This chapter concludes the study by summarising the major findings presented and addressing some potential counter-arguments to the conclusions drawn. Three broad implications of the study are then discussed. First, what does the study tell us about the European Parliament? The EP, it is suggested, fits much less well than other EU institutions into the ‘supra-national’ category, and MEPs largely remain nationally-based politicians. Second, the implications of the findings for European integration are assessed. Socialisation effects on political elites must, it is argued, play a much more limited role in explanations of European integration than many scholars have believed. Finally, the wider implications of this study for the analysis of institutional socialisation as a general phenomenon are considered.
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