. König, E. Rieger, and H. Schmitt (eds.), Europäische Institutionenpolitik. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 335–58.

—— and Manow, P. (2001a). ‘Introduction: Studying Varieties of Welfare Capitalism’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London, New York: Routledge, pp. 1–24.

—— —— (eds) (2001b). Comparing Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy and Political Economy in Europe, Japan and the USA. London, New York: Routledge.

—— and Visser, J. (1997). ‘Der Wandel der Arbeitsbeziehungen im westeuropäischen Vergleich’, in S. Hradil and S. Immerfall (eds.), Die westeuropäischen Gesellschaften im Vergleich. Opladen: Leske & Budrich, pp. 333–75.

—— —— (1999). ‘When Institutions Matter: Union Growth and Decline in Western Europe, 1950–1995’. European Sociological Review, 15/2: 1–24.

—— —— (2000). Trade Unions in Western Europe since 1945 (Handbook and CD‐ROM). London: Palgrave/Macmillan.

Edwards, P. K., Hall, M., Hyman, R., Marginson, P., Sisson, K., Waddington, J., and Winchester, D. (1998). ‘Great Britain: From Partial Collectivism to Neo‐liberalism to Where?’ in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 1–54.

—— and Hyman, R. (1994). ‘Strikes and Industrial Conflict: Peace in Europe?’ in R. Hyman and A. Ferner (eds.), New Frontiers in European Industrial Relations. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 250–80.

Eghigian, G. (2000). Making Security Social: Disability, Insurance, and the Birth of the Social Entitlement State in Germany. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Ehrenberg, R. G. and Jakubson, G. H. (1993). ‘Introduction: Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior’, in C. F. Buechtemann (ed.), Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, pp. 200–14.

EIRO (document number). European Industrial Relations Online. Dublin: Dublin Foundation [www.eiro.eurofound.ie].

(p.288) Endo, Y. and Katayama, E. (1998). ‘Population Aging and Japanese Economic Performance’, in B. Bosworth and G. Burtless (eds.), Aging Societies: The Global Dimension. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 240–66.

Ernst, J. (1995). Frühverrentung in Ostdeutschland. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Esping‐Andersen, G. (1985). Politics Against Markets: The Social Democratic Road to Power. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1987). ‘Institutional Accomodation to Full Employment: A Comparison of Policy Regimes’, in H. Keman, H. Paloheimo, and P. F. Whiteley (eds.), Coping with Economic Crisis. London: Sage, pp. 83–110.

—— (1990). Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1992). ‘The Emerging Realignment between Labour Movements and Welfare States’, in M. Regini (ed.), The Future of Labour Movements. London: Sage, pp. 133–59.

—— (1993). ‘The Comparative Macro‐Sociology of Welfare States’, in L. Moreno (ed.), Social Exchange and Welfare Development. Madrid: CSIC, pp. 123–36.

—— (1996a). ‘Conclusion: Occupational Welfare in the Social Policy Nexus’, in M. Shalev (ed.), The Privatization of Social Policy? London: Macmillan, pp. 327–38.

—— (ed.) (1996b). Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies. London: Sage.

—— (1996c). ‘Welfare States without Work: The Impasse of Labour Shedding and Familialism in Continental European Social Policy’, in G. Esping‐Andersen (ed.), Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies. London: Sage, pp. 66–87.

—— (1997). ‘Hybrid or Unique? The Japanese Welfare State between Europe and America’. Journal of European Social Policy, 7/3: 179–89.

—— (1999). Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— and Korpi, W. (1984). ‘Social Policy as Class Politics in Post‐War Capitalism: Scandinavia, Austria and Germany’, in J. H. Goldthorpe (ed.), Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 179–208.

—— and Regini, M. (eds.) (2000). Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— and Sonnberger, H. (1991). ‘The Demographics of Age in Labor‐Market Management’, in J. Myles and J. Quadagno (eds.), States, Labor Markets, and the Future of Old‐Age Policy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 227–49.

—— and van Kersbergen, K. (1992). ‘Contemporary Research on Social Democracy’. Annual Review of Sociology, 18: 187–208.

Estevez‐Abe, M. (2001). ‘The Forgotten Link: The Financial Regulation of Japanese Funds in Comparative Perspective’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 190–214.

—— Iversen, T., and Soskice, D. (2001). ‘Social Protection and the Formation of Skills: A Reinterpretation of the Welfare State’, in P. A. Hall and D. Soskice (eds.), Varieties of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 145–83.

(p.289) Estienne, J.‐F. and Murakami, K. (2000). ‘The Japanese Experience of Review and Reform of Public Pension Schemes’, in E. Reynaud (ed.), Social Dialogue and Pension Reform. Geneva: International Labour Office, pp. 49–66.

EU‐Com. (1998). Modernising and Improving Social Protection in the European Union. Communication from the Commission. Brussels: EU Commission.

—— (1999a). Towards a Europe for All Ages: Promoting Prosperity and Intergenerational Solidarity, COM(1999) 221 final. Brussels: EU Commission.

—— (1999b). Towards a Single Market for Supplementary Pensions, COM (1999) 134 final. Brussels: EU Commission.

—— (2001). Supporting National Strategies for Safe and Sustainable Pensions through an Integrated Approach, COM(2001) 362 final. Brussels: EU Commission.

Eurostat (2005). European Labour Force Surveys 1973–2004. Luxembourg: Eurostat (NewCronos database).

Evans, R., Jr. (1991). ‘The Puzzle of Early Retirement and Permanent Layoffs in Japanese Labor Market’. Journal of Asian Economics, 2/2: 301–7.

Fajertag, G. and Pochet, P. (eds.) (2000). Social Pacts in Europe: New Dynamics. Brussels: ETUI.

Ferner, A., Keep, E., and Waddington, J. (1997). ‘Industrial Restructuring and EU‐wide Social Measures: Broader Lessons of the ECSC Experience’. Journal of European Public Policy, 4/1: 56–72.

Ferrera, M. (1984). Il Welfare State in Italia. Sviluppo e crisi in prospettiva comparata. Bologna: Il Mulino.

—— (1996). ‘The “Southern Model” of Welfare in Social Europe’. Journal of European Social Policy, 6/1: 17–37.

—— (2001). ‘Targeting Welfare in a “Soft” State: Italy's Winding Road to Selectivity’, in N. Gilbert (ed.), Targeting Social Benefits: International Perspectives and Trends. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, pp. 157–86.

—— and Gualmini, E. (2000). ‘Italy: Rescue from Without?’ in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 351–98.

Flora, P. (1986a). ‘Introduction’, in P. Flora (ed.), Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II. Vol. I. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. xii–xxxvi.

—— (ed.) (1986b). Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Volume IV: ‘Appendix’. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

—— and Alber, J. (1981). ‘Modernization, Democratization, and the Development of Welfare States in Western Europe’, in P. Flora and A. J. Heidenheimer (eds.), The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, pp. 37–80.

—— and Heidenheimer, A. J. (eds.) (1981). The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Fox, A. (1985). History and Heritage. The Social Origins of the British Industrial Relations System. London: G. Allen & Unwin.

(p.290) Freeman, R. (1990). ‘On the Divergence of Unionism among Developed Countries’, in R. Brunetta and C. Dell'Aringa (eds.), Labour Relations and Economic Performance. London: Macmillan, pp. 304–22.

—— (1993). ‘How Labor Fares in Advanced Economies’, in R. B. Freeman (ed.), Working under Different Rules. New York: Russell Sage, pp. 1–28.

—— and Medoff, J. L. (1984). What Do Unions Do? New York: Basic Books.

—— and Pelletier, J. (1990). ‘The Impact of Industrial Relations Legislation on British Union Density’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 28/2: 141–64.

Frick, B. and Sadowski, D. (1996). ‘A German Perspective on Disability Policy’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 117–31.

Gauron, A. (ed.) (2000). Formation tout au long de la vie. Paris: La Documentation française.

Gern, K.‐J. (1998). ‘Recent Developments in Old‐Age Pension Systems: An International Overview’, Kiel Working Papers, 863.

Giersch, H. (ed.) (1997). Reforming the Welfare State. Heidelberg: Springer.

Gilbert, N. (ed.) (2001). Targeting Social Benefits. International Perspectives and Trends. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Gillin, C. T. and Klassen, T. R. (1995). ‘Age Discrimination and Early Retirement Policies: A Comparison of Labor Market Regulation in Canada and the United States’. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 7/1: 85–102.

Goetschy, J. (1998). ‘France: The Limits of Reform’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, 355–94.

—— (1999). ‘The European Employment Strategy: Genesis and Development’. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 5/2: 117–37.

—— (2000). ‘The European Employment Strategy from Amsterdam to Stockholm: Has it Reached its Cruising Speed?’ Industrial Relations Journal, 32/5: 401–18.

—— (2003). ‘The European Employment Strategy, Multi‐level Governance, and Policy Coordination: Past, Present and Future’, in J. Zeitlin and D. Trubek (eds.), Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 59–87.

Golden, M. A. (1997). Heroic Defeats: The Politics of Job Loss. New York: Cambridge University Press.

—— Wallerstein, M., and Lange, P. (1999). ‘Postwar Trade‐Union Organization and Industrial Relations in Twelve Countries’, in H. Kitschelt, P. Lange, G. Marks, and J. Stephens (eds.), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 194–230.

Goldthorpe, J. H. (2001). ‘Causation, Statistics, and Sociology’. European Sociological Review, 17/1: 1–20.

Goodin, R. E., Headey, B., Muffels, R., and Dirven, H.‐J. (1999). The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Rein, M. (2001). ‘Regimes on Pillars: Alternative Welfare State Logics and Dynamics’. Public Administration, 79/4: 769–801.

(p.291) Gorter, C. (2000). ‘The Dutch Miracle?’ in G. Esping‐Andersen and M. Regini (eds.), Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 181–211.

Gould, A. (1993). Capitalist Welfare Systems: A Comparison of Japan, Britain and Sweden. London: Longman.

Graebner, W. (1980). A History of Retirement: The Meaning and Function of an American Institution, 1885–1978. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Gray, D. (1996). ‘How Unemployable are Displaced Manufacturing Workers? An Analysis of Adjustment Costs and Supplemental Adjustment Assistance Benefits in France’. European Journal of Political Economy, 12: 685–708.

Gray, D. M. (2001). ‘An Application of the ‘Insider‐Outsider’ Hypothesis: Categorial Adjustment Assistance Programs in France’. European Journal of Political Economy, 17/1: 139–56.

Green‐Pedersen, C. and Lindbom, A. (2002). Politics within Paths: The Trajectories of Danish and Swedish Pension Systems, ECPR Joint Sessions. Turin, 22–27 March 2002.

Grønning, T. (1998). ‘Whither the Japanese Employment System? The Position of the Japan Employers' Federation’. Industrial Relations Journal, 29/4: 295–303.

Gruber, J. and Wise, D. A. (eds.) (1999a). Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

—— —— (1999b). ‘Introduction and Summary’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 1–35.

Gualmini, E. (1998). La politica del lavoro. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Guillemard, A.‐M. (1991). ‘France: Massive Exit through Unemployment’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 127–80.

—— (2003). L'âge de l'emploi. Les sociétés à l'épreuve du vieillissement. Paris: Amand Colin.

—— and Rein, M. (1993). ‘Comparative Patterns of Retirement: Recent Trends in Developed Societies’. Annual Review of Sociology, 19: 469–503.

—— and van Gunsteren, H. (1991). ‘Pathways and their Prospects: A Comparative Interpretation of the Meaning of Early Exit’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 362–87.

Haas, E. B. (1990). When Knowledge is Power: Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Haas, P. M. (1992). ‘Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination’. International Organizations, 46/1: 1–35.

Hacker, J. S. (2002). The Divided Welfare State: The Battle over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2005). ‘Policy Drift: The Hidden Politics of US Welfare State Retrenchment’, in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds.), Beyond Continuity. Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 40–82.

(p.292) Hall, P. A. (1997). ‘The Role of Interests, Institutions, and Ideas in the Comparative Political Economy of the Industrialized Nations’, in M. I. Lichbach and A. S. Zuckerman (eds.), Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 174–207.

—— and Gingerich, D. W. (2004). ‘Varieties of Capitalism and Institutional Complementarities in the Macroeconomy: An Empirical Analysis’, MPIfG Discussion Paper, 04/5.

—— and Soskice, D. (eds.) (2001a). Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.

——  —— (2001b). ‘An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism’, in P. A. Hall and D. Soskice (eds.), Varieties of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–68.

—— and Taylor, R. C. R. (1996). ‘Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms’. Political Studies, 44: 936–57.

Hancké, B. (1993). ‘Trade Union Membership in Europe, 1960–1990: Rediscovering Local Unions’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 31/4: 593–613.

Hansen, H. (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in Denmark’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 171–205.

Hassel, A. and Ebbinghaus, B. (2000). ‘From Means to Ends: Linking Wage Moderation and Social Policy Reform’, in G. Fajertag and P. Pochet (eds.), Social Pacts in Europe: New Dynamics. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 61–84.

Haverland, M. (2001). ‘Another Dutch Miracle? Explaining Dutch and German Pension Trajectories’. Journal of European Social Policy, 11/4: 308–23.

Heclo, H. (1974). Modern Social Politics in Britain and Sweden: From Relief to Income Maintenance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Heinelt, H. (1991). Frühverrentung als politischer Prozeß. Wiesbaden: DUV.

Hemerijck, A. and Manow, P. (2001). ‘The Experience of Negotiated Reforms in the Dutch and German Welfare States’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 217–38.

—— and Schludi, M. (2000). ‘Sequences of Policy Failures and Effective Policy Responses’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. I. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 125–228.

—— and van Kersbergen, K. (1999). ‘Negotiated Policy Change: Towards a Theory of Institutional Learning in Tightly Coupled Welfare States’, in D. Braun and A. Busch (eds.), Public Policy and Political Ideas. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 168–85.

Herberttson, T. T. and Orszag, J. M. (2001). ‘The Costs of Early Retirement in the OECD’, Institute of Economic Study, University of Iceland, Working Paper, 2001/02.

Hinrichs, K. (2000a). ‘Elephants on the Move: Patterns of Public Pension Reform in OECD Countries’. European Review, 8/3: 353–78.

—— (2000b). ‘Von der Rentenversicherungs‐ zur Alterssicherungspolitik: Formen und Reformprobleme’, in K. Hinrichs, H. Kitschelt, and H. Wiesenthal (eds.), Kontingenz und Krise. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 291–317.

(p.293) Hohnerlein, E.‐M. (1998). ‘Italien’, in H.‐J. Reinhard, J. Kruse, and B. B. von Maydell (eds.), Invaliditätssicherung im Rechtsvergleich. Baden‐Baden: Nomos, pp. 231–313.

Hollingsworth, J. R. and Boyer, R. (1997a). ‘Coordination of Economic Actors and Social Systems of Production’, in J. R. Hollingsworth and R. Boyer (eds.), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–47.

—— —— (1997b). Contemporary Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

—— Schmitter, P. C., and Streeck, W. (eds.) (1994). Governing Capitalist Economies: Performance and Control of Economic Sectors. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hort, S. (2001). ‘From a Generous to a Stingy Welfare State? Sweden's Approach to Targeting’, in N. Gilbert (ed.), Targeting Social Benefits: International Perspectives and Trends. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, pp. 187–210.

Howell, C. (1992). Regulating Labor. The State and Industrial Relations Reform in Postwar France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Huber, E., Ragin, C., and Stephens, J. D. (1993). ‘Social Democracy, Christian Democracy, Constitutional Structure, and the Welfare State’. American Journal of Sociology, 99/3: 711–49.

—— and Stephens, J. D. (1998). ‘Internationalization and the Social Democratic Model: Crisis and Future Prospects’. Comparative Political Studies, 31/3: 353–97.

——  —— (2001a). ‘Welfare State and Production Regimes in the Era of Retrenchment’, in P. Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 107–45.

——  —— (2001b). Development and Crisis of the Welfare State: Parties and Policies in Global Markets. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Hughes, G. (1994). Private Pensions in OECD Countries: Ireland. Paris: OECD.

—— and Nolan, B. (1996). ‘Pension Plans and Labor Market Structure: Evidence from Ireland’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 168–84.

—— and Stewart, J. (eds.) (1999). The Role of the State in Pension Provision: Employer, Regulator, Provider. Deventer: Kluwer.

——  —— (eds.) (2000). Pensions in the European Union: Adapting to Economic and Social Change. Boston, MA: Kluwer.

Hutchens, R. (1994). ‘The United States: Employer Policies for Discouraging Work by Older People’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 395–431.

—— (1999). ‘Social Security Benefits and Employer Behavior: Evaluating Social Security Early Retirement Benefits as a Form of Unemployment Insurance’. International Economic Review, 40/3: 659–78.

ILO (1980–89). Cost of Social Security. Geneva: ILO (various issues).

—— (2000). ‘Income Security and Social Protection in a Changing World’. World Labour Report, 2000.

(p.294) Immergut, E. M. (1991). ‘Institutions, Veto Points, and Policy Results: A Comparative Analysis of Health Care’. Journal of Public Policy, 10/4: 391–416.

Inkeles, A. (1974). ‘The Emerging Social Structure of the World’. World Politics, 27/4: 467–95.

Inkeles, A. and Usui, C. (1989). ‘Retirement Patterns in Cross‐National Perspective’, in D. I. Kertzer and K. W. Schaie (eds.), Age Structuring in Comparative Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum, pp. 227–61.

Iversen, T. and Cusack, T. (2000). ‘The Causes of Welfare State Expansion: Deindustrialization or Globalization?’ World Politics, 52/April: 313–49.

Jackson, G. and Vitols, S. (2001). ‘Between Financial Committment, Market Liquidity and Corporate Governance: Occupational Pensions in Britain, Germany, Japan and the USA’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 171–89.

Jacobi, O., Keller, B., and Müller‐Jentsch, W. (1998). ‘Germany: Facing New Challenges’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 190–238.

Jacobs, K., Kohli, M., and Rein, M. (1991a). ‘The Evolution of Early Exit: A Comparative Analysis of Labor Force Participation Patterns’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 36–66.

——  ——  —— (1991b). ‘Germany: The Diversity of Pathways’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 181–221.

——  ——  —— (1991c). ‘Testing the Industry‐Mix Hypothesis of Early Exit’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 67–96.

—— and Rein, M. (1994). ‘Early Retirement: Stability, Reversal, or Redefinition’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 19–49.

Janoski, T. (1994). ‘Direct State Intervention in the Labour Market’, in T. Janoski and A. M. Hicks (eds.), The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 54–92.

JAP‐LFS (2001). Japanese Labor Force Survey 2001. Tokyo: Statistics Bureau of Japan [www.stat.go.jp].

Jefferys, S. (1995). ‘European Industrial Relations and Welfare States’. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 1/3: 317–40.

Jensen, P. H. (2003). ‘Disability Pensions: Trends and Policies in Denmark’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 139–64.

Jespen, M., Foden, D., and Hutsebaut, M. (eds.) (2002a). Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI.

—— —— —— (2002b). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in the European Union: A Comparative Analysis of Recent Experiences’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 437–60.

(p.295) Jochem, S. (1998). Die skandinavischen Wege in die Arbeitslosigkeit: Kontinuität und Wandel der nordischen Beschäftigungspolitik im internationalen Vergleich. Opladen: Leske & Budrich.

—— (2000). ‘Nordic Labour Market Policies in Transition’. West European Politics, 23/3: 115–38.

Johnson, R. (2001). ‘Why the “Average Age of Retirement” is a Misleading Measure of Labor Supply’. Monthly Labor Review, 124/12: 38–40.

Jolivet, A. (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in France’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 245–74.

Kaneko, Y. (1998). ‘The Employment Policy for Aged Workers and the Financing of Unemployment Insurance’. Review of Population and Social Policy, 7: 45–60.

Kangas, O. and Palme, J. (1992). ‘The Private–Public Mix in Pension Policy’, in J. E. Kolberg (ed.), The Study of Welfare State Regimes. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 199–237.

—— —— (1996). ‘The Development of Occupational Pensions in Finland and Sweden: Class Politics and Institutional Feedbacks’, in M. Shalev (ed.), The Privatization of Social Policy? London: Macmillan, pp. 211–40.

Kapteyn, A. and de Vos, K. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in the Netherlands’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 269–303.

Katzenstein, P. J. (1985). Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Katznelson, I. and Hanagan, M. P. (eds.) (1991). The Working‐Class and the Welfare State. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Kii, T. (1991). ‘Retirement in Japan’, in J. Myles and J. Quadagno (eds.), States, Labor Markets, and the Future of Old‐Age Policy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 268–89.

Kimura, T. and Oka, M. (2001). ‘Japan's Current Policy Focus on Longer Employment for Older People’, in V. W. Marshall, W. R. Heinz, H. Krüger, and A. Verma (eds.), Restructuring Work and the Life Course. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

—— Takagi, I., Oka, M., and Omori, M. (1994). ‘Japan: Shukko, Teinen and Re‐employment’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 247–307.

Kimura, Y. (1997). ‘The Role of the Japanese Company in Compensating Income Loss after Retirement’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 195–219.

King, D. and Wood, S. (1999). ‘The Political Economy of Neoliberalism: Britain and the United States in the 1990s’, in H. Kitschelt, P. Lange, G. Marks, and J. Stephens (eds.), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 371–97.

Kitschelt, H., Lange, P., Marks, G., and Stephens, J. (1999). ‘Convergence and Divergence in Advanced Capitalist Democracies’, in H. Kitschelt, P. Lange, G. Marks, and J. Stephens (eds.), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 427–60.

(p.296) Kittel, B. (1999). ‘Sense and Sensitivity in Pooled Analysis of Political Data’. European Journal of Political Research, 35: 225–53.

Kjellberg, A. (1983). Facklig oranisering i tolv länder. Lund: Arkiv.

—— (1992). ‘Sweden: Can the Model Survive?’ in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Industrial Relations in the New Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 88–142.

—— (1998). ‘Sweden: Restoring the Model?’ in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 74–117.

Klammer, U. (1997). Alterssicherung in Italien: Eine institutionelle, theoretische und empirische Analyse. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.

Knoke, D., Pappi, F. U., Broadbent, J., and Tsujinaka, Y. (1996). Comparing Policy Networks: Labor Politics in the U.S., Germany, and Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Knuth, M. and Kalina, T. (2001). Unemployment as a Transition From Employment to Retirement in West Germany. Gelsenkirchen: Institut Arbeit und Technik.

Kochan, T. A., Katz, H. C., and McKersie, R. B. (1994). The Transformation of American Industrial Relations. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Kohl, J. (1993). ‘Der Wohlfahrtsstaat in vergleichender Perspektive: Anmerkungen zu Esping‐Andersens “The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism” ’. Zeitschrift für Sozialreform, 39/2: 67–82.

—— (2000). ‘Der Sozialstaat: Die deutsche Version des Wohlfahrtsstaates—Überlegungen zu seiner typologischen Verortung’, in S. Leibfried and U. Wagschal (eds.), Der deutsche Sozialstaat: Bilanzen, Reformen, Perspektiven. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 115–52.

Kohli, M. (1985). ‘Die Institutionalisierung des Lebensverlaufs: Historische Befunde und theoretische Argumente’. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 37/1: 1–29.

—— (1986). ‘Social Organization and Subjective Construction of the Life Course’, in A. B. Sørensen (ed.), Human Development and the Life Course: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 271–92.

—— (1987). ‘Retirement and the Moral Economy: A Historical Interpretation of the German Case’. Journal of Ageing Studies, 1/1: 125–44.

—— and Rein, M. (1991). ‘The Changing Balance of Work and Retirement’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–35.

—— —— Guillemard, A.‐M., and van Gunsteren, H. (eds.) (1991). Time for Retirement: Comparative Studies on Early Exit from the Labor Force. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kolberg, J. E. (ed.) (1992). The Study of Welfare State Regimes. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

—— and Esping‐Andersen, G. (1991). ‘Welfare States and Employment Regimes’, in J. E. Kolberg (ed.), The Welfare State as Employer. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 3–35.

(p.297) Korpi, W. (1983). The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

—— (1995). ‘The Development of Social Citizenship in France since 1930: Comparative Perspectives’, in B. Palier (ed.), Comparing Social Welfare Systems in Europe: Vol. 1. Oxford Conference: France–United Kingdom. Paris: MIRE, pp. 9–47.

—— (2001). ‘Contentious Institutions: An Augmented Rational‐Action Analysis of the Origins and Path Dependency of Welfare State Institutions in Western Countries’. Rationality and Society, 13/2: 235–83.

—— and Palme, J. (1998). ‘The Paradox of Redistribution and Strategies of Equality: Welfare State Institutions, Inequality, and Poverty in the Western Countries’. American Sociological Review, 1998/63: 661–87.

—— and Shalev, M. (1980). ‘Strikes, Power, and Politics in Western Nations, 1900–1976’. Political Power and Social Theory, 1: 301–34.

Kruse, A. (2003). ‘Social Security and Disability in Sweden’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 369–92.

Kuptsch, C. and Zeitzer, I. (2001). ‘Public Disability Programs under New Complex Pressures’, in D. D. Hoskins, D. Dobbernack, and C. Kuptsch (eds.), Social Security at the Dawn of the 21st Century: Topical Issues and New Approaches. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, pp. 205–30.

Kvist, J. (1999). ‘Welfare Reform in the Nordic Countries in the 1990s: Using Fuzzy‐Set Theory to Access Conformity to Ideal Types’. Journal of European Social Policy, 9/3: 231–52.

Laczko, F. (1988). ‘Partial Retirement: An Alternative to Early Retirement? A Comparison of Phased Retirement Schemes in the United Kingdom, France and Scandinavia’. International Social Security Review: 147–69.

—— and Phillipson, C. (1991a). Changing Work and Retirement: Social Policy and the Older Worker. Milton Keynes: Open University.

—— —— (1991b). ‘Great Britain: The Contradictions of Early Exit’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 222–51.

Lane, C. (1995). Industry and Society in Europe: Stability and Change in Britain, Germany and France. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.

Lange, P. (1984). ‘Unions, Workers and Wage Regulation: The Rational Bases of Consent’, in J. H. Goldthorpe (ed.), Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 98–123.

—— and Meadwell, H. (1991). ‘Typologies of Democratic Systems: From Political Inputs to Political Economy’, in H. J. Wiarda (ed.), New Directions in Comparative Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 82–117.

Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1987). The End of Organized Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Latulippe, D. (1996). ‘Effective Retirement Age and the Duration of Retirement in the Industrial Countries between 1950 and 1990’. ILO Issues in Social Protection, Discussion Paper 2, Geneva: ILO.

—— and Turner, J. A. (2000). ‘Partial Retirement and Pension Policy in Industrialized Countries’. Industrial Labour Review, 139/2: 179–95.

(p.298) Lazear, E. P. (1979). ‘Why is there Mandatory Retirement?’ Journal of Political Economy, 87/6: 1261–84.

—— (1986). ‘Retirement from the Labor Force’, in O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 305–53.

—— (1990). ‘Pensions and Deferred Benefits as Strategic Compensation’. Industrial Relations, 29/2: 263–80.

Lehmbruch, G. and Schmitter, P. C. (eds.) (1982). Patterns of Corporatist Policy‐Making. London: Sage.

Leibfried, S. (1994). ‘Sozialstaat oder Wohlfahrtsgesellschaft: Thesen zu einem japanisch‐deutschen Sozialpolitikvergleich’. Soziale Welt, 45/4: 389–410.

Levi, M. (2000). ‘The Economic Turn in Comparative Politics’. Comparative Political Studies, 33/6/7: 822–44.

Levy, J. D. (2000). ‘France: Directing Adjustment?’ in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 308–50.

Lieberson, S. (1991). ‘Small N's and Big Conclusions: An Examination of the Reasoning in Comparative Studies Based on a Small Number of Cases’. Social Forces, 70/2: 307–20.

—— (1994). ‘More on the Uneasy Case for Using Mill‐Type Methods in Small‐N Comparative Studies’. Social Forces, 72/4: 1225–37.

Lonsdale, S. and Aylward, M. (1996). ‘A United Kingdom Perspective on Disability Policy’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 93–115.

Lumsdaine, R. L. and Mitchell, O. S. (1999). ‘New Development in the Economic Analysis of Retirement’, in O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3C. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 3261–307.

Lutjens, E. (1996). ‘Supplementary Pensions in the Netherlands’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 16–23.

Lynch, J. (2001). ‘The Age‐Orientation of Social Policy Regimes in OECD Countries’. Journal of Social Policy, 30/3: 411–36.

Lynes, T. (1997). ‘The British Case’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 309–51.

Mahoney, J. (2003). ‘Strategies of Causal Assessment in Comparative Historical Analysis’, in J. Mahoney and D. Rueschemeyer (eds.), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 337–72.

Manow, P. (1997). ‘Social Insurance and the German Political Economy’, MPIfG Disscussion Paper, 2/97.

—— and Seils, E. (2000). ‘Adjusting Badly: The German Welfare State, Structural Change and the Open Economy’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 264–307.

(p.299) Mares, I. (2001a). ‘Firms and the Welfare State: When, Why and How Does Social Policy Matter to Employers’, in P. A. Hall and D. Soskice (eds.), Varieties of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 184–212.

—— (2001b). ‘Enterprise Reorganization and Social Insurance Reform: The Development of Early Retirement in France and Germany’. Governance, 14/3: 295–317.

—— (2003). The Politics of Social Risk. Business and Welfare State Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Marsden, D. (1999). A Theory of Employment Systems: Micro‐Foundations of Societal Diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marshall, T. H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class. The Marshall Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, C. J. (2000). Stuck in Neutral: Business and the Politics of Human Capital Investment Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Martin, J. P. (1998). ‘What Works Among Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence from OECD Countries' Experiences’, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 35.

Maruo, N. (1986). ‘The Development of the Welfare Mix in Japan’, in R. Rose and R. Shiratori (eds.), The Welfare State: East and West. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 64–79.

Mayer, K. U. and Müller, W. (1986). ‘The State and the Structure of the Life Course’, in A. B. Sørensen (ed.), Human Development and the Life Course: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 217–45.

—— and Schoepflin, U. (1989). ‘The State and the Life Course’. Annual Review of Sociology, 15: 187–209.

Mayntz, R. and Nedelmann, B. (1987). ‘Eigendynamische soziale Prozesse’. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 39: 648–68.

Merton, R. K. (1936). ‘The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action’. American Sociological Review, 1/6: 894–904.

—— (1967). On Theoretical Sociology. Five Essays, Old and New. New York: Free Press.

—— {1984}. ‘Socially Expected Durations: A Case Study of Concept Formation in Sociology’, in P. Sztompka (ed.), Robert K. Merton: On Social Structure and Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996, pp. 162–9.

Milgrom, P. and Roberts, J. (1994). ‘Complementarities and Systems: Understanding Japanese Economic Organization’. Estudios Economicos, 9: 3–42.

MIRE (ed.) (1997). Comparing Social Welfare Systems in Southern Europe, Vol. III. Florence Conference: Southern Europe. Paris: Mire.

Mirkin, B. A. (1987). ‘Early Retirement as a Labor Force Policy: An International Overview’. Monthly Labor Review, 110/3: 19–33.

MISSOC (1998–2003) Mutual Information System on Social Protection in the European Union Brussles: European Commission. [www.europa.eu.int]

Moore, B., Jr. (1978). Injustice. The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

(p.300) Morin, M.‐L. and Vicens, C. (2001). ‘Redundancy, Business Flexibility and Workers' Security: Findings of a Comparative European Survey’. Industrial Labour Review, 140/1: 45–67.

Morris, R. (1988). ‘Changing Patterns of Public Social Welfare Policy in Nine Countries, 1975–1986: Predicting Future Trends’, in R. Morris (ed.), Testing the Limits of Social Welfare: International Perspectives on Policy Changes in Nine Countries. Hanover, CT: University Press of New England, pp. 1–38.

Mosley, H. (1998). ‘Short‐Time Work Schemes in France, Germany, Italy and Spain: From Cyclical to Structural Intervention’, in P. Auer (ed.), Employment Policies in Focus: Labour Markets and Labour Market Policy in Europe and Beyond—International Experiences. Berlin: IAS/MISEP, pp. 172–87.

—— and Kruppe, T. (1996). ‘Employment Stabilization through Short‐time Work’, in G. Schmid, J. O'Reilly, and K. Schömann (eds.), International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 594–622.

Myles, J. (1983). ‘Comparative Public Policies for the Elderly: Framework and Resources for Analysis’, in A.‐M. Guillemard (ed.), Old Age and the Welfare State. London: Sage, pp. 19–44.

—— (1989). Old Age in the Welfare State: The Political Economy of Public Pensions, 2nd edn. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

—— and Pierson, P. (2001). ‘The Comparative Political Economy of Pension Reform’, in P. Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 305–33.

Naegele, G. (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in Germany’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 207–43.

—— and Walker, A. (2002). Ageing and Social Policy: Towards an Agenda for Policy Learning Between Britain and Germany. London: Anglo‐German Foundation.

Naschold, F. and de Vroom, B. (eds.) (1994). Regulating Employment and Welfare: Company and National Policies of Labour Force Participation at the End of Worklife in Industrial Countries. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

—— —— and Casey, B. (1994). ‘Regulating Employment and Retirement: An International Comparison between Firms and Countries’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 433–89.

—— Oppen, M., Peinemann, H., and Rosenow, J. (1994). ‘Germany: The Concerted Transition from Work to Welfare’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 117–82.

Natali, D. and Rhodes, M. (2004). ‘Trade‐offs and Veto Players: Reforming Pensions in France and Italy’. French Politics, 2: 1–23.

Ney, S. (2000). ‘Are You Sitting Comfortably … Then We'll Begin: Three Gripping Policy Stories about Pension Reform’. Innovation, 13/4: 341–71.

NOSOSKO (1998). Förtida utträde från arbetslivet 1987–1996: En jämförelse mellan de nordiska länderna. Copenhagen: Nordisk Socialstatistisk Komité.

(p.301) NOSOSKO (2000). Social Protection in the Nordic Countries 1998: Scope, Expenditure and Financing. Copenhagen: Nordisk Socialstatistisk Komité.

Nullmeier, F. and Rüb, F. W. (1993). Die Transformation der Sozialpolitik. Frankfurt: Campus.

Obinger, H. and Wagschal, U. (1998). ‘Drei Welten des Wohlfahrtsstaates? Das Stratifizierungskonzept in der Clusteranalytischen Überprüfung’, in S. Lessenich and I. Ostner (eds.), Welten des Wohlfahrtskapitalismus. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 109–35.

O'Day, B. and Berkowitz, M. (2001). ‘Disablity Benefit Programs: Can We Improve the Return‐to‐Work Record?’ in G. L. Albrecht, K. D. Seelman, and M. Bury (eds.), Handbook of Disability Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 633–41.

O'Donnell, R. and O'Reardon, C. (2000). ‘Social Partnership in Ireland's Economic Transformation’, in G. Fajertag and P. Pochet (eds.), Social Pacts in Europe: New Dynamics. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 237–56.

OCED (1963). Manpower Statistics, 1950–62. Paris: OECD.

—— (1985–2004). Labour Force Statistics 1963/83–1983/2003. Paris: OECD (various years).

—— (1988). Reforming Public Pensions. Paris: OECD.

—— (1992). ‘Private Pensions and Public Policy’, OECD Social Policy Studies, 9.

—— (1995a). The Labour Market and Older Workers. Paris: OECD.

—— (1995b). The Transition from Work to Retirement. Paris: OECD.

—— (1998a). Employment Outlook 1998. Paris: OECD.

—— (1998b). Financial Market Trends. No. 69. Paris: OECD.

—— (1998c). Maintaining Prosperity in an Ageing Society. Paris: OECD.

—— (1998d). ‘Workforce Ageing in OECD Countries’, in Employment Outlook 1998. Paris: OECD, pp. 123–51.

—— (1999). Statistical Compendium. Paris: OECD.

—— (2000). Reforms for an Ageing Society. Paris: OECD.

—— (2001a). Ageing and Income: Financial Resources and Retirement in 9 OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.

—— (2001b). Employment Outlook 2001. Paris: OECD.

—— (2001c). Social Expenditure Database 1980–1998 (SOCX). Paris: OECD.

—— (2004). Social Expenditure Database 1980–2001 (SOCX). Paris: OECD.

Olofsson, G. and Petersson, J. (1994). ‘Sweden: Policy Dilemmas of the Changing Age Structure in a “Work Society” ’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 183–245.

O'Loughlin, A. (1999). ‘Social Policy and Older People in Ireland’, in S. Quin, P. Kennedy, A. O'Donnell, and G. Kiely (eds.), Contemporary Irish Social Policy. Dublin: University College Dublin, pp. 221–42.

Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

—— (1982). The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven, CT / London: Yale University Press.

(p.302) Oswald, C. (2001). Das Ausscheiden aus dem Erwerbsleben in Deutschland und Grabritannien: Eine empirische Untersuchung mit Paneldaten. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Øverbye, E. (1997). ‘Retirement from the Labour Force: A Multiple Choice Exercise? Pre‐Retirement in the Nordic Countries in a European Context’, in A. Bosco and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Social Protection in Europe: Facing up to Changes and Challenges. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 139–55.

Paci, M. (1989). ‘Public and Private in the Italian Welfare System’, in P. Lange and M. Regini (eds.), State, Market, and Social Regulation: New Perspectives on Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 217–34.

Palier, B. (1997). ‘A ‘Liberal’ Dynamic in the Transformation of the French Social Welfare System’, in J. Clasen (ed.), Social Insurance in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 84–106.

—— (2000). ‘“Defrosting” the French Welfare State’. West European Politics, 23/2: 113–36.

—— and Bonoli, G. (1995). ‘Entre Bismarck et Beveridge: “Crises” de la Sécurité Sociale et Politique(s)’. Revue française de science politique, 4/45: 668–99.

Palme, M. and Svensson, I. (1999). ‘Social Security, Occupational Pensions, and Retirement in Sweden’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 355–402.

Pampel, F. C. and Weiss, J. A. (1983). ‘Economic Development, Pension Policies, and the Labor Force Participation of Aged Males: A Cross‐National, Longitudinal Approach’. American Journal of Sociology, 89/2: 350–72.

—— and Williamson, J. B. (1989). Age, Class, Politics, and the Welfare State. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Paulli, A. and Tagliabue, M. (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in Italy’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 275–98.

Pemperton, H. E. (1936). ‘The Curve of Culture Diffusion Rate’. American Sociological Review, 1/4: 547–56.

Petersen, J. H. (1989). ‘The Process of Retirement in Denmark: Trends, Public Discussion and Institutional Framework’, in W. Schmähl (ed.), Redefining the Process of Retirement: An International Perspective. Berlin: Springer, pp. 63–81.

Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations. A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row.

Pierson, P. (1993). ‘When Effect Becomes Cause: Policy Feedback and Political Change’. World Politics, 45/4: 595–628.

—— (1994). Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the Politics of Retrenchment. New York: Cambridge University Press.

—— (1997). ‘The Politics of Pension Reform’, in K. G. Banting and R. Boadway (eds.), Reform of Retirement Income Policy. Kingston/Ontario: School of Policy Studies, pp. 273–93.

—— (2000a). ‘Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics’. American Political Science Review, 94/2: 251–67.

(p.303) Pierson, P. (2000b). ‘Not Just What, but When: Timing and Sequence in Political Processes’. Studies of American Political Development, 14/Spring: 72–92.

—— (2001a). ‘Post‐industrial Pressures on the Mature Welfare States’, in P. Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 80–104.

—— (2001b). ‘Coping with Permanent Austerity: Welfare State Restructuring in Affluent Democracies’, in P. Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 410–56.

—— (ed.) (2001c). The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— and Leibfried, S. (1995). ‘Multitiered Institutions and the Making of Social Policy’, in S. Leibfried and P. Pierson (eds.), European Social Policy: Between Fragmentation and Integration. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 1–40.

Pizzorno, A. (1978). ‘Political Exchange and Collective Identity in Industrial Conflict’, in C. Crouch and A. Pizzorno (eds.), The Resurgence of Class Conflict in Western Europe since 1968, Vol. II: ‘Comparative Analyses’. London: Macmillan, pp. 277–98.

Polanyi, K. (1944). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of our Time. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Pontusson, J. (1997). ‘Between Neo‐Liberalism and the German Model: Swedish Capitalism in Transition’, in C. Crouch and W. Streeck (eds.), Political Economy of Modern Capitalism. London: Sage, pp. 55–70.

Prinz, C. (ed.) (2003). European Disability Pension Policies: 11 Country Trends 1970–2002. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Przeworski, A. and Teune, H. (1970). The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: Wiley.

Quadagno, J. (1987). ‘Theories of the Welfare State’. Annual Review of Sociology, 13: 109–28.

Quin, S., Kennedy, P., O'Donnell, A., and Kiely, G. (eds.) (1999). Contemporary Irish Social Policy. Dublin: University College Dublin.

Quinn, J. and Burkhauser, R. V. (1990). ‘Work and Retirement’, in R. H. Binstock and L. K. George (eds.), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 3rd edn. New York: Academic Press, pp. 307–27.

Ragin, C. C. (1987). The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

—— (2000). Fuzzy‐Set Social Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

—— and Becker, H. S. (eds.) (1992). What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reday‐Mulvey, G. (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in France’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 45–68.

Regalia, I. and Regini, M. (1998). ‘Italy: The Dual Character of Industrial Relations’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 459–503.

(p.304) Regini, M. and Regalia, I. (1997). ‘Employers, Unions and the State: The Resurgence of Concertation in Italy?’ West European Politics, 20/1: 210–30.

Rein, M. (1996). ‘Is America Exceptional? The Role of Occupational Welfare in the United States and the European Community’, in M. Shalev (ed.), The Privatization of Social Policy? London: Macmillan, pp. 27–43.

—— and Rainwater, L. (eds.) (1986a). ‘The Public/Private Mix’, in M. Rein and L. Rainwater (eds.), Public/Private Interplay in Social Protection: A Comparative Study. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 3–24.

—— —— (1986b). Public/Private Interplay in Social Protection: A Comparative Study. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

—— and Turner, J. A. (2001). ‘Public–Private Interactions: Mandatory Pensions in Australia, the Netherlands and Switzerland’. Review of Population and Social Policy, 10: 107–53.

—— and Wadensjö, E. (1997a). ‘The Emerging Role of Enterprise in Social Policy’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 1–32.

—— —— (eds.) (1997b). Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Reinhard, H.‐J., Kruse, J., and von Maydell, B. B. (eds.) (1998). Invaliditätssicherung im Rechtsvergleich. Baden‐Baden: Nomos.

Reynaud, E. (1996). ‘Financing Models for Pay‐As‐You‐Go Systems’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 71–81.

—— (1997a). ‘France: A National and Contractual Second Tier’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 65–98.

—— (1997b). ‘Private Pensions in OECD Countries: France’, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 30.

—— (ed.) (2000). Social Dialogue and Pension Reform: United Kingdom, United States, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Italy, Spain. Geneva: International Labour Office.

—— apRoberts, L., Davies, B., and Hughes, G. (eds.) (1996). International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum.

Rhodes, M. (ed.) (1996). Southern European Welfare States. London: Frank Cass.

—— (2001) ‘The Political Economy of Social Pacts: “Competitive Corporatism” and European Welfare Reform’, in P. Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 165–94.

Rieger, E. (1991). ‘Strategien der Institutionenbildung. Über die Bedeutung von Wahlverwandtschaften im Prozeß der Entstehung des Wohlfahrtsstaates’. Journal für Sozialforschung: 157–75.

—— (1998). ‘Soziologische Theorie und Sozialpolitik im entwickelten Wohlfahrtsstaat’, in S. Lessenich and I. Ostner (eds.), Welten des Wohlfahrtskapitalismus: Der Sozialstaat in vergleichender Perspektive. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 59–89.

(p.305) Riphahn, R. (1997). ‘Disability, Retirement and Unemployment—Substitute Pathways for Labour Force Exit? An Empirical Test for the Case of Germany’. Applied Economics, 29/5: 551–61.

Roche, W. K. (1997). ‘Between Regime Fragmentation and Realignment: Irish Industrial Relations in the 1990s’. Industrial Relations Journal, 29/2: 112–25.

Rogers, J. and Streeck, W. (eds.) (1995). Works Councils: Consultation, Representation, and Cooperation in Industrial Relations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rokkan, S. (1980). ‘Eine Familie von Modellen für die vergleichende Geschichte Europas’. Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 9/2: 118–28.

—— (1999). State Formation, Nation‐Building and Mass Politics in Europe. The Theory of Stein Rokkan (ed. by P. Flora, S. Kuhnle, and D. Urwin). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rose, R. (1985). ‘The Significance of Public Employment’, in R. Rose (ed.), Public Employment in Western Nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–53.

—— and Urwin, D. (1969). ‘Social Cohesion, Political Parties and Strains in Regimes’. Comparative Political Studies, 2/1: 7–67.

Rosenow, J. and Naschold, F. (1994). Die Regulierung der Altersgrenzen: Strategien von Unternehmen und die Politik des Staates. Berlin: Sigma.

Rothenbacher, F. (2004). ‘The Welfare State of the Civil (or Public) Servants in Europe: A Comparison of the Pension Systems for Civil (or Public) Servants in France, Great Britain, and Germany’, MZES Working Paper, 74.

Rothstein, B. (1992). ‘Labor‐market Institutions and Working‐class Strength’, in S. Steinmo, K. Thelen, and F. Longstreth (eds.), Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 33–56.

Russig, H. (1986). ‘Redundancy and the Public/Private Mix’, in M. Rein and L. Rainwater (eds.), Public/Private Interplay in Social Protection: A Comparative Study. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 149–201.

Sackmann, R. (1998). Konkurrierende Generationen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt: Altersstrukturierung in Arbeitsmarkt und Sozialpolitik. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

—— (2001). ‘Age and Labour‐Market Chances in International Comparison’. European Sociological Review, 17/4: 373–87.

Samek Lodovici, M. (2000a). ‘The Dynamics of Labour Market Reform in European Countries’, in G. Esping‐Andersen and M. Regini (eds.), Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 30–65.

—— (2000b). ‘Italy: The Long Times of Consensual Re‐regulation’, in G. Esping‐Andersen and M. Regini (eds.), Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 271–306.

Sartori, G. (1994). ‘Compare Why and How: Comparing, Miscomparing and the Comparative Method’, in M. Dogan and A. Kazancigil (eds.), Comparing Nations: Concepts, Strategies, Substance. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 14–34.

Sass, S. A. (1997). The Promise of Private Pensions: The First Hundred Years. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(p.306) Savolainen, J. (1994). ‘The Rationality of Drawing Big Conclusions Based on Small Samples in Defense of Mill's Methods’. Social Forces, 72/4: 1217–24.

Scarbrough, E. (2000). ‘West European Welfare States: The Old Politics of Retrenchment’. European Journal of Political Research, 38: 225–59.

—— (2002). The Political Perils of Privatized Pensions: Stakeholder Pensions in Britain, ECPR Joint Sessions. Turin, 22–27 March 2002.

Scharpf, F. W. (1991). Crisis and Choice in European Social Democracy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

—— (1997). Games Real Actors Play: Actor‐Centered Institutionalism in Policy Research. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

—— (2000). ‘Economic Changes, Vulnerabilities, and Institutional Capabilities’, in F. W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds.), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, Vol. I. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 21–124.

—— (2001). ‘Employment and the Welfare State: A Continental Dilemma’, in B. Ebbinghaus and P. Manow (eds.), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge, pp. 270–83.

—— and Schmidt, V. (eds.) (2000). Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Scherer, P. (2002). ‘Age of Withdrawal from the Labour Force in OECD Countries’, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, 49.

Scheuer, S. (1998). ‘Denmark: A Less Regulated Model’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 146–70.

Schludi, M. (2001). ‘The Politics of Pensions in European Social Insurance Countries’, MPIfG Discussion Paper, 01/11.

—— (2005). The Reform of Bismarckian Pension Systems: A Comparison of Pension Politics in Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Sweden. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Schmähl, W. (1997). ‘The Public–Private Mix in Pension Provision in Germany: The Role of Employer‐based Pension Arrangements and the Influence of Public Activties’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 99–148.

—— and Böhm, S. (1994). ‘Occupational Pension Schemes in the Private and Public Sector in the Federal Republic of Germany—An Overview’. Zentrum für Sozialpolitik, Universität Bremen, Arbeitspapier, 5.

—— —— (1996). ‘Supplementary Pensions in the Federal Republic of Germany’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 7–15.

—— George, R., and Oswald, C. (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in Germany’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 69–93.

Schmidt, V. A. (1996). ‘Industrial Policy and Policies of Industry in Advanced Industrialized Nations (Review Article)’. Comparative Politics, 28: 225–48.

(p.307) Schmitter, P. C. (1974). ‘Still the Century of Corporatism?’ Revue of Politics, 36: 85–131.

—— and Lehmbruch, G. (eds.) (1981). Trends Toward Corporatist Intermediation. Beverly Hills: Sage.

—— and Streeck, W. {1981}. ‘The Organization of Business Interests: Studying the Associative Action of Business in Advanced Industrial Societies’, MPIfG Discussion Paper, 99/1, 1999.

Schömann, K., Felchtner, S., Mytzek, R., and Schömann, I. (2000). ‘Moving Towards Employment Insurance: Unemployment Insurance and Employment Protection in the OECD’, WZB Discussion Papers, FS‐I‐00‐201. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum.

Schwartz, H. (1994). ‘Small States in Big Trouble: State Reorganization in Australia, Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden in the 1980s’. World Politics, 46/4: 527–55.

Seeleib‐Kaiser, M. and Thränhardt, A. M. (2000). ‘Wohlfahrtsgesellschaft statt Wohlfahrtsstaat in Japan: Zwischen westlichen Vorbildern und eigenständigem Modell’, in H. Obinger and U. Wagschal (eds.), Der gezügelte Wohlfahrtsstaat: Sozialpolitik in reichen Industrienationen. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 283–328.

Seitan, M. (2001). The Irish Pension System and Reform, World Bank Conference. Vienna, April 6–7, 2001.

Sengenberger, W. (1992). ‘Intensified Competition, Industrial Restructuring and Industrial Relations’. Industrial Labour Review, 131/2: 139–54.

Settersten, R. A. and Mayer, K. U. (1997). ‘The Measurement of Age, Age Structure, and the Life Course’. Annual Review of Sociology, 23: 233–61.

Shalev, M. (1992). ‘The Resurgence of Labour Quiescence’, in M. Regini (ed.), The Future of Labour Movements. London: Sage, pp. 102–32.

—— (ed.) (1996). The Privatization of Social Policy? Occupational Welfare and the Welfare State in America, Scandinavia and Japan. London: Macmillan.

—— (2006). ‘Limits of and Alternatives to Multiple Regression in Comparative Research’. Comparative Social Research, 25 (forthcoming).

Sheppard, H. L. (1991). ‘The United States: The Privatization of Exit’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 252–83.

Shinkawa, T. and Pempel, T. J. (1996). ‘Occupational Welfare and the Japanese Experience’, in M. Shalev (ed.), The Privatization of Social Policy? London: Macmillan, pp. 280–326.

Shirai, T. (1983). ‘A Theory of Enterprise Unionism’, in T. Shirai (ed.), Contemporary Industrial Relations in Japan. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 117–44.

Shorter, E. and Tilly, C. (1974). Strikes in France 1830–1968. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skocpol, T. (1984). ‘Emerging Agendas and Recurrent Strategies in Historical Sociology’, in T. Skocpol (ed.), Vision and Method in Historical Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 356–91.

—— (1992). Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

(p.308) Sørensen, A. B. (1992). ‘Retirement, Individual Performance and Labour Market Structures’, in W. J. A. van den Heuvel, R. Illsely, A. Jamieson, and C. P. M. Knipscheer (eds.), Opportunities and Challenges in an Ageing Society. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, pp. 73–89.

—— (1994). ‘Firms, Wages, and Incentives’, in N. J. Smelser and R. Swedberg (eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, pp. 504–28.

Sorge, A. (1976). ‘The Evolution of Industrial Democracy in the Countries of the European Community’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 14/3: 274–94.

Soskice, D. (1991). ‘The Institutional Infrastructure for International Competitiveness: A Comparative Analysis of the UK and Germany’, in A. B. Atkinson and R. Brunetta (eds.), Economics for the New Europe. London: Macmillan, pp. 45–66.

—— (1999). ‘Divergent Production Regimes: Coordinated and Uncoordinated Market Economies in the 1980s and 1990s’, in H. Kitschelt, P. Lange, G. Marks, and J. Stephens (eds.), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 101–34.

SSA (1999). Social Security Programs Throughout the World, 1999. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration.

SSA/ISSA (2003). Social Security Programs Throughout the World: The Americas, 2003. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration.

—— (2004a). Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2004. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration.

—— (2004b). Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2004. Washington, DC: Social Security Administration.

Statistisches Bundesamt (2005). Mikrozensus (internal data). Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.

Steinmeyer, H.‐D. (1996). ‘Labor Mobility and Supplementary Pensions’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 185–90.

Stephens, J. D. (1979). The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

—— (1996). ‘The Scandinavian Welfare States: Achievements, Crisis and Prospects’, in G. Esping‐Andersen (ed.), Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies. London: Sage, pp. 32–65.

Stinchcombe, A. L. (1965). ‘Social Structure and Organizations’, in J. G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: R. McNally, pp. 142–93.

—— (1968). Constructing Social Theories. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Stock, J. H. and Wise, D. A. (1990). ‘Pensions, the Option Value of Work and Retirement’. Econometrica, 58/5: 1151–80.

Streeck, W. (1987a). ‘Industrial Relations and Industrial Change: The Restructuring of the World Automobile Industry in the 1970s and 1980s’. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 8: 437–62.

(p.309) Streeck, W. (1987b). ‘Vielfalt und Interdependenz. Überlegungen zur Rolle von intermediären Organisationen in sich ändernden Umwelten’. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 39/3: 471–95.

—— (1992). Social Institutions and Economic Performance. Studies of Industrial Relations in Advanced Capitalist Economies. London: Sage.

—— (1995). ‘Works Councils in Western Europe: From Consultation to Participation’, in J. Rogers and W. Streeck (eds.), Works Councils: Consultation, Representation, and Cooperation in Industrial Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 312–49.

—— (1997a). ‘Beneficial Constraints: On the Economic Limits of Rational Voluntarism’, in J. R. Hollingsworth and R. Boyer (eds.), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 197–219.

—— (1997b). ‘German Capitalism: Does it Exist? Can it Survive?’ in C. Crouch and W. Streeck (eds.), Political Economy of Modern Capitalism. London: Sage, pp. 33–54.

—— (2001). ‘Introduction: Explorations into the Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism in Germany and Japan’, in W. Streeck and K. Yamamura (eds.), The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–38.

—— and Thelen, K. (2005). ‘Introduction: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies’, in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds.), Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–39.

—— and Yamamura, K. (eds.) (2001). The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism: Germany and Japan in Comparison. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Swedish Labour Force Surveys (2005). Arbetskrafts undersökningarna 1974–2004. Stockholm: Statistics Sweden.

Swenson, P. and Pontusson, J. (2000). ‘The Swedish Employer Offensive Against Centralized Bargaining’, in T. Iversen, J. Pontusson, and D. Soskice (eds.), Unions, Employers, and Central Banks. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 77–106.

Swenson, P. A. (2002). Capitalists against Markets: The Making of Labor Markets and Welfare States in the United States and Sweden. New York: Oxford University Press.

SZW (1997). Income Benefits for Early Exit from the Labour Market in Eight European Countries: A Comparative Study. Den Haag: Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid.

Takayama, N. (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in Japan: Macro Issues and Policies’, in L.Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 135–63.

Taylor, A. J. (1989). Trade Unions and Politics. A Comparative Introduction. London: Macmillan.

Taylor, P. and Walker, A. (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in the United Kingdom’, in L.Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 94–110.

—— —— (1998). ‘Employers and Older Workers: Attitudes and Employment Practices’. Ageing and Society, 18: 641–58.

(p.310) Taylor‐Gooby, P. (1999). ‘Policy Change at a Time of Retrenchment: Recent Pension Reform in France, Germany, Italy and the UK’. Social Policy & Administration, 33/1: 1–19.

Teague, P. (2001). ‘Deliberative Governance and EU Social Policy’. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 7/1: 7–26.

Thelen, K. (1999). ‘Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics’. Annual Review of Political Science, 2: 369–404.

—— (2002). ‘The Explanatory Power of Historical Institutionalism’, in R. Mayntz (ed.), Akteure–Mechanismen–Modelle: Zur Theoriefähigkeit makro‐sozialer Analysen. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 91–107.

Tilly, C. (1984). Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage.

Titmuss, R. M. {1958}. Essays on the ‘Welfare State’. London: Allen and Unwin 1976.

—— {1968}. Commitment to Welfare. London: Allen and Unwin 1976.

Tolliday, S. and Zeitlin, J. (eds.) (1985). Shop Floor Bargaining and the State: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tonge, J. (1997). ‘Britain’, in H. Compston (ed.), The New Politics of Unemployment: Radical Policy Initiatives in Western Europe. London: Routledge, pp. 87–102.

Trampusch, C. (2005). ‘Institutional Resettlement: The Case of Early Retirement in Germany’, in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds.), Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 203–28.

Traxler, F. (1999). ‘The State in Industrial Relations: A Cross‐national Analysis of Developments and Socioeconomic Effects’. European Journal of Political Research, 36: 55–85.

—— Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B. (2001). National Labour Relations in Internationalized Markets: A Comparative Study of Institutions, Change, and Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Trommel, W. and de Vroom, B. (1994). ‘The Netherlands: The Loreley‐Effect of Early Exit’, in F. Naschold and B. de Vroom (eds.), Regulating Employment and Welfare. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, pp. 51–115.

Tsoukalis, L. and Ferreira, A. da. S. (1980). ‘Management of Industrial Surplus Capacity in the European Community’. International Organizations, 34/3: 355–76.

Tuijnman, A. C. and Schömann, K. (1996). ‘Life‐long Learning and Skill Formation’, in G. Schmid, J. O'Reilly, and K. Schömann (eds.), International Handbook of Labour Market Policy and Evaluation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 462–88.

Turner, J. A. (1996). ‘Risk Bearing in Pension Plans’, in E. Reynaud, L. apRoberts, B. Davies, and G. Hughes (eds.), International Perspectives on Supplementary Pensions. Westport, CT: Quorum, pp. 82–96.

—— and Watanabe, N. (1995). Private Pension Policies in Industrialized Countries: A Compartive Analysis. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

US‐CPS (2000). US Current Population Survey 2000. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census [www.bls.census.gov].

(p.311) Vail, M. I. (1999). ‘The Better Part of Valour: The Politics of French Welfare Reform’. Journal of European Social Policy, 9/4: 311–29.

van Kersbergen, K. (1995). Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State. London: Routledge.

van Waarden, F. (1995). ‘Government Intervention in Industrial Relations’, in J. Van Ruysseveldt, R. Huiskamp, and J. van. Hoof (eds.), Comparative Industrial and Employment Relations. London: Sage, pp. 109–33.

VDR (2002). Rentenversicherung in Zeitreihen. Berlin: Verband Deutscher Rentenversicherungsträger [www.vdr.de].

Viebrok, H. (2003). ‘Disability Pensions in Germany’, in C. Prinz (ed.), European Disability Pension Policies. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 197–224.

Visser, J. (1990). In Search of Inclusive Unionism. Deventer: Kluwer.

—— (1998). ‘The Netherlands: The Return of Responsive Corporatism’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 283–314.

—— (2002). ‘The First Part‐Time Economy in the World: A Model to Be Followed?’ Journal of European Social Policy, 12/1: 23–42.

—— and Hemerijck, A. (1997). ‘A Dutch Miracle’: Job Growth, Welfare Reform, and Corporatism in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

von Nordheim Nielsen, F. (1991). ‘The Politics of Ageing in Scandinavian Countries’, in J. Myles and J. Quadagno (eds.), States, Labor Markets, and the Future of Old‐Age Policy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 127–74.

von Prondynski, F. (1998). ‘Ireland: Corporatism Revived’, in A. Ferner and R. Hyman (eds.), Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 55–73.

von Rhein‐Kress, G. (1993). ‘Coping with Economic Crisis: Labour Supply as a Policy Instrument’, in F. G. Castles (ed.), Families of Nations: Patterns of Public Policy in Western Democracies. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 131–78.

Wadensjö, E. (1991). ‘Sweden: Partial Exit’, in M. Kohli, M. Rein, A.‐M. Guillemard, and H. van Gunsteren (eds.), Time for Retirement. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 284–323.

—— (1996). ‘Gradual Retirement in Sweden’, in L. Delsen and G. Reday‐Mulvey (eds.), Gradual Retirement in the OECD Countries. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 25–44.

—— (1997). ‘The Welfare Mix in Pension Provisions in Sweden’, in M. Rein and E. Wadensjö (eds.), Enterprise and the Welfare State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 266–308.

—— (2000a). ‘The New Swedish Pension System’, in G. Hughes and J. Stewart (eds.), Pensions in the European Union: Adapting to Economic and Social Change. Boston, MA: Kluwer, pp. 147–60.

—— (2000b). ‘Sweden: Reform of the Public Pension System’, in E. Reynaud (ed.), Social Dialogue and Pension Reform. Geneva: International Labour Office, pp. 67–80.

(p.312) Wadensjö, E. (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in Sweden’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 381–402.

Wadensjö, E. and Palmer, E. E. (1996). ‘Curing the Dutch Disease from a Swedish Perspective’, in L. J. M. Aarts, R. V. Burkhauser, and P. R. de Jong (eds.), Curing the Dutch Disease. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 133–55.

Walker, A. (2000). ‘Why Active Public Policies Are Needed in Response to the Ageing Workforce’, in E. Gabaglio and R. Hoffmann (eds.), European Trade Union Yearbook 1999. Brussels: European Trade Union Institute, pp. 341–54.

—— (2002). ‘Active Strategies for Older Workers in the UK’, in M. Jespen, D. Foden, and M. Hutsebaut (eds.), Active Strategies for Older Workers. Brussels: ETUI, pp. 403–35.

Walwei, U. and Werner, H. (2001). ‘Employment Problems and Active Labor Market Policies in Industrialized Countries’, in D. D. Hoskins, D. Dobbernack, and C. Kuptsch (eds.), Social Security at the Dawn of the 21st Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, pp. 133–70.

Warr, P. (1994). ‘Age and Job Performance’, in J. Snel and R. Cremer (eds.), Work and Ageing: A European Perspective. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 309–22.

Watanabe, S. (2000). ‘The Japan Model and the Future of Employment and Wage Systems’. Industrial Labour Review, 139/3: 307–33.

Weber, M. {1922}. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriss der Verstehenden Soziologie. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr.

—— (1978). Economy and Society, 2 vols. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Weir, M., Orloff, A. S., and Skocpol, T. (eds.) (1988). The Politics of Social Policy in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Western, B. (1998). ‘Institutions and the Labor Market’, in M. C. Brinton and V. Nee (eds.), The New Institutionalism in Sociology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 224–43.

Whiteside, N. (1995). ‘Aiming at Consenus: The Politics of the “Social” and “Industrial” Wage in Britain after the Second World War’, in B. Palier (ed.), Comparing Social Welfare Systems in Europe, Vol. I: Oxford Conference: France—United Kingdom. Paris: MIRE, pp. 509–33.

Wilensky, H. L. and Lebeaux, C. N. (1958). Industrial Society and Social Welfare. New York: Free Press 1965.

Wincott, D. (2001). ‘Reassessing the Social Foundations of Welfare (State) Regimes’. New Political Economy, 6/3: 409–25.

Wise, D. A. (1993). ‘Firm Pension Policy and Early Retirement’, in A. B. Atkinson and M. Rein (eds.), Age, Work and Social Security. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 51–88.

Wolf, J., Kohli, M., and Künemund, H. (eds.) (1994). Alter und gewerkschaftliche Politik: Auf dem Weg zur Rentnergewerkschaft? Köln: Bund Verlag.

Wollmann, H. (2000). ‘Comparing Institutional Development in Britain and Germany: (Persistent) Divergence or (Progressing) Convergence?’ in H. Wollmann and E. Schröter (eds.), Comparing Public Sector Reform in Britain and Germany: Key Traditions and Trends in Modernisation. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 1–26.

(p.313) Wright. (ed.) (1994). Privatization in Western Europe: Pressures, Problems and Paradoxes. London: Pinter.

Yashiro, N. and Oshio, T. (1999). ‘Social Security and Retirement in Japan’, in J. Gruber and D. A. Wise (eds.), Social Security and Retirement around the World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 239–67. (p.314)