- Title Pages
- <i>List of Tables</i>
- <i>List of Figures</i>
- <i>Notes on Contributors</i>
- 1 Introduction to Electoral Systems
- 2 Comparative Electoral Systems Research: The Maturation of a Field and New Challenges Ahead
- 3 Why Are There So Many (or So Few) Electoral Reforms?
- 4 Australia: The Alternative Vote in a Compliant Political Culture
- 5 Canada: Sticking to First‐Past‐the‐Post, for the Time Being
- 6 France: Stacking the Deck
- 7 India: Two‐Party Contests within a Multiparty System
- 8 The United Kingdom: Plurality Rule Under Siege
- 9 The United States of America: Perpetual Campaigning in the Absence of Competition
- 10 Germany: Stability and Strategy in a Mixed‐Member Proportional System
- 11 Hungary: Holding Back the Tiers
- 12 Italy: A Case of Fragmented Bipolarism
- 13 Japan: Haltingly Towards a Two‐Party System
- 14 New Zealand: The Consolidation of Reform?
- 15 Russia: The Authoritarian Adaptation of an Electoral System
- 16 Israel: The Politics of an Extreme Electoral System
- 17 South Africa: One Party Dominance Despite Perfect Proportionality
- 18 Spain: Proportional Representation with Majoritarian Outcomes
- 19 Austria: A Complex Electoral System with Subtle Effects
- 20 Belgium: Empowering Voters or Party Elites?
- 21 Chile: The Unexpected (and Expected) Consequences of Electoral Engineering
- 22 Denmark: Simplicity Embedded in Complexity (or is it the Other Way Round)?
- Chapter 23 <b>Finland: One Hundred Years of Quietude</b>
- 24 The Netherlands: The Sanctity of Proportionality
- 25 Ireland: The Discreet Charm of PR‐STV
- 26 Conclusion
- Appendix A The mechanics of electoral systems
- Indices of fragmentation and disproportionality
- Appendix C Effective threshold and effective magnitude
- Appendix D Values of Indices for 22 Countries at Most Recent Election
- Appendix E Websites related to elections, election results, and electoral systems
- (p.535) 26 Conclusion
- The Politics of Electoral Systems
Michael Gallagher (Contributor Webpage)
- Oxford University Press
The origins of electoral systems are varied, with some brought into being with all-party consensus and others being introduced by majorities for clearly partisan motives. Turning to the impact of electoral systems, the existence of the patterns highlighted by Duverger’s Law is evident, yet it is also clear that electoral systems do not by themselves shape party systems. The impact of electoral systems upon intra-party power, and upon the representativeness of parliaments, is assessed in the light of the evidence from 22 countries. The chapter discusses the criteria that might be employed to decide the question of which electoral system is best.
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