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Democracy Transformed?Expanding Political Opportunities in Advanced Industrial Democracies$

Bruce E. Cain, Russell J. Dalton, and Susan E. Scarrow

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199264995

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0199264996.001.0001

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(p.305) Index

(p.305) Index

Source:
Democracy Transformed?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Aboriginal Rights to Self‐Government (Canada) 154
ACLU 198
Act Respecting Environmental Rights in Ontario (Canada) 211
Administrative Procedures Act (Japan) 175, 178
Administrative state (reforms) 164–89
citizens’ charter and 166–7
multi‐service centers 167–8
neo‐liberal 164, 165–76
procedural simplification 168–9
surveys of citizens’ satisfaction 168
adjudication 197–8
advocacy democracy 10, 11, 13, 18, 252, 254–6, 262–5, 267–9, 271–2
Alternativ Movement (Germany) 8
American Jewish Congress 198
American Sierra Club 44
amount of electing 4, 25–7, 35
APÖ (Germany) 8
Applegate, John 178
Arnold, R. Douglas 117
Assemblée Nationale (France) 91
Assembly of European Regions 24
Association of Finnish Regional and Local Authorities 188
Australia 34, 50, 91, 154
administrative reform and 167–9
constitutionalism and 207
courts in 207, 214–15
freedom of information and 119
interest groups and lobbies 214–16
referendums and 51
separation of powers and 195–6
Australian Democrats 68
Austria 31, 34, 62, 92
access to ballot and 90
administrative reform 168, 169
civil law and 201
freedom of information and 120
Austrian Freedom Party 62
Balanced Budget Act (US) 155
Barber, Benjamin 2
Beirle, Thomas 174
Belgium 26, 31, 62
administrative reform and 168
decentralization and 143–5
judicial system in 213
media access and 92
Bennett, Colin J. 118
Berlusconi, Silvio 121
Bill of Rights Act (New Zealand) 207
Black Panthers 136
Blair, Tony 151, 174
Blom‐Hansen, Jens 150
Brandt, Willy 8
British Conservative Party 65, 67, 167
British Department of Transportation, Environment and Regions 188
British Liberal Democrats 68
British Official Secrets Act 116
Budge, Ian 57
bureaucracy 164
Burke, Edmund 4, 11
Butler David 49
Canada 5, 91
administrative reform and 169
environment 210–11
freedom of information and 119
judicial systems 195, 196, 198–200, 211
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 91
Canadian Conservative Party 68
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 211
Canadian Progressive Conservative Party 71
Caul, Miki 38
Centrelink 168
Chamberlain, Will 136
Chandler, J. A. 35, 178, 180
Charter School Movement (US) 156
citizen involvement 3, 47, 140, 179, 250
citizen juries 179–81, 275
(p.306) citizen resources/skills 8, 13, 18, 37, 115
Clarke, Michael 166
Code of Practice on Written Consultation (UK) 174–5
collaborative learning 177
Commission d'access aux documents administratifs (CADA) (France) 128–30, 136, 137
Community Advisory Committees (CACs) 178
Comparative Manifesto Party Project 60–1
Consensus Conferences 180–1
constitutionalism 197–203
cooperative federalism (Australia) 154
corporatism 7, 143, 149–51, 153
courts 18, 192–217, 269, 272
Crewe, Ivor 25
Crosby, Ned 179
Crozier, Michel 225–6
D'Hondt rule 86
Dahl, Robert 2, 8, 228, 256
Dahrendorf, Ralf 2
Danish Board of Technology (DBT) 181
Danish Center Democrats 68
Danish Conservatives 62
Danish Socialist People's Party 69
De Gaulle, Charles 7
DeVries, Michael S. 174
decentralization 18, 25, 140–63
education and 155–9
deliberative accountability 178–9
Delivering Better Government (Ireland) 169
democracy 1
courts and 192–217
definition 19, 226–7
deliberative 179–88
direct 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 23, 44, 57, 81, 164, 223, 224, 225, 227
elections and 23, 35–40, 44, 55–7, 252–3, 256–7
inclusion and 224, 229–33, 257
individual and cultural transformations and 225
liberal democracy 224
political legitimacy and 195, 269–70
representative 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 17, 23, 25, 57, 180, 223, 224, 225, 227, 252–253
Democratic Party (US) 9, 62
Democrats' 66 (Netherlands) 69
Denmark 26, 62
decentralization in 149
judicial system in 213
new participatory tools in 188
doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty 195–6
Doyle Michael 137
Duverger, Maurice 87
Ecole des Sciences Politiques 7
Elections 23, 35–44, 55–7, 88
access to media and 87–93
ballot access and 87–93
campaign financing and 87–93
electoral laws and 81, 82, 86
electoral institutions 81, 93–5
funding of 10, 17, 23
media and 88
non‐party 44–58
parties and 82
platforms 61–75
referendums 29
turnout 1, 38, 39
electoral systems 6, 8, 9, 81
electoral cycles and 26, 29, 33
electoral fatigue and 38–9
elites 1, 8, 23, 82
Environmental Impact Act (UK) 11, 12, 18
Environmental Protection Act Ontario (Canada) 211
environmentalism 8, 11
Erfurt Programme (Germany) 6
European Charter of Human Rights (ECHR) 200, 205–7
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 12, 200, 203–5
European Parliament 25, 26, 33, 36, 131, 133
European Union 3, 8, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 35, 36, 50, 200
courts and 100–203
democratic deficit and 37
freedom of information and 131–4, 138
network governance and 121
supranational governance and 24
Farrell, David 88
Fascist movements 7
Federal Advisory Committee Act (1972) 11
Federal consensual states 152–3
Federal majoritarian states 153–5
Feltey, Kathryn M. 176
(p.307) Finland 10, 31, 69
administrative reform and 168
ballot access and 90
decentralization in 149
freedom of information and 119
Finnish Greens 63, 69
Finnish Participation Project 188
First Reform Bill (US, 1832) 5
Fisheries Act Ontario (Canada) 211
Fleet Street Casuals (UK) 212
Flemish Christian People's Party (CVP) 69
France 7, 26, 91
civil law and 201, 202
decentralization and 145
electoral systems and 86
freedom of information and 119, 128–30, 138
new participatory tools in 188
Franklin, Aimee 174
Free Speech Movement (US) 8
Freedom of Information Act (Japan) 175
Freedom of Information Act (UK) 12, 174
Freedom of information 115, 116–17, 128–30
French Civil Code 208
French Constitutional Court 208
French Socialist Party 62
Gaebler, Ted 154
Gallagher, Michael 49
Germany 6, 7, 8, 86
administrative reform and 168
civil law and 201, 203
deliberative democracy in 179
freedom of information and 118
judicial system in 202, 213
referendums and 51–3, 56, 69
Giddings, Philip 170
globalization 224, 225
Gotha Programme (Germany) 6
government:
accountability 3, 6, 14, 115, 134, 137, 140–63, 164, 165, 169
confidence in 1, 165, 243
control of information 116, 117–18
responsiveness 164
secrecy 115, 116
transparency 3, 8, 14, 18, 35, 115, 164, 232
Government Performance and Results Act 174
Gray Panthers 8
Gray, Mark 38, 39
Great Society Social Services (US) 11
Green Party (UK) 12
Greenpeace 213
Gregory, Roy 170
Greve, Carsten 167
Havel, Vaclav 4
Held, Daniel 67
Hendriks, Frank 152, 177
Hibbing, John 13
Huntington, Samuel 225–6
Iceland 9
Inclusion 224, 229–33, 257
Initiative and Referendum Institute (US) 10
International Ombudsman Institute 170
Ireland 6, 145
administrative reform and 168–9
judicial system in 213
Irish Fine Gael 62
Irish Labour Party 68
Irvine 25, 26
Italy 2, 8, 86
administrative reform and 167, 168, 169
civil law and 201
decentralization and 145
European Union and 121
freedom of information and 120–2, 138
judicial system 213
referendums and 37, 44, 47–54
Japan 30, 31, 32, 62, 86, 208
administrative reforms and 169
decentralization and 145
Japanese Decentralization Promotion Law (1995) 145
Japanese Liberal Democratic Party 71
Jespersen, Peter Kragh 167
judicial review 192, 195–6, 199, 201, 203, 207, 216–17, 269
Karsten Joerd 159
Katz, Richard 64, 65, 87
Kempton, Murray 136
Kettl, Donald 166
King, Martin Luther 136
King, Sheryl S. 176
Labour Party (UK) 12, 56
Lennon, John 136
Lijphart, Arend 141–3, 153, 159
Livingston, Ken 56
Local Agenda 21 (Germany) 188
Local Government (Denmark) 149
(p.308) Local Government Act (New Zealand) 151
Local Government Act (UK) 12, 55
Loka Institute 181
Long, Rebecca 174
Maastricht Treaty 202
Mair, Peter 49, 64, 65, 87
Major, John 167
Marbury vs. Madison 196
Marquand, David 131
Marshall Islands 54
McCain, John 13
McGarity, Thomas 178
Meny, Yves 13
Micronesia 54
Morris, Dick 2
NAACP 198
Napoleonic states 142, 147–9
Nathan, Richard 154
National Performance Review (US) 154
national self‐determination principle 7
Netherlands 8
access to ballot and 90
administrative reform and 168
corporatism and 143
judicial system 213
New Public Management (NPM) 152, 154, 165–6, 177
new social movements 227
New Zealand 30, 50, 55, 62, 91, 207–8
electoral system and 82
freedom of information and 119
referendums 49
Nikos, Michalopoulos 167
Norway 31, 34, 36, 69, 92
administrative reform and 168
ballot access and 90
decentralization in 149
freedom of information and 119
OECD 2, 3, 8, 11, 14, 25, 47, 59, 81, 86, 89, 118, 165
decentralization and 140–63
freedom of information and 134, 138
Official Secrets Act (UK) 11, 12, 18, 116
ombudsman 169–74
Osborne, David 154
Painter, Martin 154
Palau 54
Palerm, Juan 176
Participation project (Finland) 177
Patriation of the Constitution (Canada) 154
Petition Committee (Germany) 169
Petts, Judith 178
policy formation/administration 9, 10, 11, 18, 35
political opportunities new 24, 26, 27, 35, 179–88
political participation 1, 5, 8, 34, 45, 250
institutional reforms and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14, 19
means of 233–40
new forms of 3, 8, 11, 13, 24, 179–88, 192, 226, 227–8
scope of 240–4
voting turnout 1, 26, 32–3, 233–6, 260, 266–7
political parties 6, 9, 10, 17, 44, 57, 81–9
access of new parties 17, 81, 87, 89
catch‐all 64–7
corporatist, groups within 67–75
democratization within 17, 59–66
leadership 66–74
structure of 64–7
Popkin, Samuel 35
populist movements 5, 7, 10, 12
Powell, G. Bingham 38
Pratchett, Lawrence 166
PRI (Mexico) 88
Public Service Management Act (Ireland) 174
RAF (Germany) 8
Ranney, Austin 68
REACH (Ireland) 168
Reeves, Dory 178
Regulatory negotiation 176, 177
Reif, Karlheinz 36
Republican Party (US) 10, 154–5
rights politics 197–208
Rousseau, Jean Jacques 25, 256
Russia 88
Schattschneider, E. E. 59, 82
School Based Management (SBM) 155–6
Schumpeter, Joseph 8, 252, 258
Scottish Parliament 12
Seidenfeld, Mark 177
separation of powers 193, 195–7
sequential consultation (Australia) 177
Service Canada 167–8
(p.309) Sierra Club vs Morton 210
Sieyes, Abbe de 4
Simplifying Norway 168
Social Democratic Party (Germany) 6, 26
Social Democratic Party (Sweden) 62
Social Democratic Party (UK) 12
subsidiarity 231
suffrage 5, 6, 10, 23, 32
Sussel, O'Neill Bridge 176
Sweden 10, 26, 29, 30, 34
decentralization in 149
freedom of information and 118–19
Switzerland 31, 32, 36, 92
ballot access and 90
freedom of information and 118
referendums and 49, 50, 51, 57
Teske, Nathan 178
Thatcher, Margaret 65, 151
Tiebout, C. 140
treaty‐based European law 195–6
Treaty of Amsterdam 50, 131
Treaty of Rome 203
Treschel, A. 13
UK Health Service Commissioner 169
UK Parliamentary Ombudsman 169
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (US) 155
unitary majoritarian states 151–2
United Kingdom 6, 10, 11–12, 53, 54, 56, 254
ballot access and 91
decentralization and 145
freedom of information and 120
judicial system and 195, 207
new participatory tools in 188
secrecy and 116
United States 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 62, 86
administrative reform and 168–9
deliberative democracy in 179–80
environmental protection and 210–1
freedom of information and 119, 124–8, 138
judicial system and 192, 196, 197–8
political campaigns and 88
US Administrative Procedure Act 174
US Bill of Rights 196, 198, 252
US CIA 126
US Constitution 196
US Department of Justice 124
US Department of Veterans’ Affairs 124
US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) 126
US Federal Advisory Committee Act 178
US Federal Trade Commission 126
US National Aeronautics and Space Administration 126
US Social Services Administration 124
US Supreme Court 196
USAID 135
Vietnam War 8
voting age population (VAP) 32
voting turnout (see participation)
VVD (Netherlands) 69
Walberg, Herbert 155
Warren, Mark 2
Watanuki, Joji 225–6
Welsh National Assembly 12
Whaling Association (Japan) 211
women's rights 11, 243
World Development Movement 212
World Wildlife Fund 213
Yukon Territory's Environmental Act (Canada) 211 (p.310)