Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
How the Body Shapes the Mind$

Shaun Gallagher

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780199271948

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0199271941.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 February 2017

(p.249) References

(p.249) References

How the Body Shapes the Mind
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Ackroyd, C., Humphrey, N. K., and Warrington, E. K. 1974. Lasting effects of early blindness: A case study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26: 114–24.

Adame, D. D., Radell, S. A., Johnson, T. C., and Cole, S. P. 1991. Physical fitness, body image, and locus of control in college women dancers and nondancers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72: 91–5.

Aglioti, S., Bonazzi, A., and Cortese, F. 1994. Phantom lower limb as a perceptual marker of neural plasticity in the mature human brain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 255: 273–8.

Aglioti, S., Cortese, F., and Franchini, C. 1994. Rapid sensory remapping in the adult brain as inferred from phantom breast perception. Neuroreport, 5: 473–6.

Akins, K. A., and Dennett, D. 1986. Who may I say is calling? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9: 517–18.

Allebeck, P., Hallberg, D., and Espmark, S. 1976. Body image—an apparatus for measuring disturbances in estimation of size and shape. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 20: 583–9.

Allison, T., Puce, Q., and McCarthy, G. 2000. Social perception from visual cues: Role of the STS region. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (7): 267–78.

Allot, R. 1992. The motor theory of language: Origin and function. In J. Wind et al. (eds.), Language Origin: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Anscombe, G. E. M. 1957. Intention. Oxford: Blackwell.

—— 1981. Causality and determination. In G. E. M. Anscombe. The Collected Philosophical Papers, ii (pp. 133–47). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1983. The causation of action. In L. Ginet and S. Shoemaker (eds.), Knowledge and Mind (pp. 174–90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arbib, M. A. 1985. Schemas for the temporal organization of behavior. Human Neurobiology, 4: 63–7.

—— and Hesse, M. B. 1986. The Construction of Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Assaiante, C., Amblard, G., and Carblanc, A. 1988. Peripheral vision and dynamic equilibrium control in five to twelve year old children. In B. Amblard, A. Berthoz, and F. Clarac (eds.), Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation (pp. 75–82). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Astington, J. W., and Jenkins, J. M. 1999. A longitudinal study of the relation between language and theory‐of‐mind development. Developmental Psychology, 35: 1311–20.

Atkinson, J., and Braddick, O. 1989. Development of basic visual functions. In A. Slater and G. Bremner (eds.), Infant Development (pp. 7–41). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bachevalier, J. 2000. The amygdala, social cognition, and autism. In J. P. Aggleton (ed.), The Amygdala: A Functional Analysis (pp. 509–43). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bailey, A. A., and Moersch, F. P. 1941. Phantom limb. The Canadian Medical Association Journal, 45: 37–42.

(p.250) Baldwin, D. A., and Baird, J. A. 2001. Discerning intentions in dynamic human action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5 (4): 171–8.

Baldwin, D. A., Baird, J. A., Saylor, M. M., and Clark, M. A. 2001. Infants parse dynamic action. Child Development, 72 (3): 708–17.

Barbaras, R. 1999. Le désir et la distance. Paris: J. Vrin.

—— 2000. Perception and movement: The end of the metaphysical approach. In F. Evans and L. Lawlor (eds.), Chiasms: Merleau‐Ponty's Notion of Flesh. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Barlow, H. 1975. Visual experience and cortical development. Nature, 258: 199–204.

Baron‐Cohen, S. 1989. The autistic child's theory of mind: A case of specific developmental delay. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30: 285–98.

—— 1995. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— Leslie, A., and Frith, U. 1985. Does the autistic child have a theory of mind? Cognition, 21: 37–46.

Barresi, J., and Moore, C. 1996. Intentional relations and social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19 (1): 107–54.

Bauermeister, M. 1964. The effect of body tilt on apparent verticality, apparent body position and their relation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67: 142–7.

Bauman, M. L., and Kemper, T. L. 1994. The Neurobiology of Autism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bellugi, U., and Klima, E. S. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and the brain. In M. Ito, Y. Miyashita, and E. T. Rolls (eds.), Cognition, Computation, and Consciousness (pp. 177–88). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Berkeley, G. 1709. A New Theory of Vision. London: Everyman's Library, 1910.

—— 1733. The Theory of Vision Vindicated and Explained. London: J. Tonson; repr. in G. Berkeley, Philosophical Works, Including the Works on Vision. London: Everyman's Library, 1975.

Berlucchi, G., and Aglioti, S. 1997. The body in the brain: Neural bases of corporeal awareness. Trends in Neuroscience, 20: 560–4.

Berman, D. 1999. Berkeley. New York: Routledge.

Bermúdez, J. L. 1995. Transcendental arguments and psychology: The example of O'Shaughnessy on intentional action. Metaphilosophy, 26: 379–401.

—— 1996. The moral significance of birth. Ethics, 106: 378–403.

—— 1998. The Paradox of Self‐Consciousness. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— Marcel, A., and Eilan, N. 1995. The Body and the Self. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Bernett, M. E., Cole, J. D., McLellan, D. L., and Sedgwick, E. M. 1989. Gait analysis in a subject without proprioception below the neck. Journal of Physiology, 417: 102.

Bertenthal, B. I., and Campos, J. J. 1990. A systems approach to the organizing effects of self‐produced locomotion during infancy. Advances in Infancy Research, 6: 1–60.

—— —— and Kermoian, R. 1994. An epigenetic perspective on the development of self‐produced locomotion and its consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3: 140–5.

—— Proffitt, D. R., and Cutting, J. E. 1984. Infant sensitivity to figural coherence in biomechanical motions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37: 213–30.

Berthoz, A. 2000. The Brain's Sense of Movement. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

(p.251) Biocca, F. 1997. The cyborg's dilemma: Progressive embodiment in virtual environments. In J. Marsh, C. Nehaniv, and B. Gorayska (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology (pp. 12–27). 25–8 August 1997, Aizu, Japan (http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue2/biocca2.html).

Birnholz, J. C. 1988. On observing the human fetus. In W. P. Smotherman and Scott R. Robinson (eds.), Behavior of the Fetus (pp. 47–60). Caldwell, NJ: Telford.

Blackburn, J., Gottschewski, K., George, E., and Niki, L. 2000. A discussion about theory of mind: From an autistic perspective. Proceedings of Autism Europe's 6th International Congress, Glasgow, 19–21 May 2000 (http://www.autistics.org/library/AE2000‐ToM.html).

Blakemore, C., and Cooper, G. F. 1973. Development of the brain depends upon the visual experience. Vision Research, 13: 535–58.

Blakemore, S‐J., and Decety, J. 2001. From the perception of action to the understanding of intention. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 2: 561–7.

—— Smith, J., Steel, R., Johnstone, E., and Frith, C. D. 2000. The perception of self‐produced sensory stimuli in patients with auditory hallucinations and passivity experiences: Evidence for a breakdown in self‐monitoring. Psychological Medicine, 30: 1131–9.

Blass, E. M., Fillion, T. J., Rochat, P., Hoffemeyer, L. B., and Metzger, M. A. 1989. Sensorimotor and motivational determinants of hand mouth coordination in 1–3 day old human infants. Developmental Psychology, 25: 963–75.

Bloom, P., and German, T. P. 2000. Two reasons to abandon the false belief task as a test of theory of mind. Cognition, 77: B25–B31.

Blouin, J., Gauthier, G. M., Vercher, J‐L., and Cole, J. 1996. The relative contribution of retinal and extraretinal signals in determining the accuracy of reaching movements in normal subjects and a deafferented patient. Experimental Brain Research, 109: 148–53.

Boden, M. 1982. Implications of language studies for human nature. In T. W. Simon and R. J. Scholes (eds.), Language, Mind and Brain (pp. 129–43). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bonnier, P. 1905. L'Aschematie. Revue Neurologie, 13: 604–9.

Bordo, S. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bovet, P., and Parnas, J. 1993. Schizophrenic delusions: A phenomenological approach. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19: 579–97.

Brandt, T. 1988. Sensory function and posture. In B. Amblard, A. Berthoz, and F. Clarac (eds.), Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation and Modulation (pp. 127–36). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Browder, J., and Gallagher, J. P. 1948. Dorsal cordotomy for painful phantom limb. Annals of Surgery, 128: 456–69.

Brown, T. 1820. Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind. Edinburgh: Bell & Bradfute.

Brugger, P., et al. 2000. Beyond re‐membering: Phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 97 (11): 6167–72.

Bruner, J., and Kalmar, D. A. 1998. Narrative and metanarrative in the construction of self. In M. Ferrari and R. J. Sternberg (eds.), Self‐Awareness: Its Nature and Development (pp. 308–31). New York: Guilford.

Bryant, P. E., Jones, P., Claxton, V., and Perkins, G. M. 1972. Recognition of shapes across modalities by infants. Nature (London), 240: 303–4.

Bushnell, E. W., and Boudreau, J. P. 1993. Motor development and the mind: The potential role of motor abilities as a determination of aspects of perceptual development. Child Development, 64: 1005–21.

Bushnell, I. W. R., and Sai, F. 1987. Neonatal recognition of the mother's face. University of Glasgow Report, 87/1.

(p.252) Butterworth, G. 1995. An ecological perspective on the origins of self. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 87–107). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Hicks, L. 1977. Visual proprioception and postural stability in infancy: A developmental study. Perception, 6: 255–62.

—— and Hopkins, B. 1977. Visual proprioception and postural stability in infancy: A developmental study. Perception, 6: 255–62.

—— —— 1988. Hand‐mouth coordination in the newborn baby. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6: 303–14.

—— and Pope, M. 1983. Les Origines de la proprioception visuelle chez le nourisson. In S. de Schonen (ed.), Le Development dans la première année (pp. 107–27). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Buytendijk, F. J. J. 1974. Prolegomena to an Anthropological Physiology, trans. A. I. Orr. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Sandman, C. A., and Walker, B. B. 1978. The effects of operant heart rate conditioning on cognitive elaboration and attitude change. Psychophysiology, 15: 330–8.

Calden, G., Lundy, R. M., and Schlafer R. J. 1959. Sex differences in body concepts. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23: 378.

Campbell, J. 1994. Past, Space, and Self. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 1995. The body image and self‐consciousness. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 29–42). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 1999a. Schizophrenia, the space of reasons and thinking as a motor process. The Monist, 82 (4): 609–25.

—— 1999b. Immunity to error through misidentification and the meaning of a referring term. Philosophical Topics, 26: 89–104.

Camper, P. 1746. Dissertatio optica de visu/Optical Dissertation on Vision, trans. G. ten Doesschate. Niewkoop: B. de Graaf, 1962.

Campos, J. J., Bertenthal, B. I., and Kermoian, R. 1992. Early experience and emotional development: The emergence of wariness of heights. Psychological Science, 3: 61–4.

Carmichael, S. T., and Price, J. L. 1995. Sensory and premotor connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of macaque monkeys. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 363: 642–64.

Carruthers, P. 1996. Simulation and self‐knowledge: A defense of theory‐theory. In P. Carruthers and P. K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind (pp. 22–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Smith, P. K. 1996. Introduction. In P. Carruthers and P. K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Casaer, P. 1979. Postural behaviour in newborn infants. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, 72. London: Heinemann Medical.

Cash, T. F., and Brown, T. A. 1987. Body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: A review of the literature, Behavior Modification, 11: 487–521.

Cassam, Q. 1995. Introspection and bodily self‐ascription. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 311–36). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Cassirer, E. 1951. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chaminade, T., and Decety, J. 2002. Leader or follower? Involvement of the inferior parietal lobule in agency. Neuroreport, 13 (1528): 1975–8.

—— Meltzoff, A. N., and Decety, J. 2002. Does the end justify the means? A PET exploration of the mechanisms involved in human imitation. NeuroImage, 15: 318–28.

(p.253) Changeux, P., and Ricœur, P. 2000. What Makes us Think? trans. M. B. DeBevoise. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cheselden, W. 1728. An account of some observations made by a young gentleman, who was born blind, or lost his sight so early, that he had no remembrance of ever having seen, and was couch'd between 13 and 14 years of age. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 35 (402): 447–50.

Chiel, H. J., and Beer, R. D. 1997. The brain has a body: Adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body and environment. Trends in Neurosciences, 20: 553–7.

Clark, A. 1997. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Clark, D. F. 1984. Body image and motor skills in normal and subnormal subjects. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 7: 207–8.

Cohen, L. G., et al. 1997. Functional relevance of cross‐modal plasticity in blind humans. Nature, 389 (11 Sept.): 180–3.

Cole, J. 1995. Pride and a Daily Marathon. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT; originally London: Duckworth, 1991.

—— 1998. About Face. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 1999. On being faceless: Selfhood and facial embodiment. In S. Gallagher and J. Shear (eds.), Models of the Self (pp. 301–18). Exeter: Imprint Academic.

—— 2004. Still Lives: Narratives of Spinal Cord Injury. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Katifi, H. A. 1991. Evoked potentials in a subject with a large fibre peripheral neuropathy. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 80: 103–7.

—— and Paillard, J. 1995. Living without touch and peripheral information about body position and movement: Studies upon deafferented subjects. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 245–66). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Sedgwick, E. M. 1992. The perceptions of force and of movement in a man without large myelinated sensory afferents below the neck. Journal of Physiology, 449: 503–15.

—— Gallagher, S., and McNeill, D. 2002. Gesture following deafferentation: A phenomenologically informed experimental study. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 1 (1): 49–67.

—— —— —— Duncan S., Furuyama, N., and McCullough, K‐E. 1998. Gestures after total deafferentation of the bodily and spatial senses. In S. Santi et al. (eds.), Oralité et gestualité: Communication multi‐modale, interaction (pp. 65–9). Paris: L'Harmattan.

—— Merton, W. L., Barrett, G., Katifi, H. A., and Treede, R‐D. 1995. Evoked potentials in a subject with a large fibre sensory neuropathy below the neck. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 73: 234–45.

—— ——cc 2000. On the immunity principle: A view from a robot. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (5): 167.

Condillac, É. B. de 1746. Essai sur l' origine des connaissances humaines. Two volumes. Paris.

—— 1754. Treatise on the Sensations, trans. G. Carr. Los Angeles: University of Southern California School of Philosophy, 1930.

Corina, D., Kritchevsky, M., and Bellugi, U. 1996. Visual language processing and unilateral neglect: Evidence from American Sign Language. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13: 321–56.

Coslett, H. B. 1998. Evidence for a disturbance of the body schema in neglect. Brain and Cognition, 37: 527–44.

Courchesne, E., Carper, R., and Akshoomoff, N. 2003. Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290: 337–44.

(p.254) Crook, J. 1987. The nature of conscious awareness. In C. Blakemore and S. Greenfield (eds.), Mindwaves: Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity, and Consciousness (pp. 383–402). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Crow, T. J., Cross, A. J., Johnstone, E. C., Owen, F., Owens, D. G. C., and Waddington, J. L. 1982. Abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia: Are they related to the disease process or its treatment? Are they associated with changes in dopamine receptors? Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2: 336–40.

Crowley, J. C., and Katz, L. C. 2000. Early development of ocular dominance columns. Science, 290 (17 Nov.): 1321–4.

Cumming, W. J. K. 1988. The neurobiology of the body schema. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (suppl. 2): 7–11.

Currie, G., and Sterelny, K. 2000. How to think about the modularity of mind‐reading. Philosophical Quarterly, 50: 145–60.

Damasio, A. R. 1994. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: G. P. Putnam.

—— 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co.

Damasio, A. R., and Maurer, R. G. 1978. A neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35: 777–86.

Daprati, E., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Proust, J., Pacherie, E., Dalery, J., and Jeannerod, M. 1997. Looking for the agent: An investigation into consciousness of action and self‐consciousness in schizophrenic patients. Cognition, 65: 71–86.

Dasch, C. S. 1978. Relation of dance skills to body cathexis and locus of control orientation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46: 465–6.

Davies, M., and Stone, T. 1998. Folk psychology and mental simulation. In A. O'Hear (ed.), Contemporary Issues in the Philosophy of Mind. Royal Institute of Philosophy, Suppl. 42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, C., and Cowles, M. 1991. Body image and exercise: A study of relationships and comparisons between physically active men and women. Sex Roles, 25: 33–44.

Davis, J. W. 1960. The Molyneux Problem. Journal of the History of Ideas, 21: 392–408.

DeCasper, A. J., and Spence, M. J. 1986. Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 91: 37–150.

Decety, J., and Sommerville, J. A. 2003. Shared representations between self and other: A social cognitive neuroscience view. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (12): 527–33.

Decety, J., Chaminade, T., Grèzes, J., and Meltzoff, A. N. 2002. A PET exploration of the mechanisms involved in imitation. NeuroImage, 15: 265–72.

Degenaar, M. 1996. Molyneux's Problem: Three Centuries of Discussion on the Perception of Forms, trans. M. J. Collins. Dordrecht/Boston: Kluwer.

della Sala, S., Marchetti, C., and Spinnler, H. 1994. The anarchic hand: A fronto‐mesial sign. In F. Boller and J. Grafman (eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology, ix. New York: Elsevier.

Dennett, D. 1976. Conditions of personhood. In A. Rorty (ed.), The Identities of Persons (pp. 175–96). Berkeley: University of California Press.

—— 1978. Brainstorms: Philosophic Essays on Mind and Psychology. Montgomery, Vt.: Bradford Books.

—— 1981. Where am I? In D. R. Hofstadter and D. C. Dennett, The Mind's I: Fantasies and Reflections on Mind and Soul (pp. 217–29). New York: Basic Books.

—— 1991. Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little, Brown.

(p.255) —— 2003a. Freedom Evolves. New York: Viking.

—— 2003b. Who's on first? Heterophenomenology explained. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (9–10): 19–30.

Denny‐Brown, D., Meyer, J. S., and Horenstein, S. 1952. The significance of perceptual rivalry resulting from parietal lesion. Brain, 75: 433–71.

Depraz, N. 1994. Temporalité et affection dans les manuscrits tardifs sur la temporalité (1929–1935) de Husserl. Alter, 2: 63–86.

—— 1998. Can I anticipate myself? Self‐affection and temporality. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Self‐awareness, Temporality, and Alterity (pp. 83–97). Dordrect: Kluwer Academic.

DePue, R. A., Dubicki, M. D., and McCarthy, T. 1975. Differential recovery of intellectual, associational, and psychophysiological functioning in withdrawal and active schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84: 325–30.

De Renzi, E. 1991. Spatial disorders. In M. Swash and J. Oxbury (eds.), Clinical Neurology, i (pp. 44–53). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

de Vignemont, F. 2004. The co‐consciousness hypothesis. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 3 (1): 114–32.

de Vries, J. I. P., Visser, G. H. A., and Prechtl, H. F. R. 1982. The emergence of fetal behaviour: I. Qualitative aspects. Early Human Development, 7: 301–22.

—— —— —— 1984. Fetal motility in the first half of pregnancy. In H. F. R. Prechtl (ed.), Continuity of Neural Functions from Prenatal to Postnatal Life (pp. 46–64). London: Spastics International Medical Publications.

Descartes, R. 1641. Meditations Concerning First Philosophy, trans. L. J. Lafleur. Indianapolis: Bobbs‐Merrill, 1960.

Diderot, D. 1749. Letter on the blind. In M. J. Morgan (trans), Molyneux's Question: Vision, Touch and the Philosophy of Perception (pp. 31–58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Dilling, C., and Rabin, A. 1967. Temporal experience in depressive states and schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31: 604–8.

Di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., and Rizzolatti G. 1992. Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, 91: 176–80.

Dobelle, W. H. 2000. Artificial vision for the blind by connecting a television camera to the visual cortex. ASIAO Journal, 46: 3–9.

Edelman, G. 1992. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire. New York: Basic Books.

Eilan, N. 1993. Molyneux's question and the idea of an external world. In N. Eilan, R. McCarthy, and B. Brewer (eds.), Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology (pp. 236–55). Oxford: Blackwell.

—— 2000. On understanding schizophrenia. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Exploring the Self (pp. 97–113). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Evans, G. 1982. The Varieties of Reference, ed. J. McDowell. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1985. Collected Papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L. Pavesi, G., and Rizzolatti, G. 1995. Motor facilitation during action observation: A magnetic stimulation study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73: 2608–11.

Farrer, C., and Frith, C. D. 2002. Experiencing oneself vs. another person as being the cause of an action: The neural correlates of the experience of agency. NeuroImage, 15: 596–603.

—— Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Frith, C. D., Decety, J., and Jeannerod, M. 2003. Modulating the experience of agency: A positron emission tomography study. NeuroImage, 18: 324–33.

(p.256) Fatemi, S. H., and Halt, A. R. 2001. Altered levels of Bcl2 and p53 proteins in parietal cortex reflect deranged apoptotic regulation in autism. Synapse, 42 (4): 281–4.

—— —— Stary, J. M., Realmuto, G. M., and Jalali‐Mousavi, M. 2001. Reduction in anti‐apoptotic protein Bcl‐2 in autistic cerebellum. Neuroreport, 12 (5): 929–33.

Feinberg, I. 1978. Efference copy and corollary discharge: Implications for thinking and its disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4: 636–40.

Feldman, J. F., and Brody, N. 1978. Non‐elicited newborn behaviours in relation to state and prandial condition. Merrill‐Palmer Quarterly, 24: 79–84.

Feldman, M. M. 1975. The body image and object relations: Exploration of a method utilizing repertory grid techniques. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48: 317–32.

Fichte, J. G. 1794. The Science of Knowledge, ed. P. Heath and J. Lachs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Field, T. M., Woodson, R., Greenburg, R., and Cohen, D. 1982. Discrimination and imitation of facial expression by neonates. Science, 218: 179–81.

Fifer, W. P., and Moon, C. 1988. Auditory experience in the fetus. In W. P. Smotherman and S. R. Robinson (eds.), Behavior of the Fetus (pp. 175–88). Caldwell, NJ: Telford.

Fisher, S. 1964. Sex differences in body perception. Psychological Monographs, 78: 1–22.

—— 1970. Body Experience in Fantasy and Behavior. New York: Appleton‐Century‐Crofts.

—— 1972. Body image. In D. Sills (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ii. New York: Collier‐Macmillan; repr. in T. Polhemus (ed.), The Body Reader: Social Aspects of the Human Body (pp. 115–21). New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.

—— 1976. Body perception upon awakening. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 43: 275–8.

—— 1978. Body experience before and after surgery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46: 699–702.

—— and Abercrombie, J. 1958. The relationship of body image distortions to body reactivity gradients. Journal of Personality, 28: 320–9.

—— and Cleveland, S. E. 1957. An approach to physiological reactivity in terms of a body‐image schema. Psychological Review, 64: 26–37.

—— —— 1958. Body Image and Personality. Princeton, NJ: D. van Nostrand.

—— Greenberg, R. G., and Reihman, J. 1984. Body perception and somatic discomfort in relation to right vs. left‐handedness. Cortex, 20: 285–94.

Flower, M. J. 1985. Neuromaturation of the human fetus. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 10: 237–51.

Fogassi, L. et al. 1996. Coding of peripersonal space in inferior premotor cortex (area f4). Journal of Neurophysiology, 76: 141–57.

Forget, R., and Lamarre, Y. 1995. Postural adjustments associated with different unloadings of the forearm: Effects of proprioceptive and cutaneous afferent deprivation. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 73: 285–94.

Fourneret, P., and Jeannerod, M. 1998. Limited conscious monitoring of motor performance in normal subjects, Neuropsychologia, 36: 1133–40.

—— Franck, N., Slachevsky, A. et al. 2001. Self‐monitoring in schizophrenia revisited. Neuroreport, 12 (6): 1203–8.

Franck, N., Farrer, C., Georgieff, N., Marie‐Cardine, M., Daléry, J., d'Amato, T., and Jeannerod, M. 2001. Defective recognition of one's own actions in patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158: 454–9.

Frankfurt, H. 1971. Freedom of the will and the concept of a person. Journal of Philosophy, 68: 5–20.

(p.257) —— 1976. Identification and externality. In A. O. Rorty (ed.), The Identities of Persons (pp. 239–51). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Freeman, R. J., Thomas, C. D., Solyom, L. and Hunter, M. A. 1984. A modified video camera for measuring body image distortion: Technical description and reliability. Psychological Medicine, 14: 411–16.

Frégnac, Y., and Imbert, M. 1984. Development of neuronal selectivity in primary visual cortex of cat. Physiological Reviews, 64: 325–434.

Friedman, W. 1990. About Time: Inventing the Fourth Dimension. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Frith, C. D. 1992. The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

—— and Done, D. J. 1988. Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 437–43.

—— and Frith, U. 1999. Interacting minds—a biological basis. Science, 286: 1692–5.

Frith, U. 1989. Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— and Happé, F. 1994. Autism: Beyond ‘Theory of Mind’. Cognition, 50: 115–32.

—— —— 1999. Theory of mind and self‐consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind and Language, 14 (1): 1–22

Gallagher, S. 1986a. Hyletic experience and the lived body. Husserl Studies, 3: 131–66.

—— 1986b. Body image and body schema: A conceptual clarification. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7: 541–54.

—— 1995. Body schema and intentionality. In J. Bermúdez, N. Eilan, and A. Marcel (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 225–44). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 1996. The moral significance of primitive self‐consciousness. Ethics, 107: 129–40.

—— 1997. Mutual enlightenment: Recent phenomenology in cognitive science. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4 (3): 195–214.

—— 1998. The Inordinance of Time. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.

—— 2000a. Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (1): 14–21.

—— 2000b. Self‐reference and schizophrenia: A cognitive model of immunity to error through misidentification. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Exploring the Self: Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspectives on Self‐Experience (pp. 203–39). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

—— 2001a. The practice of mind: Theory, simulation, or interaction? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8 (5–7): 83–107.

—— 2001b. Emotion and intersubjective perception: A speculative account. In A. Kazniak (ed.), Emotions, Qualia and Consciousness (pp. 95–100). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT; Naples: Instituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici.

—— 2001c. Dimensions of embodiment: Body image and body schema in medical contexts. In K. Toombs (ed.), Handbook in the Philosophy of Medicine, i. Phenomenology and Medicine (pp. 147–75). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

—— 2001d. Book review of K. Wider, The Bodily Nature of Consciousness, in Mind, 110 (438): 577–82.

—— 2003a. Phenomenology and experimental design. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (9–10): 85–99.

—— 2003b. Bodily self‐awareness and object‐perception. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum: International Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies, 7 (1): 53–68.

—— 2003c. Self‐narrative in schizophrenia. In A. S. David and T. Kircher (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry (pp. 336–57). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.258) Gallagher, S. 2004. Neurocognitive models of schizophrenia: A phenomenological critique. Psychopathology, 37(1): 8–19.

—— (forthcoming a). Sense of agency and higher‐order cognition: Levels of explanation for schizophrenia. Cognitive Semiotics, 18.

—— (forthcoming b). Fantasies and perspectives in the science of consciousness. Intellectica: Revue de l'Association pour la Recherche Cognitive.

—— (forthcoming c). Phenomenological contributions to a theory of social cognition (The Aron Gurwitsch Memorial Lecture 2003). Husserl Studies.

—— and Cole, J. 1995. Body schema and body image in a deafferented subject. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 16: 369–90.

—— and Marcel, A. J. 1999. The self in contextualized action. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (4): 4–30.

—— and Meltzoff, A. 1996. The earliest sense of self and others: Merleau‐Ponty and recent developmental studies. Philosophical Psychology, 9: 213–36.

—— and Varela, F. 2001. Redrawing the map and resetting the time: Phenomenology and the cognitive sciences. In S. Crowell, L. Embree, and S. J. Julian (eds.), The Reach of Reflection: The Future of Phenomenology (pp. 17–45). ElectronPress (http://www.electronpress.com/reach.asp). Also (forthcoming) Canadian Journal of Philosophy (2004).

—— Butterworth, G., Lew, A., and Cole, J. 1998. Hand‐mouth coordination, congenital absence of limb, and evidence for innate body schemas. Brain and Cognition, 38: 53–65.

—— Cole, J., and McNeill, D. 2001. The language‐thought‐hand system. In C. Cave, I. Guaitella, and S. Santi (eds.), Oralité et gestualité: Interactions et comportements multimodaux dans la communication (pp. 420–4). Paris: L'Harmattan.

—— —— —— 2002. Social cognition and the primacy of movement revisited. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6 (4): 155–6.

Gallese, V. 1998. Mirror neurons: From grasping to language. Paper presented at Tucson III Conference: Towards a Science of Consciousness (Tucson 1998).

—— 2000. The acting subject: Towards the neural basis of social cognition. In T. Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions (pp. 325–33). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Goldman, A. 1998. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind‐reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2: 493–501.

—— Fadiga, L., Fogassi L., and Rizzolatti, G. 1996. Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 119: 593–609.

Gardner, R. M., and Moncrieff, C. 1988. Body image distortion in anorexics as a non‐sensory phenomenon: A signal detection approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44: 101–7.

—— Martinez, R., Espinoza, T., and Gallegos, V. 1988. Distortion of body image in the obese: A sensory phenomena [sic]. Psychological Medicine, 18: 633–41.

—— Morrell, J. A., Watson, D. N., and Sandoval, S. L. 1989. Subjective equality and just noticeable differences in body‐size judgments by obese persons. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69: 595–604.

Garner D. M., and Garfinkel, P. E. 1981. Body image in anorexia nervosa: Measurement, theory, and clinical implications. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 11: 263–84.

—— —— Stacer, H. C., and Moldofsky, H. 1976. Body image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38: 327–36.

Garraghty, P. E., and Kaas, J. H. 1991. Functional reorganization in adult monkey thalamus after peripheral nerve injury. Neuroreport, 2: 747–50.

(p.259) Gazzaniga, M. 1998. The Mind's Past. Berkeley: University of California Press.

—— and Gallagher, S. 1998. A neuronal Platonist: An interview with Michael Gazzaniga (includes introduction and postscript), Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5: 706–17.

Gellhorn, E. 1943. Autonomic Regulations: Their Significance for Physiology, Psychology, and Neuropsychiatry. New York: Interscience Publications.

Georgieff, N., and Jeannerod, M. 1998. Beyond consciousness of external events: A ‘Who’ system for consciousness of action and self‐consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 7: 465–77.

Gerrans, P. 1999. Delusional misidentification as subpersonal disintegration. The Monist, 82 (4): 590–608.

Gerstmann, J. 1927. Agnosie und isolierte Agraphie: ein neues Syndrom, Zeitschrift für Neurologie, 108: 152–77.

—— 1942. Problems of imperception of disease and of impaired body territories with organic lesions. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 48: 890–912.

Gibson, J. J. 1966. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston: Houghton‐Mifflin.

—— 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton‐Mifflin.

—— 1987. A note on what exists at the ecological level of reality. In E. Reed and R. Jones (eds.), Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson (pp. 416–18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gillon, R. 1985. Philosophical Medical Ethics. Chichester: John Wiley.

Glucksman, M. L., and Hirsch, J. 1973. The perception of body size. In N. Kiell (ed.), The Psychology of Obesity. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

Goldfarb, W. 1945. Effect of psychological deprivation in infancy and subsequent stimulation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 102: 18–33.

Goldin‐Meadow, S. 1999. The role of gesture in communication and thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3: 419–29.

Goldman, A. I. 1989. Interpretation psychologized. Mind and Language, 4: 161–85.

—— and Gallese, V. 2000. Reply to Schulkin. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (7): 255–6.

Goldman‐Rakic, P. S., and Selemon, L. D. 1997. Functional and anatomical aspects of prefrontal pathology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23: 437–58.

Gomez, J. C. 1996. Second person intentional relations and the evolution of social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Studies, 19 (1): 129–30.

Gopnik, A. 1993. How we know our minds: The illusion of first‐person knowledge of intentionality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16: 1–14.

—— and Meltzoff, A. 1997. Words, Thoughts, and Theories. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Gordon, R. M. 1986. Folk psychology as simulation. Mind and Language, 1: 158–71.

—— 1995a. Simulation without introspection or inference from me to you. In M. Davies and T. Stone (eds.), Mental Simulation: Evaluations and Applications. Oxford: Blackwell.

—— 1995b. Developing commonsense psychology: Experimental data and philosophical data, APA Eastern Division Symposium on Children's Theory of Mind, 27 December 1995 (http://www.umsl.edu/∼philo/Mind_Seminar/New%20Pages/papers/Gordon/apakids9.htm).

Gorman, W. 1969. Body Image and the Image of the Brain. St Louis: Warren H. Green.

Grafton, S. T., Arbib, M. A., Fadiga, L., and Rizzolatti, G. 1996. Localization of grasp representations in humans by PET: 2. Observation compared with imagination. Experimental Brain Research, 112: 103–11.

Graham, G., and Stephens, G. L. 1994. Mind and mine. In G. Graham and G. L. Stephens (eds.), Philosophical Psychopathology (pp. 91–109). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

(p.260) Graybiel, M. S. 1997. The basal ganglia and cognitive pattern generators. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23: 459–69.

Graziano, M. S., and Gross, C. G. 1998. Spatial maps for the control of movement. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 8: 195–201.

—— Yap, G. S., and Gross, C. G. 1994. Coding of visual space by premotor neurons. Science, 266: 1054–7.

Gregory, R. L., and Wallace, J. G. 1963. Recovery from Early Blindness. EPS Monograph No. 2. Cambridge: Heffer.

Grezes, J., and Decety, J. 2001. Functional anatomy of execution, mental simulation, observation, and verb generation of actions: A meta‐analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 12: 1–19.

Grubb, J. D., and Reed, C. L. 2002. Trunk orientation induces neglect‐like lateral biases in covert attention. Psychological Science, 13: 554–7.

Guillaume, P. 1943. Psychologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Guldin, W. O., Akbarian, S., and Grüsser, O. J. 1992. Cortico‐cortical connections and cytoarchitectonics of the primate vestibular cortex: A study in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 326: 375–401.

Gurfinkel, V. S., and Levick, Yu. S. 1991. Perceptual and automatic aspects of the postural body scheme. In J. Paillard (ed.), Brain and Space (pp. 147–62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gurwitsch, A. 1931/1978. Human Encounters in the Social World. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

—— 1964. The Field of Consciousness. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

Hacking, I. 1995. The looping effects of human kinds. In D. Sperber, D. Premack, and A. J. Premack (eds.), Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate (pp. 351–83). New York: Oxford University Press.

Haggard, P., and Eimer, M. 1999. On the relation between brain potentials and the awareness of voluntary movements. Experimental Brain Research, 126: 128–33.

—— and Magno, E. 1999. Localising awareness of action with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, 127: 102–7.

Haith, M. M. 1993. Future‐oriented processes in infancy: The case of visual expectations. In C. Granrud (ed.), Carnegie‐Mellon Symposium on Visual Perception and Cognition in Infancy (pp. 235–64). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Halligan, F. R., and Reznikoff, M. 1985. Personality factors and change with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53: 547–8.

Halligan, P. M., Zeman A., and Berger, A. 1999. Phantoms in the brain: Question the assumption that the adult brain is hard wired. British Medical Journal, 319 (7210): 587–8.

—— Marshall, L. C., Wade, D. T., Davey, J., and Morrison, D. 1993. Thumb in cheek? Sensory reorganization and perceptual plasticity after limb amputation. Neuroreport, 4: 233–6.

Ham, G. L., Easton, P. S., Himburg, S. P., and Greenberg, B. 1983. Body image perceptions of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. International Journal of Obesity, 7: 321–6.

Happé, F. 1995. Autism: An Introduction to Psychological Theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Harris, C. S. 1965. Perceptual adaptation to inverted, reversed, and displaced vision. Psychological Review, 72: 419–44.

Head, H. 1920. Studies in Neurology, ii. London: Oxford University Press.

—— 1926. Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech, i. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Holmes, G. 1911–12. Sensory disturbances from cerebral lesions, Brain, 34: 102–245.

(p.261) Heal, J. 1986. Replication and functionalism. In J. Butterfield (ed.), Language, Mind, and Logic (pp. 45–59). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1998a. Co‐cognition and off‐line simulation: Two ways of understanding the simulation approach. Mind and Language, 13: 477–98.

—— 1998b. Understanding other minds from the inside. In A. O'Hear (ed.), Current Issues in Philosophy of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hebb, D. O. 1949. The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. New York: Science Editions, 1961.

Hécaen, H., Talairach, J., David, M., and Dell, M. B. 1949. Coagulations limités du thalamus dans les algies du syndrome thalamique: résultats thérapeutiques et physiologiques. Revue de Neurologie, 81: 917–31.

Heidegger, M. 1968. Being and Time, trans. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson. New York: Harper & Row.

Heilman, K. M., Bowers, D., Valenstein, E., and Watson, R. T. 1987. Hemispace and hemispatial neglect. In M. Jeannerod (ed.), Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Aspects of Spatial Neglect (pp. 115–50). Amsterdam: North‐Holland.

Held, R. 1961. Exposure‐history as a factor in maintaining stability of perception and coordination. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 132: 26–32.

Hickok, G., Bellugi, U., and Klima, E. S. 1998. The neural organization of language: evidence from sign language aphasia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2: 129–36.

Hobson, P. 1986. The autistic child's appraisal of expressions of emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27: 321–42.

—— 1993. The emotional origins of social understanding. Philosophical Psychology, 6: 227–49.

—— 2002. The Cradle of Thought. London: Macmillan.

—— and Lee, A. 1999. Imitation and identification in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40: 649–59.

Holst, E. von, and Mittelstaedt, H. 1950. Das Reafferenzprinzip (Wechselwirkungen zwischen Zentralnervensystem und Peripherie). Naturwisenschaften, 37: 464–76.

Hopkins, B. and Prechtl, H. F. R. 1984. A qualitative approach to the development of movements during early infancy. In H. F. R. Prechtl (ed.), Continuity of Neural Functions from Prenatal to Postnatal Life. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hubel, D. H., and Wiesel, T. N. 1963. Receptive fields of cells in striate cortex of very young, visually inexperienced kittens. Journal of Neurophysiology, 26: 994–1002.

Humphrey, T. 1964. Some correlations between the appearance of human fetal reflexes and the development of the nervous system. Progress in Brain Research, 4: 93–135.

Hurley, S. 1999. Consciousness in Action. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Husserl, E. 1970. Cartesian Meditations, trans. D. Cairns. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

—— 1973. Ding und Raum. Husserliana, 16. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

—— 1991. On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893–1917), trans. J. Brough. Collected Works, 4. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Huttenlocher, P. R., de Courten, C., Garey, L. J., and van der Loos, H. 1982. Synaptogenesis in human visual cortex—evidence for synapse elimination during normal development, Neuroscience Letters, 33: 247–52.

Iacoboni, M., Woods, R. P., Mazziotta, J. C., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., and Rizzolatti, G. 1999. Cortical mechanisms of human imitation. Science, 286 (24 Dec.): 2526–8.

(p.262) Iverson, J. M., and Goldin‐Meadow, S. 1998. Why people gesture when they speak. Nature, 396 (19 Nov.): 228.

Iverson, J. M., and Thelen, E. 1999. Hand, mouth and brain: The dynamic emergence of speech and gesture. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (11–12): 19–40.

Jackson, S. R., and Husain, M. 1996. Visuomotor functions of the lateral premotor cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6: 788–95.

—— Newport, R., Husain, M., Harvey, M., and Hindle, J. V. 2000. Reaching movements may reveal the distorted topography of spatial representations after neglect. Neuropsychologia, 38 (4): 500–7.

Jacobson, E. 1970. Modern Treatment of Tense Patients. Springfield, Vt.: Charles C. Thomas.

Jacomuzzi, A. C., Kobau, P., and Bruno, N. 2003. Molyneux's question redux. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 2 (4): 255–80.

James, W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover, 1950.

Jaspers, K. 1972. General Psychopathology, trans. J. Hoenig and M. W. Hamilton. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jeannerod, M. 1994. The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17: 187–245.

—— 1997. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Action. Oxford: Blackwell.

—— 1999. To act or not to act: Perspectives on the representation of actions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A: 1–29.

—— 2001. Neural simulation of action: A unifying mechanism for motor cognition, NeuroImage, 14: 103–9.

—— 2003. The mechanism of self‐recognition in humans. Behavioral and Brain Research, 142 (1–2): 1–15.

—— and Gallagher, S. (2002). From action to interaction: An interview with Marc Jeannerod. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9 (1): 3–26.

Jensen, T. S., Krebs, B., Nielsen, J., and Rasmussen, P. 1984. Non‐painful phantom limb phenomena in amputees: Incidence, clinical characteristics and temporal course. Acta Neurol. Scand., 70: 407–14.

Johnson, M. 1987. The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Johnson, S. C. 2000. The recognition of mentalistic agents in infancy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4: 22–8.

Johnson, S. C., et al. 1998. Whose gaze will infants follow? The elicitation of gaze‐following in 12‐month‐old infants. Developmental Science, 1: 233–8.

Jones, E. G., and Pons, T. P. 1998. Thalamic and brainstem contributions to large scale plasticity of primate somatosensory cortex. Science, 282: 1121–5.

Jouen, F. 1986. La Contribution des récepteurs visuels et labyrinthiques à la detection des mouvements du corps propre chez le nourrisson. Année Psychologique, 86: 169–92.

—— 1988. Visual‐proprioceptive control of posture in newborn infants. In G. Amblard, A. Berthoz, and F. Clarac (eds.), Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation, and Modulation (pp. 13–22). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

—— and Gapenne, O. 1995. Interactions between the vestibular and visual systems in the neonate. In P. Rochat (ed.), The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research (pp. 277–301). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Kaas, J. H. 1991. Plasticity of sensory and motor maps in adult mammals. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 14: 137–67.

—— 2000. The reorganization of sensory and motor maps after injury in adult mammals. In M. S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 223–36). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

(p.263) Kandel, E. R., and Hawkins, R. D. 1992. The biological basis of learning and individuality. Scientific American (U.K.), 267 (3): 53–60.

Kapur, S. 2003. Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: A framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (1): 13–23.

Karl, A., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Cohen, L. G., and Flor, H. 2001. Reorganization of motor and somatosensory cortex in upper extremity amputees with phantom limb pain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21 (10): 3609–18.

Karmiloff‐Smith, A. 1992. Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Cognitive Science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Katz, J. 1993. The reality of phantom limbs. Motivation and Emotion, 17: 147–79.

Kelso, J. A. 1995. Dynamic Patterns: The Self‐Organization of Brain and Behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Keltikangas‐Jarvinen, L. 1987. Body‐image disturbances ensuing from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64: 984.

Kermoian, R., and Campos, J. J. 1988. Locomotor experience: A facilitator of spatial cognitive development. Child Development, 59: 908–917.

Kew, J. J. M., Halligan, P. W., Marshall, J. C., et al. 1997. Abnormal access of axial vibrotactile input to deafferented somatosensory cortex in human upper limb amputees. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77: 2753–64.

Kinsbourne, M. 1975. The mechanisms of hemispheric control of the lateral gradient of attention. In P. M. A. Rabbitt and S. Dornic (eds.), Attention and Performance. London: Academic Press.

—— 1987. Mechanisms in unilateral neglect. In M. Jeannerod (ed.), Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Aspects of Spatial Neglect (pp. 69–86). Amsterdam: North‐Holland.

—— 1995. Awareness of one's own body: An attentional theory of its nature, development, and brain basis. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 206–23). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 2002. The role of imitation in body ownership and mental growth. In A. N. Meltzoff and W. Prinz (eds.), The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution, and Brain Bases (pp. 311–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kita, S. 2000. How representational gestures help speaking. In D. McNeill (ed.), Language and Gesture (pp. 162–85). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Klonoff, H., Fibiger, C., and Hutton, G. H. 1970. Neuropsychological pattern in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder, 150: 291–300.

Knecht, S., Henningsen, H., Elbert, T., Flor, H., Höhling, C., Pantev, C., Birbaumer, N., and Taub, E. 1995. Cortical reorganization in human amputees and mislocalization of painful stimuli to the phantom limb. Neuroscience Letters, 201: 262–4.

Kolb, L. C. 1954. The Painful Phantom. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.

—— 1959. The body image in schizophrenic reaction. In A. Auerbach (ed.), Schizophrenia: An Integrated Approach (pp. 87–97). New York: Ronald.

Kollias, S., Brugger, P., Crelier, G. R., Regard, M‐C., Hepp, M., and Valavanis, A. 1998. Cortical representation of phantom limbs in congenital tetramelia demonstrated by fMRI. NeuroImage, 7 (4), Part 2, Abstract.

Kuhl, P. K., and Meltzoff, A. N. 1984. The intermodal representation of speech in infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 7: 361–81.

—— —— 1992. The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218: 1138–41.

(p.264) Lackner, J. R. 1988. Some proprioceptive influences on the perceptual representation of body shape and orientation. Brain, 3: 281–97.

Lakoff, G. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

—— and Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

La Mettrie, J. O. de. 1745. Histoire naturelle de l'âme. Paris.

Landau, B., Gleitman, H., and Spelke, E. 1981. Spatial knowledge and geometric representation in a child blind from birth. Science, 213: 1275–7.

LeBaron, C., and Streeck, J. 2000. Gestures, knowledge, and the world. In D. McNeill (ed.), Language and Gesture (pp. 118–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, D. N., and Aronson, E. 1974. Visual proprioceptive control of standing in human infants. Perception and Psychophysics, 15: 529–32.

—— and Lishman, J. R. 1975. Visual proprioceptive control of stance. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1: 87–95.

Lee, D. S., et al. 2001. Deafness: Cross‐modal plasticity and cochlear implants, Nature, 409: 149–50.

Legerstee, M. 1991. The role of person and object in eliciting early imitation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51: 423–33.

Leibniz, G. 1765. Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain, trans. A. G. Langley. New Essays Concerning Human Understanding (3rd edn.). La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1949.

Lempert, H., and Kinsbourne, M. 1982. Effect of laterality of orientation on verbal memory. Neuropsychologia, 20: 211–14.

Leslie, A. 1988. Some implications of pretense for mechanisms underlying the child's theory of mind. In J. Astington, P. Harris, and D. Olson (eds.), Developing Theories of Mind (pp. 19–46). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1991. The theory of mind impairment in autism: Evidence for a modular mechanism of development? In A. Whiten (ed.), Natural Theories of Mind: Evolution, Development and Simulation of Everyday Mindreading (pp. 63–78). Oxford: Blackwell.

—— 1994. ToMM, ToBy, and agency: Core architecture and domain specificity. In L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds.), Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture (pp. 119–48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 2000. Theory of mind as a mechanism of selective attention. In M. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 1235–47). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Frith, U. 1988. Autistic children's understanding of seeing, knowing and believing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6: 315–24.

—— and Thaiss, L. 1992. Domain specificity in conceptual development: Neuropsychological evidence from autism. Cognition, 43: 225–51.

Levin, S. 1984. Frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia—Eye movement impairments. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 18: 27–55.

Lew, A., and Butterworth, G. E. 1995. Hand‐mouth contact in newborn babies before and after feeding. Developmental Psychology, 31: 456–63.

Lhermitte, J. 1939. L'Image de notre corps. Paris: Nouvelle Revue Critique.

Libet, B. 1985. Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8: 529–66.

—— 1992. The neural time‐factor in perception, volition, and free will. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, 2: 255–72.

(p.265) —— 1996, Neural time factors in conscious and unconscious mental functions. In S. R. Hammeroff et al. (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— 1999. Do we have free will? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (8–9): 47–57.

—— 2003. Can conscious experience affect brain activity? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (12): 24–8.

—— Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., and Perl, D. K. 1983. Time of conscious intention to act in relation to cerebral activities (readiness potential): The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain, 102: 193–224.

Locke, J. 1690. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (2nd edn. 1694.), ed. A. C. Fraser. New York: Dover, 1959.

Lockman, J. J., and Thelen, E. 1993. Developmental biodynamics: Brain, body, behavior connections. Child Development, 64: 953–9.

Lutchmaya, S., Baron‐Cohen, S., and Raggatt, P. 2002. Foetal testosterone and vocabulary size in 18‐ and 24‐month‐old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 24 (4): 418–24.

McCanne, T. R., and Sandman, C. A. 1974. Instrumental heart rate responses and visual perception: A preliminary study. Psychophysiology, 11: 283–7.

—— —— 1976. Operant autonomic conditioning and Rod‐and‐Frame Test performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24: 821–9.

McEwan, M. H., Dihoff, R. E., and Brosvic, G. M. 1991. Early infant crawling experience is reflected in later motor skill development. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72: 75–9.

MacKay, D. 1966. Cerebral organization and the conscious control of action. In J. C. Eccles (ed.), Brain and Conscious Experience (pp. 422–45). New York: Springer.

McNeill, D. 1992. Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mahoney, M. J. 1991. Human Change Processes: The Scientific Foundations of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Malenka, R. C., Angel, R. W., Hampton, B., and Berger, P. A. 1982. Impaired central error correcting behaviour in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39: 101–7.

Malle, B. F. 2001. The folk theory of mind: Conceptual foundations for social cognition. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, and J. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— 2002. The relation between language and theory of mind in development and evolution. In T. Givón and B. F. Malle (eds.), The Evolution of Language out of Pre‐Language (pp. 265–84). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Manning, J. T. 2002. Digit Ratio: A Pointer to Fertility, Behavior and Health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Manschreck, T. C. 1986. Motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In H. A. Nasrallah and D. K. Weinberger (eds.), Handbook of Schizophrenia, i. The Neurology of Schizophrenia (pp. 65–96). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Marbach, E. 1993. Mental Representation and Consciousness: Toward a Phenomenological Theory of Representation and Reference. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

(p.266) Marcel, A. J. 1983. Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology, 15: 238–300.

—— 1992. The personal level in cognitive rehabilitation. In N. von Steinbuchel, E. Pöppel, and D. von Cramon (eds.), Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (pp. 155–68). Berlin: Springer.

Marcel, A. J. 2003. The sense of agency: Awareness and ownership of actions and intentions. In J. Roessler and N. Eilan (eds.), Agency and Self‐Awareness (pp. 48–93). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Margolis, R. L., Chuang, D. M., Post, R. M. 1994. Programmed cell death: Implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 35 (12): 946–56.

Marivita, A. and Iriki, A. 2004. Tools for the body (schema). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8 (2): 79–86.

Martin, M. 1992. Sight and touch. In T. Crane (ed.), The Contents of Experience: Essays on Perception (pp. 196–215). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martinez‐Conde, S., Macknik, S. L., and Hubel, D. H. 2000. Microsaccadic eye movements and firing of single cells in the striate cortex of macaque monkeys. Nature Neuroscience, 3 (3): 251–8.

Mason, R. E. 1961. Internal Perception and Bodily Functioning. New York: International Universities Press.

Maturana, H. R., and Varela, F. G. 1987. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Boston: Shambhala.

Medin, D. L., and Wattenmaker, W. D. 1987. Category cohesiveness, theories, and cognitive archeology. In U. Neisser (ed.), Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization (pp. 25–62). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meijsing, M. (2003). Phantoms and movements, or, are we really just our brains? Theoria et Historia Scientiarum, 7 (1): 93–118.

Melges, F. T. 1982. Time and the Inner Future: A Temporal Approach to Psychiatric Disorders. New York: Wiley.

—— and Freeman, A. M. 1977. Temporal disorganization and inner‐outer confusion in acute mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134: 874–7.

Mellor, C. S. 1970. First rank symptoms of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117: 15–23.

Meltzoff, A. 1988a. Infant imitation and memory: Nine‐month‐olds in immediate and deferred tests. Child Development, 59: 217–25.

—— 1988b. Infant imitation after a 1‐week delay: Long‐term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Developmental Psychology, 24: 470–6.

—— 1990a. Foundations for developing a concept of self: The role of imitation in relating self to other and the value of social mirroring, social modeling, and self practice in infancy. In D. Cicchetti and M. Beeghly (eds.), The Self in Transition: Infancy to Childhood (pp. 139–64). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

—— 1990b. Towards a developmental cognitive science: The implications of cross‐modal matching and imitation for the development of representation and memory in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (The Development and Neural Bases of Higher Cognitive Functions), 608: 1–31.

—— 1993. Molyneux's babies: Cross‐modal perception, imitation, and the mind of the preverbal infant. In N. Eilan, R. McCarthy, and B. Brewer (eds.), Spatial Representation: Problems in Philosophy and Psychology (pp. 219–35). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1995. Understanding the intentions of others: Re‐enactment of intended acts by 18‐month‐old children. Developmental Psychology, 31: 838–50.

—— 2002. Elements of a developmental theory of imitation. In A. N. Melzoff and W. Prinz (eds.), The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution, and Brain Bases (pp. 19–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.267) —— and Borton, R. W. 1979. Intermodal matching by human neonates. Nature, 282: 403–4.

—— and Brooks, R. 2001. ‘Like Me’ as a building block for understanding other minds: Bodily acts, attention, and intention. In B. F. Malle et al. (eds.), Intentions and Intentionality: Foundations of Social Cognition (pp. 171–91). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Gopnik, A. 1993. The role of imitation in understanding persons and developing a theory of mind. In S. Baron‐Cohen, H. Tager‐Flusberg, and D. Cohen (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Autism (pp. 335–66). New York: Oxford University Press.

—— and Moore, M. K. 1977. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198: 75–8.

—— —— 1983. Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development, 54: 702–9.

—— —— 1989. Imitation in newborn infants: Exploring the range of gestures imitated and the underlying mechanisms. Developmental Psychology, 25: 954–62.

—— —— 1994. Imitation, memory, and the representation of persons, Infant Behavior and Development, 17: 83–99.

—— —— 1995. Infants' understanding of people and things: From body imitation to folk psychology. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 43–69). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— —— 1997. Explaining facial imitation: A theoretical model, Early Development and Parenting, 6: 179–92.

Melzack, R. 1989. Phantom limbs, the self and the brain. Canadian Psychology, 30: 1–16.

—— 1990. Phantom limbs and the concept of a neuromatrix. Trends in Neuroscience, 13: 88–92.

Merleau‐Ponty, M. 1945. Phénomenologie de la perception. Paris: Gallimard.

—— 1962. Phenomenology of Perception, trans. C. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

—— 1964. The Primacy of Perception, trans. W. Cobb. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

—— 1968. The Visible and the Invisible trans. A. Lingis. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

—— 1987. Signs trans. R. C. McCleary. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

Merzenich, M. M., and Kaas, J. H. 1980. Principles of organization of sensory‐perceptual systems in mammals. Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, 9: 1–42.

Meuse, S. 1996. Phantoms, lost limbs, and the limits of the body‐self. In M. O'Donovan‐Anderson (ed.), The Incorporated Self: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Embodiment (pp. 47–64). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Milner, D. 1998. Unconscious visual processing for action: Neuropsychological evidence. Paper presented at Towards a Science of Consciousness, Third Conference, Tucson, 27 April 1998.

Minkowski, E. 1933. Lived Time: Phenomenological and Psychological Studies, trans. N. Metzel. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970.

Mitchell, D. E., Freeman, R. D., Millodot, M., and Haegerstrom, G. 1973. Meridional amblyopia: Evidence for modification of the human visual system by early visual experience. Visual Research, 13: 535–58.

Moore, D. G., Hobson, R. P., and Lee, A. 1997. Components of person perception: An investigation with autistic, non‐autistic retarded and typically developing children and adolescents. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15: 401–23.

Morgan, M. 1977. Molyneux's Question: Vision, Touch and the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.268) Munk, H. 1890. Über die Functionen der Grosshirnrinde. Berlin: Hirschwald.

Murata, A., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Raos, V., and Rizzolatti, G. 1997. Object representation in the ventral premotor cortex (Area F5) of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78: 2226–30.

Müri, R. M., Schnyder, H., Brugger, P., Hepp‐Reymond, M‐C., and Regard, M. 1998. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping in a patient with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs. Poster presentation, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Klinische Neurophysiologie, Zurich, 13 June 1998.

Myers, G. 1967. Self and body‐image. In J. Edie (ed.), Phenomenology in America (pp. 147–60). Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Nadel, J., and Butterworth, G. 1999. Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Neisser, U. 1976. Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology. New York: W. H. Freeman.

—— (ed.). 1987. Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1988. Five kinds of self‐knowledge. Philosophical Psychology, 1: 35–59.

—— 1991. Two perceptually given aspects of the self and their development. Developmental Review, 11: 197–209.

Nielsen, T. I. 1963. Volition: A new experimental approach. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 4: 225–30.

Ogden, J. A. 1996. Fractured Minds: A Case‐Study Approach to Clinical Neuropsychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ohta, M. 1987. Cognitive disorders of infantile autism: A study employing the WISC, spatial relationship conceptualization, and gesture imitation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17: 45–62.

Ojemann, G. A. 1984. Common cortical and thalamic mechanisms for language and motor functions. American Journal of Physiology, 246 (Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 15): R901–R903.

Ojemann, J. G., and Silbergeld, D. L. 1995. Cortical stimulation mapping of phantom limb rolandic cortex. Journal of Neurosurgery, 82: 641–4.

Olson, E. T. 1997. The Human Animal: Personal Identity without Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

O'Rahilly, R., and Müller, F. 1994. The Embryonic Human Brain. New York: Wiley‐Liss.

O'Shaughnessy, B. 1980. The Will: A Dual Aspect Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1995. Proprioception and the body image. In J. Bermúdez, A. Marcel, and N. Eilan (eds.), The Body and the Self (pp. 175–203). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Owens, D. G. C., Johnstone, E. C., and Frith, C. D. 1982. Spontaneous involuntary disorders of movement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39: 452–61.

Pacherie, E. 1997. Du problème de Molyneux au problème de Bach‐y‐Rita. In J. Proust (ed.), Perception et Intermodalité, Approches actuelles du Problème de Molyneux (pp. 255–93). Paris: PUF.

Paillard, J. 1991a. Motor and representational framing of space. In J. Paillard (ed.), Brain and Space (pp. 163–82). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1991b. Knowing where and knowing how to get there. In J. Paillard (ed.), Brain and Space (pp. 461–81). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.269) —— 1997. Divided body schema and body image in peripherally and centrally deafferented patients. In V. S. Gurfinkel and Yu. S. Levik (eds.), Brain and Movement. Moscow: Institute for Information Transmission Problems RAS.

—— 1999. Body schema and body image: A double dissociation in deafferented patients. In G. N. Gantchev, S. Mori, and J. Massion (eds.), Motor Control, Today and Tomorrow (pp. 197–214). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Academic Publishing House.

—— 2000. The neurobiological roots of rational thinking. In H. Cruse et al. (eds.), Prerational Intelligence: Adaptive Behavior and Intelligent Systems Without Symbols and Logic, i (pp. 343–55). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

—— Michel, F., and Stelmach, G. 1983. Localization without content: A tactile analogue of blind sight. Archives of Neurology, 40: 548–51.

Panksepp, J. 1998. The periconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the self. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5 (5/6): 566–82.

Park, D. 1969. Locke and Berkeley on the Molyneux problem. Journal of the History of Ideas, 30: 253–360.

Parnas, J. 2000. The self and intentionality in the pre‐psychotic stages of schizophrenia. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Exploring the Self (pp. 115–47). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Parsons, L. M. 1990. Body image. In M. W. Eysenck (ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 46–7). Oxford: Blackwell Reference.

Passingham, R. E. 1996. Functional specialization of the supplementary motor area in monkeys and humans. In H. O. Lüders (ed.), Advances in Neurology, 70 (pp. 105–16). Philadelphia: Lippincott‐Raven.

Perner, J. 1991. Understanding the Representational Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— Leekam, S. R., and Wimmer, H. 1987. Three‐year olds' difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5: 125–37.

Petit, J‐L. 1999. Constitution by movement: Husserl in light of recent neurobiological findings. In J. Petitot et al. (eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science (pp. 220–44). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Petitot, J., Varela, F., Pachoud, B., and Roy, J‐M. (eds.) 1999. Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Petty, R. E., and Cacioppo, J. T. 1977. Forewarning, cognitive responding and resistance to persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35: 645–55.

Phillips, C. 1985. Movements of the Hand. Liverpool, Sherrington Lectures, XVII.

Phillips, W., Baron‐Cohen, S., and Rutter, M. 1992. The role of eye‐contact in the detection of goals: Evidence from normal toddlers, and children with autism or mental handicap. Development and Psychopathology, 4: 375–83.

Piaget, J. 1954. The Construction of Reality in the Child. New York: Basic Books.

—— 1962. Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. New York, Norton.

—— 1971. Biology and Knowledge: An Essay on the Relations between Organic Regulations and Cognitive Processes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

—— and Inhelder, B. 1969. The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books.

Pick, A. 1915a. Störung der Orientierung am eigenen Körper: Beitrag zur Lehre vom Bewusstsein des eigenen Körpers, Psychologische Forschung, 1: 303–18.

—— 1915b. Zur Pathologie des Bewusstseins vom eigenen Korper: Ein Beitrag aus der Kriegsmedizin, Neurologisches Centralblatt, 34: 257–65.

(p.270) Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Ambrose, J., Allen, G., and Courchesne, E. 2001. Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124 (Pt. 10): 2059–73.

Pinker, S. 1994. The Language Instinct. Baltimore: Penguin.

Plugge, H. 1967. Der Mensch und sein Leib. In S. Spicker (ed.), The Philosophy of the Body (pp. 293–311). Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970.

Poeck, K. 1963. Zur Psychophysiologie der Phantomerlebnisse. Nervenarzt, 34: 241–56.

—— 1964. Phantoms following amputation in early childhood and in congenital absence of limbs. Cortex, 1: 269–75.

—— and Orgass, B. 1971. The concept of the body schema: A critical review and some experimental results. Cortex, 7: 254–77.

Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Ommaya, A. K., Kaas, J. H., Taub, E., and Mishkin, M. 1991. Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation in adult macaques. Science, 252: 1857–60.

Pöppel, E. 1994. Temporal mechanisms in perception. International Review of Neurobiology, 37: 185–202.

—— von Cramon, D., and Blackmund, H. 1975. Eccentricity‐specific dissociation of visual functions in patients with lesions of the central visual pathways. Nature (London), 256: 489–90.

Porterfield, W. 1759. A Treatise on the Eye: The Manner and Phaenomena of Vision, 2 vols. Edinburgh.

Posada, A., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., and Jeannerod, M. 2001. Anticipating incoming events: An impaired cognitive process in schizophrenia. Cognition, 81: 209–25.

Powers, P. S., Schulman, R. G., Gleghorn, A. A., and Prange, M. E. 1987. Perceptual and cognitive abnormalities in bulimia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 1456–60.

Prechtl, H. F. R. 1984. Continuity and change in early neural development. In H. R. R. Prechtl (ed.), Continuity of Neural Functions from Prenatal to Postnatal Life (pp. 1–15). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific/Spastics International.

—— and Hopkins, B. 1986. Developmental transformations of spontaneous movements in early infancy. Early Human Development, 14: 233–83.

Preuss, T. M., Stepniewska, I., and Kaas, J. H. 1996. Movement representation in the dorsal and ventral premotor areas of owl monkeys: A microstimulation study. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 371: 649–76.

Pribram, K. H. 1999. Brain and the composition of conscious experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (5): 19–42.

Prior, M. R., Dahlstrom, B., and Squires, T. L. 1990. Autistic children's knowledge of thinking and feeling states in other people. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31: 587–601.

Rakic, P. 1995. Corticogenesis in human and nonhuman primates. In M. S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 127–45). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Ramachandran, V. S., and Blakeslee, S. 1998. Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind. New York: William Morrow.

—— and Hirstein, W. 1998. The perception of phantom limbs. Brain, 121: 1603–30.

—— and Rogers‐Ramachandran, D. 1996. Synaesthesia in phantom limbs induced with mirrors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 263: 377–86.

—— —— and Cobb, S. 1995. Touching the phantom limb. Nature, 377: 489–90.

—— —— and Stewart, M. 1992. Perceptual correlates of massive cortical reorganization. Science, 258: 1159–60.

(p.271) Ratcliffe, M. 2004. Interpreting delusions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 3 (1): 24–48.

Reddy, V. 1996. Omitting the second person in social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19 (1): 140–1.

Reed, T., and Paterson, C. 1990. A comparative study of autistic subjects' performance at two levels of visual and cognitive perspective taking. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29: 555–68.

Riva, G. 1994. What is body image? European Commission VREPAR Virtual Body Project (http://www.ehto.org/ht_projects/vrepar/whatbody.htm).

—— 1995. Virtual reality in the assessment and treatment of body image. Paper presented at the Center for Disabilities 1995 Virtual Reality Conference (http://www.csun.edu/cod/95virt/0015.html).

Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L., and Gallese, V. 2000. Cortical mechanisms subserving object grasping and action recognition: A new view on the cortical motor functions. In M. S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences (pp. 539–52). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., and Fogassi, L. 1996. Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research, 3: 131–41.

—— —— Matelli, M., Bettinardi, V., Paulesu, E., Perani, D., and Fazio, G. 1996. Localization of grasp representations in humans by PET: 1. Observation compared with imagination. Experimental Brain Research, 111: 246–52.

Rochat, P. 2002. Ego function of early imitation. In A. N. Meltzoff and W. Prinz (eds.), The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution, and Brain Bases (pp. 85–97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— Blass, E. M., and Hoffemeyer, L. B. 1988. Oropharyngeal control of hand‐mouth coordination in newborn infants. Developmental Psychology, 24: 459–63.

Rock, I., and Harris, C. S. 1967. Vision and touch. Scientific American, 216 (5): 96–104.

Roll, J‐P., and Roll, R. 1988. From eye to foot: A proprioceptive chain involved in postural control. In G. Amblard, A. Berthoz, and F. Clarac (eds.), Posture and Gait: Development, Adaptation, and Modulation (pp. 155–64). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

—— —— and Velay, J‐L. 1991. Proprioception as a link between body space and extra‐personal space. In J. Paillard (ed.), Brain and Space (pp. 112–32). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosenbaum, D. A., Vaughan, J., Jorgensen, M. J., Barns, H. J., and Stewart, E. 1993. Plans for object manipulation. In D. E. Meyer and S. Kornblum (eds.), Attention and Performance XIV: Synergies in Experimental Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Neuroscience. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Rosenfield, I. 1992. The Strange, Familiar, and Forgotten: An Anatomy of Consciousness. New York: Alfred A. Knopf/Vintage Books.

Rossetti, Y., Rode, G., Pisella, L. et al. 1998. Prism adaptation to a rightward optical deviation rehabilitates left hemispatial neglect. Nature, 395 (10 Sept.): 166–9.

Rothwell, J. C., Thompson, P. D., Day, B. L., Dick, J. P. R., Kachi, T., Cowman, J. M. A., and Marsden, C. D. 1987. Motor cortex stimulation in man. 1. General characteristics of the EMG responses in different muscles. Brain, 110: 173–90.

Ruby, P., and Decety, J. 2001. Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: A PET investigation of agency. Nature Neuroscience, 4 (5): 546–50.

Ruggieri, V., Milizia, M., Sabatini, N., and Tosi, M. T. 1983. Body perception in relation to muscular tone at rest and tactile sensitivity to tickle. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56: 799–806.

(p.272) Russell, J. 1996. Agency: Its Role in Mental Development. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ryle, G. 1949. The Concept of Mind. New York: Barnes & Noble.

Saadah, E. S. M., and Melzack, R. 1994. Phantom limb experiences in congenital limb‐deficient adults. Cortex, 30: 479–85.

Sabatini, N., Ruggieri, V., and Milizia, M. 1984. Barrier and penetration scores in relation to some objective and subjective somesthetic measures. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59: 195–202.

Sacks, O. 1985. The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales. New York: Summit Books.

—— 1995. An Anthropologist on Mars. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Sandman, C. A. 1986. Cardiac afferent influences on consciousness. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz, and D. Shapiro (eds.), Consciousness and Self‐Regulation: Advances in Research and Theory, i. (pp. 55–85). New York: Plenum.

Sarnat, H. B. 1992. Cerebral Dysgenesis: Embryology and Clinical Expression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sartre, J‐P. 1956. Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, trans. H. E. Barnes. New York: Philosophical Library.

Sass, L. 1998. Schizophrenia, self‐consciousness and the modern mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5: 543–65.

—— 2000. Schizophrenia, self‐experience, and the so‐called negative symptoms. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Exploring the Self (pp. 149–82). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

—— and Parnas, J. 2003. Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29 (3): 427–44.

Scatena, P. 1990. Phantom representations of congenitally absent limbs, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70: 1227–32.

Schacter, D. L., Reiman, E., Curran, T., Sheng Yun, L., Bandy, D., McDermott, K. B., and Roediger, H. L. (1996). Neuroanatomical correlates of veridical and illusory recognition memory: Evidence from positron emission tomography. Neuron, 17: 1–20.

Scheerer, E. 1984. Motor theories of cognitive structure: A historical review. In W. Prinz and A. F. Sanders (eds.), Cognition and Motor Processes (pp. 77–97). Berlin: Springer.

Scheler, M. 1954. The Nature of Sympathy, trans. Peter Heath. London: Routledge & K. Paul. (Original: 1912/1973. Wesen und Formen der Sympathie. Berne: Francke).

Schilder, P. 1923. Das Körperschema. Berlin: Springer.

—— 1935. The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner; New York: International University Press, 1950.

Scholl, B. J., and Tremoulet, P. D. 2000. Perceptual causality and animacy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (8): 299–309.

Schutz, A. 1932. Der sinnhafte Aufbau der sozialen Welt: eine Einleitung in die verstehende Soziologie. Vienna: J. Springer.

—— 1966. Collected Papers, iii. Studies in Phenomenological Philosophy, ed. I. Schutz and A. Gurwitsch. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Schwitzgebel, E. 1999a. Children's theories and the drive to explain. Science and Education, 8: 457–88.

—— 1999b. Gradual belief change in children. Human Development, 42: 283–96.

—— 2002. A phenomenal, dispositional account of belief. Nous, 36: 249–75.

Searle, J. 1983. Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.273) —— Minds, Brains, and Science. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Sejten, A. E. 1999. Diderot ou le défi esthétique. Paris: J. Vrin.

Senden, M. von. 1932. Space and Sight: The Perception of Space and Shape in the Congenitally Blind Before and After Operation, trans. P. Heath. Glencoe, Ill. Free Press, 1962.

Shafer, E. W. P., and Marcus, M. M. 1973. Self‐stimulation alters human sensory brain responses. Science, 181: 175–7.

Shatz, C. J. 1990. Impulse activity and the patterning of connections during CNS development. Neuron, 5: 745–56.

—— 1992. The developing brain, Scientific American (U.K.) 267 (3): 35–41.

Sheets‐Johnstone, M. 1990. The Roots of Thinking. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

—— 1998. Consciousness: A Natural History, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5 (3): 260–94.

—— 1999a. The Primacy of Movement. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

—— 1999b. Emotion and movement: A beginning empirical‐phenomenological analysis of their relationship. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (11–12): 259–77.

—— 2003. Kinaesthetic memory. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum, 7 (1): 69–92.

Sherrington, C. 1953. Man on His Nature, 2nd edn. New York: Doubleday.

Shoemaker, S. 1984. Identity, Cause, and Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1986. Introspection and the self. In P. A. French, T. E. Vehling, and H. K. Wettstein (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Mind. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 10: 101–20.

—— 1994. Self‐knowledge and ‘inner sense’. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 54: 249–314.

—— 1999. Self, body, and coincidence. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. 73: 287–306.

Shontz, F. C. 1969. Perceptual and Cognitive Aspects of Body Experience. New York: Academic Press.

—— 1974. Body image and its disorders. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 5: 461–72.

Siegal, M., and Beattie, K. 1991. Where to look for children's knowledge of false beliefs. Cognition, 38: 1–12.

Sillito, A. M. 1987. Visual system: Environmental influences. In R. L. Gregory (ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simmel, M. L. 1958. The conditions of occurrence of phantom limbs. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102: 492–500.

—— 1961. The absence of phantoms for congenitally missing limbs. American Journal of Psychology, 74: 467–70.

—— 1962. Phantoms—experiences following amputation in childhood. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 25: 69–78.

—— 1966. Developmental aspects of the body scheme. Child Development, 37: 83–95.

Sims, A. 1995. Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology. London: W. B. Saunders.

Singer, P. 1979. Practical Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Singh, J. R., Knight, T., Rosenlicht, N., Kotun, J. M., Beckley, D. J., and Woods, D. L. 1992. Abnormal premovement brain potentials in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 8: 31–41.

Skrinar, G. S., Bullen, B. A., Cheek, J. M., McArthur, J. W., and Vaughan, L. K. 1986. Effects of endurance training on body‐consciousness in women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62: 483–90.

(p.274) Slade, P. D. 1977. Awareness of body dimensions during pregnancy: An analogue study. Psychological Medicine, 7: 245–52.

Slater, A. M. 1989. Visual memory and perception in early infancy. In A. Slater and G. Bremner (eds.), Infant Development (pp. 43–71). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

—— and Morison, V. 1985a. Selective adaptation cannot account for early infant habituation: A response to Dannemiller and Banks (1983). Merrill‐Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development, 31: 99–103.

—— —— 1985b. Shape constancy and slant perception at birth. Perception, 14: 337–44.

—— —— and Rose, D. 1983. Perception of shape by the new‐born baby. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1: 135–42.

Smith, A. 1795. Essays on Philosophical Subjects. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

Smith, R. 1738. A Compleat System of Opticks in Four Books. Cambridge and London: Austen & Dodsley.

Sohn, D. L. 1914. The psychic complex in congenital deformity. New York Medical Journal, 100: 959–61.

Sørensen, J. B. (2005). The alien‐hand experiment. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 4(1).

Spence, S. A. 1996. Free will in the light of neuropsychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, 3: 75–90.

—— Brooks, D. J., Hirsch, S. R., Liddle, P. F., Meehan, J., and Grasby, P. M. 1997. A PET study of voluntary movement in schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena (delusions of alien control). Brain, 120: 1997–2011.

Sperry, R. W. 1950. Neural basis of the spontaneous optokinetic response produced by visual inversion. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 43: 482–9.

—— 1952. Neurology and the mind‐brain problem. American Scientist, 40: 291–312.

Stephens, G. L., and Graham, G. 2000. When Self‐Consciousness Breaks: Alien Voices and Inserted Thoughts. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Stich, S., and Nichols, S. 1992. Folk psychology: Simulation or tacit theory? Mind and Language, 7: 35–71.

Stone, T., and Young, A. 1997. Delusions and brain injury: The philosophy and psychology of belief. Mind and Language, 12: 327–64.

Straus, E. 1966. Philosophical Psychology. New York: Basic Books.

—— 1967. On anosognosia. In E. Straus and D. Griffith (eds.), Phenomenology of Will and Action (pp. 103–25). Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

—— 1970. The phantom limb. In E. Straus and D. Griffith (eds.), Aisthesis and Aesthetics (pp. 130–48). Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.

Strawson, G. 1997. The self. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4 (5/6): 405–28.

Streeck, J. 1996. How to do things with things: Objects, trovés, and symbolization. Human Studies, 19: 365–84.

Streri, A., and Gentaz, E. 2003. Cross‐modal recognition of shape from hand to eyes in human newborns. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 20: 13–18.

Sumner, L. W. 1981. Abortion and Moral Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Surian, L., and Leslie, A. 1999. Competence and performance in false belief understanding: A comparison of autistic and three‐year‐old children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17: 141–55.

Szmukler, G. 1984. Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 553.

(p.275) Talmy, L. 1988. Force dynamics in language and cognition. Cognitive Science, 12: 49–100.

Tanji, J., and Shima, K. 1994. Role for supplementary motor area cells in planning several movements ahead. Nature, 371: 413–16.

Teitelbaum, P., et al. 1998. Movement analysis in infancy may be useful for early diagnosis of autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95: 13982–7.

Thelen, E. 1985. Developmental origins of motor coordination: Leg movements in human infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 18: 760–75.

—— 1986. Threadmill‐elicited stepping in seven‐month‐old infants. Child Development, 57: 1498–506.

—— 1995. Time‐scale dynamics and the development of an embodied cognition. In R. F. Port and T. van Gelder (eds.), Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition (pp. 69–100). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

—— and Fisher, D. M. 1982. Newborn stepping: An explanation for a ‘disappearing reflex’. Developmental Psychology, 18: 760–75.

—— Ulrich, B. D., and Niles, D. 1987. Bilateral coordination in human infants: Stepping on a split‐belt treadmill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13: 405–10.

Thomasson, A. 2000. After Brentano: A one‐level theory of consciousness. European Journal of Philosophy, 8 (2): 194–9.

Thomson, J. J. 1974. Molyneux's question. Journal of Philosophy, 71: 637–50.

Tiemersma, D. 1982. Body‐image and body‐schema in the existential phenomenology of Merleau‐Ponty. Journal of the British Society of Phenomenology, 13: 246–55.

—— 1989. Body Schema and Body Image: An Interdisciplinary and Philosophical Study. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Tooby, J., and Cosmides, L. 1995. Foreword to S. Baron‐Cohen, Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind (pp. xi–xviii). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Toombs, S. K. 1988. Illness and the paradigm of lived body. Theoretical Medicine, 9: 201–26.

Touyz, S. W., Beumont, P. J. V., Collins, J. K., McCabe, M., and Jupp, J. 1984. Body shape perception and its disturbance in anorexia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144: 167–71.

Trevarthen, C. B. 1979. Communication and cooperation in early infancy: A description of primary intersubjectivity. In M. Bullowa (ed.), Before Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1986. Neuroembryology and the development of perceptual mechanisms. In F. Falkner and J. M. Tanner (eds.), Human Growth: A Comprehensive Treatise, 2nd edn. (pp. 301–83). New York: Plenum.

—— and Hubley, P. 1978. Secondary intersubjectivity: Confidence, confiding and acts of meaning in the first year. In A. Lock (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol: The Emergence of Language (pp. 183–229). London: Academic.

Tulving, E. 1983. Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Turner, M. 1991. Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Uexküll, J. von 1926. Theoretical Biology. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Vallar, G., Antonucci, G., Guariglia, C., and Pizzamiglio, L. 1993. Deficits of position sense, unilateral neglect and optokinetic stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 31: 1191–200.

van den Bos, E., and Jeannerod, M. 2002. Sense of body and sense of action both contribute to self‐recognition. Cognition, 85 (2): 177–87.

(p.276) Varela, F. J. 1996. Neurophenomenology: A methodological remedy for the hard problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3 (4): 330–49.

—— 1999a. The specious present: A neurophenomenology of time consciousness. In J. Petitot, F. J. Varela, B. Pachoud, and J‐M. Roy (eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science (pp. 266–314). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

—— 1999b. Present‐time consciousness. In F. J. Varela and J. Shear (eds.), The View from Within: First‐Person Approaches to the Study of Consciousness (pp. 111–40). Exeter: Imprint Academic.

—— and Depraz, N. 2000. At the source of time: Valence and the constitutional dynamics of affect. Arobase, 4 (1–2): 143–66.

—— Thompson, E., and Rosch, E. 1991. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Varley, R., and Siegal, M. 2000. Evidence for cognition without grammar from causal reasoning and theory of mind in an agrammatic aphasic patient. Current Biology, 10: 723–6.

Velmans, M. 2002. How could conscious experiences affect brains? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9 (11): 3–29.

Vercher, J‐L., Gauthier, G. M., Guedon, O., Blouin, J., Cole, J., and Lamarre Y. 1996. Self‐moved target eye tracking in control and deafferented subjects: Roles of arm command and proprioception in arm‐eye coordination. Journal of Neurophysiology, 76 (2): 1133–44.

Vetter, R. J., and Weinstein, S. 1967. The history of the phantom in congenitally absent limbs. Neuropsychologia, 5: 335–8.

Vilensky, J. A., Damasio, A. R., and Maurer, R. G. 1981. Disturbances of motility in patients with autistic behavior: A preliminary analysis. Archives of Neurology, 38: 646–9.

Vogeley, K., and Fink, G. R. 2003. Neural correlates of the first‐person‐perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (1): 38–42.

—— Bussfeld, P., Newen, A., et al. 2001. Mind reading: Neural mechanisms of theory of mind and self‐perspective. Neuroimage, 14 (1): 170–81.

Volpe, B. T., Ledoux, J. E., and Gazzaniga, M. S. 1979. Spatially oriented movements in the absence of proprioception. Neurology, 29: 1309–13.

Voltaire, F. 1738. Élémens de la philosophie de Neuton. Amsterdam: Jacques Desbordes; repr. in Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, xxviii. Paris: Antoine‐Augustin Renouard, 1819.

Walker, A. S. 1982. Intermodal perception of expressive behaviors by human infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33: 514–35.

Wallace, M. 1956. Future time perspectives in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52: 240–5.

Wann, J. P., Simon, K., Rushton, M. S., Smyth, M., and Jones, D. 1998. Virtual environments for the rehabilitation of disorders of attention and movement. In G. Riva (ed.), Virtual Reality in Neuro‐Psycho‐Physiology: Cognitive, Clinical and Methodological Issues in Assessment and Rehabilitation. Amsterdam: IOS Press (http://www.psicologia.net/pages/book1.htm).

Wapner, S., and Werner, H. 1965. An experimental approach to body perception from the organismic developmental point of view. In S. Wapner and H. Werner (eds.), The Body Percept. New York: Random House.

Wegner, D. 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.

Weimer, W. B. 1979. A conceptual framework for cognitive psychology: Motor theories of the mind. In R. Shaw and J. Bransford (eds.), Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

(p.277) Weinstein, S., and Sersen, E. A. 1961. Phantoms in cases of congenital absence of limbs. Neurology, 11: 905–11.

—— —— and Vetter, R. J. 1964. Phantoms and somatic sensation in cases of congenital aplasia. Cortex, 1: 276–90.

Weiss, G. 1998. Body Images: Embodiment as Intercorporeality. New York: Routledge.

Wellman, H. M. 1993. Early understanding of mind: The normal case. In S. Baron‐Cohen, H. Tager‐Flusberg, and D. J. Cohen (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Autism (pp. 10–39). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wernicke, C. 1900. Grundriss der Psychiatrie in klinischen Vorlesungen. Leipzig: Thieme.

White, J. C., and Sweet, W. H. 1955. Pain: Its Mechanism and Neurosurgical Control. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.

White, L. E., Coppola, D. M., and Fitzpatrick, D. 2001. The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature, 411: 1049–52.

Wiesel, T. N. 1982. Postnatal development of the visual cortex and the influence of environment. Nature, 299: 583–92.

—— and Hubel, D. H. 1963a. Effects of visual deprivation on morphology and physiology of cells in the cat's lateral geniculate body. Journal of Neurophysiology, 26: 978–93.

—— —— 1963b. Single‐cell responses in striate cortex of kittens deprived of vision in one eye. Journal of Neurophysiology, 26: 1003–17.

Wilf, R., Tyano, S., Munitz, H., and Wijsinbeek, H. 1983. Internal body image of the brain. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 39: 129–35.

Wimmer, H., Hogrefe, J., and Sodian, B. 1988. A second stage in children's conception of mental life: Understanding informational access as origins of knowledge and belief. In J. Astington, P. Harris, and D. Olson (eds.), Developing Theories of Mind (pp. 173–92). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Perner, J. 1983. Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13: 103–28.

Windle, W. F. 1971. Physiology of the Fetus. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

Winer, G. A. 1975. Children's preference for body or external object on a task requiring transposition and discrimination of right‐left relations. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41: 291–8.

Wolpert, D. M., Grahramani, Z., and Flanagan, J. R. 2001. Perspectives and problems in motor learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5: 487–94.

—— —— and Jordan, M. I. 1995. An internal model for sensorimotor integration. Science, 269: 1880–2.

Yamadori, A. 1997. Body awareness and its disorders. In M. Ito, Y. Miyashita, and E. T. Rolls (eds.), Cognition, Computation, and Consciousness (pp. 169–76). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yang, T. T., Gallen, C., Schwartz, B., Bloom, F. E., and Ramachandran, V. S. 1994. Sensory maps in the human brain. Nature, 368: 592.

Young, A. 1999. Delusions. The Monist, 82 (4): 571–89.

Zahavi, D. 1999. Self‐Awareness and Alterity: A Phenomenological Investigation. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

(p.278) Zahavi, D., and Parnas, J. 1998. Phenomenal consciousness and self‐awareness: A phenomenological critique of representational theory. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5: 687–705.

Zahavi, D., and Parnas, J. 2003. Conceptual problems in infantile autism research: Why cognitive science needs phenomenology. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (9–10): 53–71.

Zajac, F. E. 1993. Muscle coordination of movement: A perspective. Journal of Biomechanics, 26 (suppl. 1): 109–24.

Zhu, J. 2003. Reclaiming volition: An alternative interpretation of Libet's experiments. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 (11): 61–77.