Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The European VoterA Comparative Study Of Modern Democracies$

Jacques Thomassen

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780199273218

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2005

DOI: 10.1093/0199273219.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 30 March 2017

(p.313) References

(p.313) References

Source:
The European Voter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aardal, B. (1994). ‘Hva er en Politisk Skillelinje? En Begrepsmessig Grenseoppgang (What is a Political Cleavage? A Conceptual Demarcation)’, Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning , 35: 217–48.

—— (ed.) (2003). Velgere i Villrede…En Analyse av Stortingsvalget 2001 (Confused Voters…An Analysis of the 2001 Storting Election). Oslo: N W Damm & Søn.

—— and Waldahl, R. (2004). ‘Political Cleavages in a Media‐Driven Environment’, in H. M. Narud and A. Krogstad (eds.), Elections, Parties and Political Representation . Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

—— Valen, H., Narud, H. M., and Berglund, F. (1999). Velgere i 90‐årene (Voters in the 1990s). Oslo: NKS‐Forlaget.

Aarts, K., Blais, A., and Schmitt, H. (eds.) (forthcoming). Party Leaders and Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Adams, J., Clark, M., Ezrow, L., and Glasgow, G. (2003). Understanding Change and Stability in Party Ideologies: Do Parties Respond to Public Opinion or to Past Election Results? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Public Choice Society, Nashville, TN, 21–23 March 2003.

Aldrich, J. H. (1993). ‘Rational Choice and Turnout’, American Journal of Political Science , 37: 246–78.

Alford, R. A. (ed.) (1963). Party and Society. The Anglo‐American Democracies . Chicago: Rand McNally.

Allardt, E. and Pesonen, P. (1967). ‘Cleavages in Finnish Politics’, in S. M. Lipset and S. Rokkan (eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments . New York: Free Press.

Alvarez, R. M., Nagler, J., and Willette, J. R. (2000). ‘Measuring the Relative Impact of Issues and the Economy in Democratic Elections’, Electoral Studies , 19: 237–53.

Andersen, J. G. (1984). ‘Decline of Class Voting or Changes of Class Voting? Social Class and Party Choice in Denmark in the 1970s’, European Journal of Political Research , 12: 243–59.

—— (2003). ‘The General Election in Denmark, November 2001’, Electoral Studies , 22: 186–93.

Anderson, C. J. (2000). ‘Economic Voting and the Political Context: A Comparative Perspective’, Electoral Studies , 19: 151–70.

Andeweg, R. B. (1982). Dutch Voters Adrift: On Explanations of Electoral Change 1963–1977 . Leiden.

—— and Irwin, G. A. (2002). Governance and Politics of the Netherlands . Houndsmill: Palgrave.

Ansolabehere, S. and Iyengar, S. (1994). ‘Riding the Wave and Claiming Ownership over Issues: The Joint Effect of Advertising and News Coverage in Campaigns’, Public Opinion Quarterly , 58: 335–57.

Baker, K. L., Dalton, R. J., and Hildebrandt, K. (1981). Germany transformed: Political Culture and the New Politics . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(p.314) Banks, A. S. (ed.). (1976, 1977, 1978, 1979) Political Handbook of the World: 1976–1979 . New York: McGraw‐Hill.

—— (ed.). (1985) Political Handbook of the World: 1984–1995 . Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

—— and Jordan, R. S. (eds.). (1975) Political Handbook of the World: 1975 . New York: McGraw‐Hill.

—— and Muller, T. C. (eds.). (1998 & 1999) Political Handbook of the World: 1998–1999 . Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

—— Muller, T. C., and Overstreet, W. R. (eds.). Political Handbook of the World: 2000–2002 . Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

—— and Overstreet, W. R. (eds.). (1980, 1981, 1982, 1983) Political Handbook of the World 1980–1983 . New York: McGraw‐Hill.

—— Day, A. J., and Muller, T. C. (eds.). (1995, 1996, 1997) Political Handbook of the World: 1995–1997 . Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

Barnes, S. H. and Kaase, M. (eds.) (1979). Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies . Beverly Hills, CA and London: Sage.

Bartels, L. (2002). ‘The Impact of Candidate Traits in American Presidential Elections’, in A. King (ed.), Leaders' Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bartle, J. (2001). ‘Why Labour Won – Again’, in A. King (ed.), Britain at the Polls 2001 . Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

—— ‘The General Election in Britain, June 2001’, Electoral Studies , 22: 166–73.

—— and Crewe, I. (2002). ‘The Impact of Party Leaders in Britain: Strong Assumptions, Weak Evidence’, in A. King (ed.), Leaders' Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— Crewe, I., and King, A. (1998). Was it Blair who Won It? Leadership Effects in the 1997 British General Election . Colchester: University of Essex Papers in Government and Politics, no. 128.

Bartolini, S. and Mair, P. (1990). Identity, Competition, and Electoral Availability: The Stabilization of European Electorates 1885–1985 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barton, T. and Döring, H. (1986). ‘Weakening Partisanship and the Higher Educated in Britain’, European Journal of Political Research , 14: 521–42.

Bauer‐Kaase, P. (2001). ‘Politische Ideologie im Wandel? – Eine Laengsschnittanalyse der Inhalte der politischen Richtungsbegriffe “links” und “rechts” ’, in H. ‐D. Klingemann and M. Kaase (eds.), Wahlen und Waehler . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher‐Verlag, 207–43.

Bean, C. and Mughan, A. (1989). ‘Leadership Effects in Parliamentary Elections in Australia and Britain’, American Political Science Review , 83: 1165–79.

Bell, D. (1988). The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Berelson, B., Lazarsfeld, P. F., and McPhee, W. (1954). Voting . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Berger, S. (1982). ‘Introduction: Religion in West European Politics’, West European Politics , 5 (2): 1–7.

Berglund, F. (2000). ‘Party Identification – Nothing but the Vote?’ Acta Politica , 35: 37–63.

(p.315) —— (2003a ). ‘Valget i 2001 – Skiljelinjemodellens Endelikt?’, in B. Aardal (ed.)., Velgere i Villrede . Oslo: NKS‐Forlaget.

Berglund, F. (2003b ). Partiidentifikasjon og Politisk Endring: En Studie av Langsiktige Tilknytninger Blant Norske Velgere 1965–1997 (Party Identification and Political Change: A Study of Longitudinal Attachments among Norwegian Voters). Oslo: Institutt for Statsvitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo.

Bille, L. (1990). ‘Denmark: The Oscillating Party System’, in P. Mair and G. Smith (eds.), Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass.

Blais, A. (2000). To Vote or not to Vote: The Merits and Limits of Rational Choice Theory . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

—— and Dobrzynska, A. (1998). ‘Turnout in Electoral Democracies’, European Journal of Political Research , 33: 239–61.

Borg, S. and Sänkiaho, R. (eds.) (1995). The Finnish Voter . Tampere: The Finnish Political Science Association.

Borre, O. (2001). Issue Voting. An Introduction . Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

—— and Andersen, J. G. (1997). Voting and Political Attitudes in Denmark . Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Brettschneider, F. and Gabriel, O. (2002). ‘The Nonpersonilization of Voting Behavior in Germany’, in A. King (ed.), Leaders' Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brody, R. A. (1978). ‘The Puzzle of Political Participation in America’, in A. King, The New American Political System . Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.

—— and Page, B. I. (1973). ‘Indifference, Alienation, and Rational Decisions’, Public Choice , 15: 1–17.

Budge, I. (1994). ‘A New Theory of Party Competition: Uncertainty, Ideology, and Policy Equilibria Viewed Comparatively and Temporally’, British Journal of Political Science , 27: 647–58.

—— (1998) ‘Great Britain: A Stable, but Fragile, Party System?’ in P. Pennings and J. E. Lane (eds.), Comparing Party System Change . London: Routledge, pp. 125–36.

—— and Farlie, D. (1983). Voting and Party Competition . London: Wiley.

—— Klingemann, H. ‐D., Volkens, A., Bara, J., and Tannenbaum, E. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors and Governments 1945–1998 . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Burden, B. C. (2000). ‘Voter Turnout and the National Election Studies’, Political Analysis , 8: 389–98.

Butler, D. and Ranney, A. (eds.) (1992). Electioneering: A Comparative Study of Continuity and Change . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— and Stokes, D. E. (1969). Political Change in Britain . New York: St Martin's Press.

—— and Stokes, D.E. (1974). Political Change in Britain , 2nd edn. London: Macmillan.

Campbell, A., Converse, P.E., Miller, W.E., and Stokes, D.E. (1960). The American Voter . New York: Wiley.

Carmines, E. G. and Huckfeldt, R. (1996). ‘Political Behavior: An Overview’, in R. Goodin and H. ‐D. Klingemann (eds.), A New Handbook of Political Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carlsen, F. (2000). ‘Unemployment, Inflation and Government Popularity – are there Partisan Effects?’, Electoral Studies , 19: 141–50.

Castles, F. and Mair, P. (1984). ‘Left‐Right Political Scales: Some “Expert” Judgments’, European Journal of Political Research , 12: 73–88.

(p.316) Caul, M. L. and Gray, M. M. (2000). ‘From Platform Declarations to Policy Outcomes: Changing Party Profiles and Partisan Influence over Policy’, in R. J. Dalton and M. P. Wattenberg (eds.), Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clark, T. N. and Lipset, S. M. (1991). ‘Are Social Classes Dying?’, International Sociology , 6: 397–410.

—— and Lipset, S. M. (eds.) (2001). The Breakdown of Class Politics: A Debate on Post‐Industrial Stratification . Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

—— Lipset, S. M., and Rempel, M. (1993). ‘The Declining Political Significance of Social Class’, International Sociology , 8: 293–316.

Clarke, H., Ho, K., and Stewart, M. (2000). ‘Major's Lesser (Not Minor) Effects: Prime Ministerial Approval and Governing Party Support in Britain since 1979’, Electoral Studies , 19: 255–73.

—— Sanders, D., Stewart, M., and Whiteley, P. (2004). Political Choice in Britain . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Converse, P. E. (1964). ‘The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics’, in D. Apter (ed.), Ideology and Discontent . New York: Free Press.

—— (1969). ‘Of Time and Partisan Stability’, Comparative Political Studies , 2: 139–71.

—— (1975). ‘Public Opinion and Voting Behavior’, in F. Greenstein and N. Polsby (eds.), Handbook of Political Science . Reading: Addison‐Wesley.

—— (1976). The Dynamics of Party Support: Cohort‐Analyzing Party Identification . Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

—— and Niemi, R. G. (1971). ‘Non‐Voting Among Young Adults in the United States’, in W. J. Crotty, D. M. Freeman, and D. S. Gatlin (eds.), Political Parties and Political Behavior . Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

—— and Pierce, R. (1986). Political Representation in France . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Crewe, I. and Denver, D. (1985). Electoral Change in Western Democracies: Patterns and Sources of Electoral Volatility . London: Croom Helms.

—— and King, A. (1994). ‘Are British Elections Becoming More “Presidential”?’, in M. K. Jennings and T. Mann (eds.), Elections at Home and Abroad: Essays in Honor of Warren E. Miller . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Curtice, J. (2002). ‘The State of Election Studies: Mid‐life Crisis or New Youth?’, Electoral Studies , 2002: 161–8.

—— (forthcoming). ‘Elections as Beauty Contests: Do the Rules Matter?’, in K. Aarts, A. Blais, and H. Schmitt (eds.), Party Leaders and Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dalton, R. J. (1984). ‘Cognitive Mobilization and Partisan Dealignment in Advanced Industrial Democracies’, Journal of Politics , 46: 264–84.

—— (1988). Citizen Politics in Western Democracies . Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

—— (1996). ‘Comparative Politics: Micro‐behavioral Perspectives’, in R. Goodin and H‐D. Klingemann, A New Handbook of Political Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (2000a ). ‘The Decline of Party Identification’, in R. Dalton and M. P. Wattenberg (eds.), Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.317) Dalton, R. J. (2000b ). ‘Influences on Voting Behavior’, in R. Rose (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Elections . London: Macmillan.

—— (2000c ). ‘Value Change and Democracy’, in S. Pharr and R. D. Putnam (eds.), Disaffected Democracies. What's Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (2002). Citizen Politics. Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies . 3rd edn. New York: Chatham House.

—— and Wattenberg, M. P. (1993). ‘The Not So Simple Act of Voting’, in A. Finifter (ed.), Political Science: The State of the Discipline II . Washington, DC: The American Political Science Association.

—— and Wattenberg, M. P. (eds.) (2000). Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— Flanagan, S. C., and Beck, P. A. (eds.) (1984). Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or De‐alignment? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Davis, O. A., Hinich, M. J., and Ordeshook, M. P. (1970). ‘An Expository Development of a Mathematical Model of the Electoral Process’, American Political Science Review , 64: 426–48.

Day, A. J. (ed.) (1988). Political Parties of the World . 3rd edn. Chicago: St James Press.

De Beus, J. W., Lehning, P. B., and Doorn, J. A. A. van (1989). De Ideologische Driehoek: Nederlandse Politiek in Historisch Perspectief . Amsterdam: Boom.

De Graaf, D., Heath, A., and Need, A. (2001). ‘Declining Cleavages and Political Choices: The Interplay of Social and Political Factors in the Netherlands’, Electoral Studies , 20: 1–15.

Dogan, M. (2001). ‘Class, Religion, Party: Triple Decline of Electoral Cleavages in Western Europe’, in L. Karvonen and S. Kuhnle (eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited . London: Routledge.

Dorussen, H. (2002). ‘Conclusions’, in H. Dorussen and M. Taylor (eds.), Economic Voting . London: Routledge.

Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy . New York: Harper & Row.

Dunleavy, P. (1996). ‘Political Behavior: Institutional and Experiential Approaches’, in R. Goodin and H‐D. Klingemann (eds.), A New Handbook of Political Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Duverger, M. (1951). Les Partis Politiques . Paris: Armand Colin.

Erikson, R. S., MacKuen, M. B., and Stimson, J. A. (2000). ‘Bankers or Peasants Revisited: Economic Expectations and Presidential Approval’, Electoral Studies , 19: 295–312.

Ersson, S. and Lane, J. E. (1998). ‘Electoral Instability and Party System Change in Western Europe’, in P. Pennings and J. E. Lane (eds.), Comparing Party System Change . London: Routledge.

Esaiasson, P. and Håkansson, N. (2002). Besked Ikväll! . Värnamo: Etermedier i Sverige.

Evans, G. (ed.) (1999). The End of Class Politics? Class Voting in Comparative Perspective . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— Heath, A., and Payne, C. (1999). ‘Class: Labour as a Catch‐All Party?’ in G. Evans and P. Norris (eds.), Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long‐Term Perspective . London: Sage.

(p.318) Evans, J. A. J. (2002). ‘In Defence of Sartori: Party System Change, Voter Preference Distributions and Other Competitive Incentives’, Party Politics , 8: 155–74.

Feld, L. P. and Kirchgässner, G. (2001). ‘Erwartete Knappheit und die Höhe der Wahlbeteiligung: Empirische Ergebnisse für die Neunziger Jahre’, in H‐D. Klingemann and M. Kaase (eds.), Wahlen und Wähler – Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl 1998 . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher‐Verlag.

Fiorina, M. F. (1981). Retrospective Voting in American National Elections . New Haven: Yale University Press.

Flanagan, S. C. (1987). ‘Value Changes in Industrial Societies’, American Political Science Review , 81: 1303–19.

—— and Lee, A. ‐R. (1988). ‘Explaining Value Change and its Political Implications in Eleven Advanced Industrial Democracies ’. Paper presented at the 14th World Congress of the International Political Science Association. Washington, 28 August – 1 September.

—— ——  (2003). ‘The New Politics, Culture Wars, and the Authoritarian‐Libertarian Value Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies , 36: 235–70.

Foley, M. (2000). The British Presidency: Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership . Manchester, IN: Manchester University Press.

Franklin, M. N. (1985). ‘Assessing the Rise of Issue Voting in British Elections Since 1964’, Electoral Studies , 37–56.

—— (1992). ‘The Decline of Cleavage Politics’, in M. N. Franklin et al. (eds.), Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (1996). ‘Electoral Participation’, in L. Leduc, R. G. Niemi, and P. Norris (eds.), Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective . London: Sage.

—— (2004). Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies Since 1945 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— Mackie, T. K., and Valen, H. (eds.) (1992). Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Seventeen Democracies . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— van der Eijk, C., and Oppenhuis, E. (1996). ‘The Institutional Context: Turnout’, in C. van der Eijk and M. N. Franklin (eds.), Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of European Union . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Fuchs, D. and Klingemann, H‐D. (1990). ‘The Left‐Right Schema’, in M. K. Jennings and J. W. van Deth (eds.), Continuities in Political Action: A Longitudinal Study of Political Orientations in Three Western Democracies . Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

—— —— (1995). ‘Citizens and the State: A Changing Relationship?’, in H‐D. Klingemann and D. Fuchs (eds.), Citizens and the State . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gallagher, M., Laver, M., and Mair, P. (2001). Representative Government in Modern Europe . 3rd edn. New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Gordon, S. B. and Segura, G. M. (1997). ‘Cross‐National Variations in the Political Sophistication of Individuals: Capability or Choice?’, Journal of Politics, 59: 126–47.

Graetz, B. and McAllister, I. (1987). ‘Popular Evaluations of Party Leaders in the Anglo‐American Democracies’, in H. Clarke and M. Czudnowski (eds.), Political Elites in the Anglo‐American Democracies . DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.

(p.319) Granberg, D. (1993). ‘Political Perception’, in S. Iyengar and W. J. McGuire (eds.), Explorations in Political Psychology . London: Duke University Press.

—— and Holmberg, S. (1988). The Political System Matters: Social Psychology and Voting Behavior in Sweden and the United States . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grofman, B. (1996). ‘Political Economy: Downsian Perspectives’, in R. Goodin and H‐D. Klingemann (eds.), A New Handbook of Political Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gross, H. and Rotholz, W. (1999). ‘Das politische System Norwegens’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Halman, L. and De Moor, R. (1994). ‘Religion, Churches and Moral Values’, in P. Ester, L. Halman and R. de Moor (eds.), The Individualizing Society: Value Change in Europe and North America . Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.

Hazan, R. Y. (1995). ‘Attacking the Centre: “Moderate‐Induced Polarization” in Denmark and the Netherlands’, Scandinavian Political Studies , 18: 73–95.

Heath, A. F., Jowell, R., and Curtice, J. (1985). How Britain Votes . Oxford: Pergamon Press.

—— ——  —— (1987). ‘Trendless Fluctuation: A reply to Crewe’, Political Studies, 35: 256–77.

—— Jowell, R. M., and Curtice, J. K. (2001). The Rise of New Labour: Party Policies and Voter Choices . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— Jowell, R., Curtice, J., Evans G., Field, J., and Witherspoon S. (1991). Understanding Political Change: The British Voter 1964–1987 . Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Heidar, K. (1990). ‘Norway: Levels of Party Competition and System Change’, in P. Mair and G. Smith (eds.), Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass.

Helms, L. (2004). ‘The Federal Election in Germany, September 2002’, Electoral Studies , 23: 143–9.

Hibbs, D. A., Jr. (1987). The Political Economy of Industrial Democracies . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hinich, M. J. and Munger, M. C. (1997). Analytical Politics . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holmberg, S. (1981). Svenska Väljare . Stockholm: Liber.

—— (1984). Väljare i Förandring . Stockholm: Liber.

—— (1994). ‘Party Identification Compared across the Atlantic’, in M. K. Jennings and T. E. Mann (eds.), Elections at Home and Abroad: Essays in Honor of Warren E. Miller . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

—— (1999). ‘Down and Down We Go: Political Trust in Sweden’, in P. Norris (ed.), Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (2000). Välja Parti (Choosing Party). Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB.

—— and Gilljam, M. (1987). Väljare och Val i Sverige . Stockholm: Bonniers.

—— and Oscarsson, H. (2004). Väljare. Svenskt Våljarbeteende under Femtio år . Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB.

—— —— (forthcoming). ‘Party Leader Effects on the Vote’, in K. Aarts, A. Blais, and H. Schmitt (eds.), Political Leaders and Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.320) Huber, J. (1989). ‘Values and Partisanship in Left‐Right Orientations: Measuring Ideology’, European Journal of Political Research , 17: 599–621.

—— Kernell, G., and Eduardo L. Leoni. (2004). The Institutional context and party attachments in establishes democratics . Unpublished paper.

—— and Inglehart, R. (1995). ‘Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies’, Party Politics , 1: 73–111.

Idea. (2002). Voter Turnout Since 1945: A Global Report . Stockholm: International IDEA.

Inglehart, R. (1977). The Silent Revolution – Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1984). ‘The Changing Structure of Political Cleavages in Western Society’, in R. J. Dalton, S. Flanagan, and P. A. Beck (eds.), Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1990). Cultural Shift in Advanced Industrial Society . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— and Klingemann, H‐D. (1976). ‘Party Identification, Ideological Preference and the Left‐Right Dimension among Western Publics’, in I. Budge, I. Crewe, and D. Farlie (eds.), Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition . London: Wiley.

Ismayr, W. (1999). ‘Das Politische System Deutschlands’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die Politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Jackman, R. W. and Miller, Ross M. A. (1995). ‘Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies during the 1980s’, Comparative Political Studies, 27: 467–92.

Jagodzinski, W. and Dobbelaere, K. (1995). ‘Secularisation and Church Religiosity’, in J. W. van Deth and E. Scarbrough (eds.), The Impact of Values . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jahn, D. (1999). ‘Das Politische System Schwedens’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die Politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Kaase, M. (1976). ‘Party Identification and Voting Behaviour in the West German Election of 1969’, in I. Budge, I. Crewe, and D. Farlie (eds.), Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition . London: Wiley.

—— (1994). ‘Is there Personalization in Politics? Candidates and Voting Behaviour in Germany’, International Political Science Review , 15: 211–30.

—— and Bauer‐Kaase, P. (1998). ‘Zur Beteiligung an der Bundestagswahl 1994’, in M. Kaase and H. ‐D. Klingemann (eds.), Wahlen und Wähler: Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl 1994 . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher‐Verlag.

—— and Klingemann, H. ‐D. (1994). ‘Electoral Research in the Federal Republic of Germany’, in J. J. A. Thomassen (ed.), The Intellectual History of Election Studies. Special Issue of the European Journal for Political Research . Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 343–66.

Katz, R. S. and Mair, P. (1997). ‘Party Organization, Party Democracy, and the Emergence of the Cartel Party’, in P. Mair (ed.), Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kelley, S., Jr. and Mirer, T. (1974). ‘The Simple Act of Voting’, American Political Science Review, 68: 572–91.

Key, V. O. (1966). The Responsible Electorate . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kinder, D. R. (1986). ‘Presidential Character Revisited’, in R. Lau and D. Sears (eds.), Political Cognition . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

(p.321) Kinder, D. R. and Kiewit, D. R. (1979). ‘Economic Discontent and Political Behavior: The Role of Personal Grievances and Collective Economic Judgements in Congressional Voting’, American Journal of Political Science, 23: 495–527.

—— —— (1981). ‘Sociotropic Politics’, British Journal of Political Science, 11: 129–61.

—— and Sears, D. O. (1985). ‘Public Opinion and Political Action’, in G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology . New York: Random House.

King, A. (2002). ‘Do Leaders' Personalities Really Matter?’, in A. King (ed.), Leaders' Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kirchheimer, O. (1966). ‘The Transformation of the Western European Party Systems’, in J. LaPalombara and M. Weiner (eds.), Political Parties and Political Development . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1997). ‘The Catch‐All party’, in P. Mair (ed.), The West European Party System . Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Originally published in J. Lapalombara and M. Weiner (1966), Political Parties and Political Development ).

Kitschelt, H. (1994). The Transformation of European Social Democracy . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (1995). The Radical Right in Western Europe – A Comparative Analysis . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Klecka, W. R. (1980). Discriminant Analysis . Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Klingemann, H‐D. (1979). ‘Measuring Ideological Conceptualizations’, in S. H. Barnes and M. Kaase (eds.), Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies . Beverly Hills, CA and London: Sage.

—— and Wattenberg, M. (1992). ‘Decaying versus Developing Party Systems: A Comparison of Party Images in the United States and West Germany’, British Journal of Political Science , 22: 131–49.

—— Hofferbert, R. I., and Budge, I. (1994). Parties, Policies, and Democracy . Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Knight, K. (1985). ‘Ideological Sophistication Does Matter’, Journal of Politics , 47: 828–53.

Knutsen, O. (1988). ‘The Impact of Structural and Ideological Party Cleavages in West European Democracies: A Comparative Empirical Analysis’, British Journal of Political Science , 18: 323–52.

—— (1995a ). ‘Left‐Right Materialist Value Orientations’, in J. W. van Deth and E. Scarbrough (eds.), The Impact of Values . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (1995b ). ‘Party Choice’, in J. W. van Deth and E. Scarbrough (eds.), The Impact of Values . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (1995c ). ‘Value Orientations, Political Conflicts and Left‐Right Identification – A Comparative Study’, European Journal of Political Research , 28: 63–93.

—— (1997). ‘The Partisan and the Value‐Based Components of Left‐Right Self‐Placement: A Comparative Study’, International Political Science Review , 18: 191–225.

—— (1998). ‘Expert Judgements of the Left‐Right Location of Political Parties: A Comparative Longitudinal Study’, West European Politics , 21: 63–94.

—— (1999a). ‘Left‐Right Party Polarization among the Mass Publics: A Comparative Longitudinal Study from Eight West European Countries’, in H. M. Narud and T. Aalberg (eds.), Challenges to Representative Democracy . Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

(p.322) Knutsen, O. (1999b)Left‐Right Polarization in West‐European Party Systems: A Comparative Longitudinal Study Based on Judgments by Political Experts . Oslo: Department of Political Science: Working Paper 7/1999.

—— (2001). ‘Social Class, Sector Employment, and Gender as Party Cleavages in the Scandinavian Countries: A Comparative Longitudinal Study, 1970–95’, Scandinavian Political Studies , 24: 311–50.

—— (2003). Overall and Traditional Left‐Right Class Voting in Eight West‐European Countries: A Comparative Longitudinal Study 1975–1997 . Paper presented at the European Consortium of Political Research's Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, 2003.

—— and Scarbrough, E. (1995). ‘Cleavage Politics’, in J. van Deth and E. Scarbrough (eds.), The Impact of Values . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kotler‐Berkowitz, L. (2001). ‘Religion and Voting Behaviour in Great Britain: A Reassessment’, British Journal of Political Science , 31: 523–54.

Kroh, M. (2003). Parties, Politicians and Policies – Orientations of Vote Choice across Voters and Countries . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Amsterdam.

Krosnick, J. A. (2002). ‘The Challenges of Political Psychology: Lessons to be Learned from Research on Attitude Perception’, in J. H. Kuklinski (ed.), Thinking About Political Psychology . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kühnel, S. M. and Fuchs, D. (1998). ‘Nicht Wahlen als Rationales Handeln: Anmerkungen zum Nutzen des Rational‐Choice Ansatzes in der Empirischen Wahlforschung’, in M. Kaase and H. ‐D. Klingemann (eds.), Wahlen und Wähler: Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl 1994 . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher‐Verlag.

Kumlin, S. (2001). ‘Ideology‐Driven Opinion Formation in Europe: The Case of Attitudes towards the Third Sector in Sweden’, European Journal of Political Research , 39: 487–518.

Lafferty, W. and Knutsen, O. (1984). ‘Leftist and Rightist Ideology in a Social Democratic State: An Analysis of Norway in the Midst of the Conservative Resurgence’, British Journal of Political Science , 14: 345–67.

Lane, J. ‐E. and Ersson, S. O. (1987). Politics and Society in Western Europe . Beverly Hills, CA and London: Sage.

Lane, J. ‐E. and Ersson, S. O. (1994). Politics and Society in Western Europe . London: Sage.

Lane, J. ‐E. and Ersson, S. O. (1999). Politics and Society in Western Europe . London: Sage.

Lavine, H. (2002). ‘On‐Line versus Memory‐Based Process Models of Political Evaluation’, in K. R. Monroe (ed.), Political Psychology . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lazarsfeld, P. E., Berelson, B. R., and Gaudet, H. (1948). The People's Choice. How the Voter Makes Up his Mind in a Presidential Campaign . 2nd edn. New York: Columbia University Press.

Leduc, L., Niemi, R., and Norris, P. (1996). ‘Introduction: The Present and Future of Democratic Elections’, in L. Leduc, R. Niemi, and P. Norris (eds.), Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lepszy, N. (1999). ‘Das Politische System der Niederlande’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die Politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Lewis‐Beck, M. S. (1988). Economics and Elections: The Major Western Democracies . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

—— and Nadeau, R. (2000). ‘French Electoral Institutions and the Economic Vote’, Electoral Studies , 19: 171–82.

(p.323) Lewis‐Beck, M. S. and Paldam, M. (eds.) (2000a ). ‘Special Issue: Economics and Elections’, Electoral Studies , 19, 113–22.

—— —— (2000b ). ‘Economic Voting: An Introduction’, Electoral Studies , 19: 113–21.

Lijphart, A. (1968). The Politics of Accomodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

—— (1999). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty‐Six Countries . New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Lipset, S. M. and Rokkan, S. (1967). ‘Cleavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments: An Introduction’, in S. M. Lipset and S. Rokkan (eds.), Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross‐National Perspectives . New York: Free Press.

Listhaug, O. (1989). ‘Gamle og Nye Modellar i Valforskinga: eit Oversyn (Old and New Models in Electoral Research: An Overview)’, Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, 30: 339–60.

—— (1995). ‘The Dynamics of Trust in Politicians’, in H‐D. Klingemann and D. Fuchs (eds.), Citizens and the State . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Luhmann, N. (1981). Politische Theorie im Wohlfahrtsstaat . Muenchen: Olzog.

—— (1984). Soziale Systeme . Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

Luijkx, R., Brislinger, E., and Zenk‐Möltgen, W. (2003). European Values Study 1999/2000 – A Third Wave: Data, Documentation and Database on CD‐ROM. in ZA‐Information, Nr. 52, S. 171–83.

Macdonald, S. E. and Rabinowitz, G. (1998). ‘Solving the Paradox of Nonconvergence: Valence, Position, and Direction in Democratic Politics’, Electoral Studies , 17: 281–300.

Mackie, T. T. and Rose, R. (1991). The International Almanac of Electoral History . rev 3rd edn. London: Macmillan.

MacKuen, M. B., Erikson, R. S., and Stimson, J. A. (1992). ‘Peasants or Bankers? The American Electorate and the U.S. Economy’, American Political Science Review 86: 597–611.

Maguire, M. (1983). ‘Is There Still Persistence? Electoral Change in Western Europe 1948–1979’, in H. Daalder and P. Mair (eds.), Western European Party Systems: Continuity and Change . London: Sage.

Maier, J. and Rattinger, H. (1999). ‘Economic Conditions and the 1994 and 1998 Federal Elections’, German Politics , 8 (2): 33–47.

Mair, P. (1990). ‘Continuity, Change and the Vulnerability of Party’, in P. Mair and G. Smith (eds.), Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass, pp. 169–87.

—— (1997). Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretatations . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— and Mudde, C. (1998). ‘The Party Families and Its Study’, Annual Review of Political Science , 1: 211–29.

—— and Smith, G. (eds.) (1990). Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass.

Mallory, W. H. (ed.). (1932–1962) Political Handbook of the World: 1932–1962 . NewYork: Harper.

—— (ed.). (1963–1967) Political Handbook of the World: 1963–1967 . New York: Harper & Row.

—— (ed.). (1968) Political Handbook of the World: 1968 . New York: Simon & Schuster.

(p.324) Manin, B. (1997). The Principles of Representative Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Manza, J., Hout, M., and Brooks, J. (1995). ‘Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment or Trendless Fluctuation?’ , Annual Review of Sociology, 21: 137–62.

McAllister, I. (1996). ‘Leaders’, in L. Leduc, R. Niemi, and P. Norris (eds.), Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McClosky, H., Hoffman, J. P., and O'Hara, R. (1960). ‘Issue Conflict and Consensus among Party Leaders and Followers’, American Political Science Review, 54: 406–27.

McDonald, M. P. and Popkin, S. L. (2001). ‘The Myth of the Vanishing Voter’, American Political Science Review, 95: 963–74.

Miller, A. H., Miller, W. E., Raine, A. S., and Brown, T. A. (1976). ‘A Majority Party in Disarray: Policy Polarization in the 1972 Election’, American Political Science Review, 70: 753–78.

—— and Listhaug, O. (1984). ‘Economic Effects on the Vote in Norway’, Political Behavior, 6: 301–19.

Miller, W. (1981). The End of British Politics? Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Miller, W.E. (1994). ‘An Organizational History of the Intellectual Origins of the American National Election Studies’, in J. J. A. Thomassen, The Intellectual History of Election Studies. Special Issue of the European Journal for Political Research . Dordrecht: Kluwer.

—— and Shanks, M. (1982). ‘Policy Directions and Presidential Leadership: Alternative Interpretations of the 1980 Presidential Election’, British Journal of Political Science , 12: 299–356.

—— —— (1996). The New American Voter . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mochmann, E., Oedegaard, I.C., and Mauer, R. (1998). Inventory of National Election Studies in Europe 1945–1995 . Bergisch Gladbach: Edwin Ferger Verlag.

—— —— Mauer, R., and Zenk‐Möltgen, W. (2000). BTW‐DISC 2000. Continuity Guide der deutschen nationalen Wahlstudien 1949–1998, ZA Codebook Explorer Version 2.1, ZA.

Mughan, A. (2000). Media and the Presidentialization of Parliamentary Elections . Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Nadeau, R., Niemi, R. G., and Yoshinaka, A. (2002). ‘A Cross‐National Analysis of Economic Voting: Taking Account of the Political Context Across Time and Nations’, Electoral Studies , 21: 403–23.

Nannestad, P. (1999). ‘Das Politische System Daenemarks’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die Politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Nie, N., Verba, S., and Petrocik, J. R. (1976). The Changing American Voter . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Niedermayer, O. (1998). ‘German Unification and Party System Change’, in P. Pennings and J. E. Lane (eds.), Comparing Party System Change . London: Routledge.

Niemi, R. G. and Wesholm, A. (1984). ‘Issues, Parties, and Attitudinal Stability: A Comparative Study of Sweden and the United States’, Electoral Studies , 3: 65–83.

Nieuwbeerta, P. (1995). The Democratic Class Struggle in Twenty Countries 1945/1990 . Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers.

(p.325) Norris, P. (1999). ‘Introduction: The Growth of Critical Citizens?’, in P. Norris (ed.), Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Norris, P. (2002). Democratic Phoenix: Political Activism Worldwide . New York: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Gavin, N. T. (eds.) (1997). Britain Votes 1997 . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oppenhuis, E. (1995). Voting Behavior in Europe . Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.

Oscarsson, H. (1998). Den Svenska Partirymden. Väljarnas Uppfattningar av Konfliktstrukturen i Partisystemet 1956–1996 . Göteborg: Department of Political Science, Göteborg University.

Oskarson, M. (1992). ‘Sweden’, in M. N. Franklin, T. K. Mackie, and H. Valen (eds), Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Seventeen Democracies . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (1994). Klassröstning i Sverige . Stockholm: Nerenius & Santérus.

Padgett, S. (ed.) (1993). Parties and Party Systems in the New Germany . Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.

Page, B. (1978). Choices and Echoes in Presidential Elections: Rational Man and Electoral Democracy . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pappi, F. U. (1984). ‘The West German Party System’, West European Politics , 7: 7–26.

Parsons, T. (1969). Politics and Social Structure . New York: Free Press.

Patterson, T. (2002). The Vanishing Voter: Civic Involvement in an Age of Uncertainty . New York: Knopf.

Pedersen, M. N. (1979). ‘The Dynamics of European Party Systems: Changing Patterns of Electoral Volatility’, European Journal of Political Research , 7: 1–26.

Pellikaan, H., De Lange, S., and van der Meer, T. (2004). The Dutch Parliamentary Election of 2002: Christian‐Judaic‐Humanistic Culture versus Islamic Culture as a New Line of Conflict . Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL: USA, September 2004.

Pennings, P. (1998). ‘The Triad of Party System Change: Votes, Office and Policy’, in P. Pennings and J. E. Lane (eds.) (1998). Comparing Party System Change . London: Routledge.

—— and Lane, J. E. (eds.) (1998). Comparing Party System Change . London: Routledge.

Petrocik, J. R. (1996). ‘Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study’, American Journal of Political Science , 40: 825–50.

Pharr, S. J. and Putnam, R. D. (eds.) (2000). Disaffected Democracies: What's Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Plane, D. L. and Gershtenson, J. (2004). ‘Candidates' Ideological Locations, Abstention, and Turnout in U.S. Midterm Senate Elections’, Political Behavior , 26: 69–93.

Powell, G. B. (1986). ‘American Voter Turnout in Comparative Perspective’, American Political Science Review , 80: 17–43.

Powell, G. B., Jr. and Whitten, G. D. (1993). ‘Cross‐National Analysis of Economic Voting: Taking Account of the Political Context’, American Journal of Political Science , 37: 391–414.

Przeworski, A. and Sprague, J. (1986). Paper Stones: A History of Electoral Socialism . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

—— and Teune, H. (1970). The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry . New York: Wiley‐Interscience.

Rabinowitz, G. and Macdonald, S. E. (1989). ‘A Directional Theory of Issue Voting’, American Political Science Review , 83: 93–121.

(p.326) Rae, D. (1971). Political Consequences of Electoral Law . New Haven: Yale University Press.

Rattinger, H. (1986). ‘Collective and Individual Economic Judgments and Voting in West Germany, 1961–1984’, European Journal of Political Research , 14: 393–419.

—— and Faas, T. (2001). ‘Wahrnehmungen der Wirtschaftslage und Wahlverhalten 1977 bis 1998’, in H‐D. Klingemann and M. Kaase (eds.), Wahlen und Wähler . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher‐Verlag.

Reif, K. and Schmitt, H. (1980). ‘Nine Second‐Order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results’, European Journal of Political Research , 8: 3–44.

Reiter, H. (1989). ‘Party Decline in the West: A Skeptic's View’, Journal of Theoretical Politics , 1: 325–48.

Roberts, G. K. (1990). ‘Party System Change in West Germany: Land‐Federal Linkages’, in P. Mair and G. Smith (eds.), Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass, 98–113.

Rose, R. (ed.) (1974). Electoral behaviour: A Comparative Handbook . New York: Free Press.

—— and McAllister, I. (1982). United Kingdom Facts . London: Macmillan.

—— —— (1986). Voters Begin to Choose: From Closed‐Class to Open Elections in Britain . London: Sage.

—— —— (1990). The Loyalties of Voters: A Lifetime Learning Model . London: Sage.

—— and Munro, N. (eds.) (2003). Elections and Parties in New European Democracies . Washington, DC: CQ Press.

—— and Urwin, D. (1970). ‘Persistence and Change in Western Party Systems Since 1945’, Political Studies , 18: 287–319.

Rosenborg, S., Bohan, L., McCafferty, P., and Harris, K. (1986). ‘The Image and the Vote: The Effect of Candidate Presentation on Voter Preference’, American Journal of Political Science , 30: 108–27.

Rosenstone, S. J. and Hansen, J. M. (1993). Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America . New York: Macmillan.

Sainsbury, D. (1990). ‘Party Strategies and the Electoral Trade‐off of Class‐Based Parties. A Critique and Application of the “Dilemma of Electoral Socialism” ’, European Journal of Political Research , 18: 29–50.

Sanders, D. (1999). ‘Conservative Incompetence, Labour Responsibility and the Feelgood Factor: Why the Economy Failed to Save the Conservatives in 1997’, Electoral Studies , 18: 251–70.

—— and Carey, S. (2002). ‘Temporal Variations in Economic Voting: A Comparative Cross‐National Analysis’, in H. Dorussen and M. Taylor (eds.), Economic Voting . London: Routledge.

Sani, G. and Sartori, G. (1983). ‘Polarisation, Fragmentation and Competition in Western Democracies’, in H. Daalder and P. Mair (eds.), Western European Party Systems: Continuity and Change . London: Sage.

Sartori, G. (1976). Parties and Party Systems . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (1997). ‘The Sociology of Parties: A Critical Review’, in P. Mair (ed.), The West European Party System . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Originally published in O. Sammer (ed.) (1968), Party Systems, Party Organizations and the Politics of New Masses .

(p.327) Särlvik, B. and Crewe, I. (1983). Decade of Dealignment: The Conservative Victory of 1979 and Electoral Trends in the 1970s . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scarrow, S., Webb, P., and Farrell, D. (2000). ‘From Social Integration to Electoral Contestation: The Changing Distribution of Power within Political Parties’, in R. Dalton and M. Wattenberg (eds.), Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmitt, H. (1987). Das Parteiensystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine Einführung aus politik‐soziologischer Perspektive . Hagen: Fern‐Universität [Studienbrief in drei Kurseinheiten].

—— (2002). ‘Partisanship in Western Europe and the US: Causes and Consequences’. Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association in Boston, MA, 27 August to 1 September.

—— (2004). ‘Parteibindungen, Links‐Rechts‐Orientierungen und die Wahlentscheidung in Deutschland und Frankreich’, in J. W. Falter, O. W. Gabriel, and B. Wessels (eds.), Wahlen und Wähler: Analysen aus Anlass der Bundestagswahl 2002 . Opladen: Westdeutscher‐Verlag.

—— and Holmberg, S. (1995). ‘Political Parties in Decline?’, in H‐D. Klingemann and D. Fuchs (eds.), Citizens and the State . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sears, D. O. (1993). ‘Symbolic Politics: A Socio‐Psychological Theory’, in S. Iyengar and W. J. McGuire (eds.), Explorations in Political Psychology . Durham: Duke University Press.

Shanks, M. and Miller, W. (1990). ‘Policy Direction and Performance Evaluation: Complementary Explanations of the Reagan Elections’, British Journal of Political Science , 20: 143–235.

Shively, W. P. (1979). ‘The Development of Party Identification among Adults’, American Political Science Review , 73: 1039–54.

Sigelman, L. and Yough, S. N. (1978). ‘Left‐right Polarization in National Party Systems – A Cross‐National Analysis’, Comparative Political Studies , 11: 355–79.

Silverman, L. (1985). ‘The Ideological Mediation of Party‐Political Responses to Social Change’, European Journal of Political Research , 13: 69–93.

Smith, A. (1981). ‘Mass Communications’, in D. Butler, H. Penniman, and A. Ranney (eds.), Democracy at the Polls . Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.

Stebbins, R. P. and Amoia, A. (eds.). (1973). The World This Year: 1971–1973 (supplement to the Political Handbook and Atlas of the World: 1970 ). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Stewart, M. and Clarke, H. (1992). ‘The (Un)importance of Party Leaders, Leader Images and Party Choice in the 1987 British Election’, Journal of Politics , 54: 447–70.

Stokes, D. (1963). ‘Spatial Models of Party Competition’, American Political Science Review , 57: 368–77.

—— (1966). ‘Some Dynamic Elements of Contests for the Presidency’, American Political Science Review , 60: 19–28.

—— and Dilulio, J. J. (1993). ‘The Setting: Valence Politics in Modern Elections’, in M. Nelson (ed.), The Elections of 1992 . Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Sturm, R. (1999). ‘Das Politische System Grossbritanniens’, in W. Ismayr (ed.), Die Politischen Systeme Westeuropas . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Swanson, D. and Mancini, P. (1996). Politics, Media and Modern Democracy . New York: Praeger.

(p.328) Taylor, M. and Herman, V. (1971). ‘Party Systems and Government Stability’, American Political Science Review 65: 28–37.

Teixeira, R. A. (1987). Why Americans Don't Vote: Turnout Decline in the United States 1960–1984 . New York: Greenwood Press.

—— (1992). The Disappearing American Voter . Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Thomassen, J. J. A. (1976). ‘Party Identification as a Cross‐National Concept: Its Meaning in the Netherlands’, in I. Budge, I. Crewe, and D. Farlie (eds.), Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition . London: Wiley.

—— (2000). ‘From Comparable to Comparative Electoral Research’, in J. van Deth, H. Rattinger, and E. Roller, Die Republik auf dem Weg zur Normalität? Wahlverhalten und Politische Einstellungen nach Acht Jahren Einheit . Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

—— Aarts, C. W. A. M., and Van der Kolk, H. (eds.) (2000). Politieke Veranderingen in Nederland 1971–1998. Kiezers en de Smalle Marges van de Politiek . Den Haag: SDU.

Topf, R. (1995). ‘Electoral Participation’, in H‐D. Klingemann and D. Fuchs (eds.), Citizens and the State . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tromp, B. (1990). ‘Party Strategies and System Change in the Netherlands’, in P. Mair and G. Smith (eds.), Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe . London: Frank Cass.

Tuckel, P. and Tejera, F. (1983). ‘Changing Patterns in American Voting Behavior, 1914–1980’, Public Opinion Quarterly , 47: 143–202.

Tworzecki, H. (2002). Learning to Choose: Electoral Politics in East‐Central Europe . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Valen, H. (2003). ‘The Storting Election in Norway, September 2001’, Electoral Studies , 22: 179–85.

Valen, H. and Katz, D. (1964). Political Parties in Norway . Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Van Deth, J. W. and Scarbrough, E. (1995). ‘The Concept of Values’, in J. W. van Deth and E. Scarbrough (eds.), The Impact of Values . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Van der Brug, W. (1996). Where is the Party? Voters Perceptions of Party Positions . Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

—— (1998). ‘The Informed Electorate: Political Perceptions and Party Behaviour’, Acta Politica , 33: 20–55.

Van der Eijk, C. and Franklin, M. N. (eds.) (1996). Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

—— and Kroh, M. (2002). ‘Alchemy or Science? Discrete Choice Models for Analysing Voter Choice in Multi‐Party Contests’. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, August.

—— and Niemöller, K. (1992). ‘Netherlands’, in M. Franklin, T. Mackie, and H. Valen (eds.). Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— —— (1994). ‘Election Studies in the Netherlands’, in J. J. A. Thomassen, The Intellectual History of Election Studies. Special Issue of the European Journal for Political Research . Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 323–42.

—— Franklin, M. N., and Oppenhuis, E. (1996). ‘The Strategic Context: Party Choice’, in C. van der Eijk and M. N. Franklin (eds.), Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

(p.329) —— , —— and Van der Brug, W. (1999). ‘Policy Preferences and Party Choice’, in H. Schmitt and J. J. A. Thomassen (eds.), Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— Franklin, M., Mackie, T., and Valen, H. (1992). ‘Cleavages, Conflict Resolution and Democracy’, in M. N. Franklin, T. Mackie and H. Valen (eds.), Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— Van der Brug, W., Kroh, M., and Franklin, M. (forthcoming). ‘Rethinking the Dependent Variable in Voting Behavior–on the Measurement and Analysis of Electoral Utilities’, Electoral Studies , vol. 24.

Van Wijnen, P. (2001). Policy Voting in Advanced Industrial Democracies. The Case of the Netherlands 1971–1998 . Enschede: University of Twente.

Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., and Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Verba, S., Nie, N. H., and Kim, J. (1978). Participation and Political Equality: A Seven‐Nation Comparison . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Visser, M. (1998). Five Theories of Voting Action . Enschede: University of Twente.

Volkens, A. and Klingemann, H‐D. (2003). ‘Parties, Ideologies and Issues: Stability and Change in Fifteen European Party Systems 1945–1998’, in K. R. Luther and F. Mueller‐Rommel (eds.), Political Parties in the New Europe – Political and Analytical Challenges . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wattenberg, M. P. (1991). The Rise of Candidate‐Centred Politics: Presidential Elections of the 1980s . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

—— (2000). ‘The Decline of Party Mobilization’, in R. J. Dalton and M. P. Wattenberg (eds.), Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., and Sechrest, L. (2000). Unobtrusive Measures . rev edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wende, F. (ed.) (1981). Lexikon zur Geschichte der Parteien in Europa . Stuttgart: Kroener.

Wessels, B. (2004). ‘The German Party System: Developments after Unification’, in W. Reutter (ed.), Germany on the Road to Normalcy: Policies and Politics of the Red‐Green Federal Government (1998–2002) . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Whiteley, P. (1997). ‘The Conservative Campaign’, in P. Norris and N. T. Garvin (eds.), Britain Votes 1997 . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Widfeldt, A. (2003). ‘The Parliamentary Election in Sweden, 2002’, Electoral Studies , 22: 778–84.

Woldendorp, J., Keman, H., and Budge, I. (2000). Party Government in 48 Democracies (1945–1998): Composition – Duration – Personnel . Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Wolfinger, R. E. and Rosenstone, S. J. (1980). Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wolinetz, S. (1988). Parties and Party Systems in Liberal Democracies . London: Routledge.

Zaller, J. R. (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zenk‐Möltgen, W. and Mochmann, E. (2000). Der Continuity Guide der deutschen Wahlforschung und der ZA CodebookExplorer. In Klein, M. u.a. (ed.): 50 Jahre Empirische Wahlforschung in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag 596–614. (p.330)