Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Reflective Democracy$

Robert E. Goodin

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199256174

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0199256179.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.233) References

(p.233) References

Reflective Democracy
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abercrombie, Nicholas, Hill, Stephen, and Turner, Bryan S. (1986), Sovereign Individuals of Capitalism (London: Allen & Unwin).

Abramson, Jeffrey (1993), ‘The Jury and Democratic Theory’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 1: 45–68.

—— (1994), We, the Jury (New York: Basic).

Ackerman, Bruce (1991), We, the People (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— and Alstott, Anne (1999), The Stakeholder Society (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— and Fishkin, James S. (2002), ‘Deliberation Day’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 10: 128–51.

Adams, Robert McC. (1999), ‘Forums, Not Temples’, American Behavioral Scientist, 42: 968–76.

Adorno, Theodor W., and Horkheimer, Max, (1979), Dialectic of Enlightenment, tr. John Cumming (London: Verso/New Left Books).

Alesina, Alberto, and Rosenthal, Howard (1996), Partisan Politics, Divided Government and the Economy (New York: Cambridge University Press).

Amin, Samir (1976), Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism, tr. Brian Pearce (Hassocks, UK: Harvester Press).

Anderson, Benedict (1983), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso).

Anderson, Elizabeth S. (1991), ‘John Stuart Mill and Experiments in Living’, Ethics, 102: 4–26.

—— (1999), ‘What is the Point of Equality?’, Ethics, 109: 287–338.

Anderson, Mikael Skou (1994), Governance by Green Taxes (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

Anton, Thomas J. (1969), ‘Policy‐Making and Political Culture in Sweden’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 4: 88–102.

—— (1980), Administered Politics: Elite Political Culture in Sweden (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff).

Arendt, Hannah (1958), The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Aristotle (1984a), The Complete Works of Aristotle, ed. Jonathan Barnes (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (1984b), Nicomachean Ethics, tr. W. D. Ross and J. O. Urmson, in Aristotle 1984a: ii. 1729–1867.

—— (1984c), Poetics, tr. J. Bywater, in Aristotle 1984a: ii. 2316–40.

(p.234) Aristotle (1984d), The Politics, tr. B. Jowett, in Aristotle 1984a: ii. 1986–2150.

—— (1984e), Rhetoric, tr. W. Rhys Roberts, in Aristotle 1984a: ii. 2152–2269.

Arnould, R. J., and Grabowski, H. (1981), ‘Auto Safety Regulation: An Analysis of Market Failure’, Bell Journal of Economics, 12: 27–48.

Arrow, Kenneth J. (1963), Social Choice and Individual Values, 2nd edn. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— and Hahn, Frank (1971), General Competitive Analysis (San Francisco: Holden‐Day).

Atkinson, Anthony B. (1995a), ‘Capabilities, Exclusion and the Supply of Goods’, in K. Basu, P. Pattanaik, and K. Suzumara (eds.), Choice, Welfare and Development (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 17–31.

—— (1995b), Public Economics in Action: The Basic Income/Flat Tax Proposal (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (1996), ‘The Case fora Participation Income’, Political Quarterly, 67: 67–70.

Aumann, Robert J. (1976), ‘Agreeing to Disagree’, Annals of Statistics, 4: 1236–9.

Austen‐Smith, David, and Banks, Jeffrey S. (1996), ‘Information Aggregation, Rationality and the Condorcet Jury Theorem’, American Political Science Review, 90/1 (Mar.): 34–45.

Austin, J. L. (1962), How to Do Things with Words (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1979), ‘Other Minds’, in Austin, Philosophical Papers, J. O. Urmson and G. J. Warnock (eds.) 3rd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 76–116.

Avineri, Shlomo, and de‐Shalit, Avner (eds.) (1992), Communitarianism and Individualism (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Axelrod, Robert (1970), Conflict of Interests (Chicago: Markham).

—— (1984), The Evolution of Cooperation (New York: Basic).

—— (1986), ‘An Evolutionary Approach to Norms’, American Political Science Review, 80: 1095–1112.

Bachrach, Peter (1967), The Theory of Democratic Elitism (Boston: Little, Brown).

Bader, Veit (1995), ‘Citizenship and Exclusion’, Political Theory, 23: 211–46.

Baier, Annette C. (1992), ‘Some Virtues of Resident Alienage’, in Nomos XXXIV: Virtue, ed. J. W. Chapman and W. A. Galston (New York: New York University Press), 291–308.

Baker, Wayne (1984), ‘The Social Structure of a National Securities Market’, American Journal of Sociology, 89: 775–811.

Balibar, Étienne (1991), ‘Exclusion ou lutte des classes?’, repr. in Balibar (1992: 191–205).

—— (1992), Les Frontières de la Démocratie (Paris: Éditions la Découverte).

—— and Wallerstein, Immanuel (1988), Race, Nation, Classe (Paris: Éditions la Découverte).

(p.235) Balladur, Edouard (1994), ‘Mieux associer les citoyens’, Le Monde (17 Nov.).

Banfield, Edward C. (1984), The Democratic Muse: The Visual Arts and the Public Interest (New York: Basic Books).

Barber, Benjamin (1984), Strong Democracy (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Barrett, Michèle (1980), Women's Oppression Today: Problems in Marxist Feminist Analysis (London: Verso).

—— and McIntosh, Mary (1982), The Anti‐Social Family (London: Verso).

—— and Phillips, Anne (ed.) (1992), Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates (Oxford: Polity).

Barry, Brian (1964), ‘The Public Interest’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Supplement), 38: 1–18.

—— (1965), Political Argument (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

—— (1973), ‘Wollheim's Paradox: Comment’, Political Theory, 1/3 (Aug.): 317–22.

—— (1988), ‘The Continuing Relevance of Socialism’, in Robert Skidelsky (ed.), Thatcherism (London: Chatto & Windus), 143–58. Reprinted in Barry 1989: 526–42.

—— (1989), Democracy, Power and Justice (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1995), Justice as Impartiality (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Bartholdi, J., Tovey, C. A., and Trick, M. A. (1989), ‘Voting Schemes for Which it Can Be Difficult to Tell who Won the Election’, Social Choice and Welfare, 6/2: 157–65.

Bauböck, Rainer (1994a), ‘Changing the Boundaries of Citizenship: The Inclusion of Immigrants in Democratic Politics’, in Bauböck 1994b: 199–232.

—— (ed.) (1994b), From Aliens to Citizens (Aldershot: Avebury).

Beard, Charles A. (1913), An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (New York: Macmillan).

Beattie, John (1964), Other Cultures (New York: Free Press).

Beer, Samuel H. (1965), British Politics in the Collectivist Age (New York: Knopf).

Beiner, Ronald (1983), Political Judgment (Chicago: University of Chicago).

Beitz, Charles R. (1979), Political Theory and International Relations (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (1983), ‘Cosmopolitan Ideals and National Sentiment’, Journal of Philosophy, 80: 591–600.

—— (1989), Political Equality (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Bell, David E., Raiffa, Howard, and Tversky, Amos (eds.) (1988), Decision Making: Descriptive, Normative and Prescriptive Interactions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.236) Bendix, R., and Rokkan, S. (1964), ‘The Extension of Citizenship to the Lower Classes’, in R. Bendix, Nation‐Building and Citizenship (New York: Wiley), 74–104.

Benhabib, Seyla (1992a), ‘The Generalized and the Concrete Other: The Kohlberg–Gilligan Controversy and Moral Theory’, in Benhabib 1992a: 148–77.

—— (1992b), Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics (Oxford: Polity).

—— (1994), ‘Deliberative Rationality and Models of Democratic Legitimacy’, Constellations, 1: 26–52.

—— Butler, Judith, Cornell, Drucilla, and Fraser, Nancy (1995), Feminist Contentions (New York: Routledge).

Bennett, Susan D. (1995), ‘ “No Relief but upon the Terms of Coming into the House”: Controlled Spaces, Invisible Disentitlements, and Homeless in an Urban Shelter System’, Yale Law Journal, 104: 2157–2212.

Beresford, Pete, and Croft, Suzy (1984), ‘Welfare Pluralism: The New Face of Fabianism?’, Critical Social Policy, 9: 19–39.

Berger, Peter L., and Luckman, Thomas (1966), The Social Construction of Reality (Garden City, NY: Doubleday).

Berman, Harold J. (1983), Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Bessette, Joseph M. (1994), The Mild Voice of Reason: Deliberative Democracy and American National Government (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Bickford, Susan (1996), The Dissonance of Democracy: Listening, Conflict, and Citizenship (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Bilmes, J. M. (1979), ‘The Evolution of Decisions in a Thai Village: A Quasi‐Experimental Study’, Human Organization, 38: 169–78.

Birch, A. H. (1977), ‘The Nature and Functions of Representation’, in Preston King (ed.), The Study of Politics (London: Frank Cass), 265–78.

Black, Duncan (1958), The Theory of Committees and Elections (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Block, Ned (ed.) (1980), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Blustein, Jeffrey (1982), Parents and Children: The Ethics of the Family (New York: Oxford University Press).

Bock, Gisela, and James, Susan (eds.) (1992), Beyond Equality and Difference: Citizenship, Feminist Politics and Female Subjectivity (London: Routledge).

Bohman, James (1996), Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity and Democracy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

—— and Rehg, William (eds.) (1997), Deliberative Democracy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

Booth, Wayne C. (1988), The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction (Berkeley: University of California Press).

(p.237) Borda, Jean‐Charles de (1784), ‘Mémoire sur les élections au scrutin par M. de Borda’, Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences année 1781 (Paris: l'Imprimerie Royale), 657–65. Tr. and reprinted in Sommerlad and McLean 1988: 122–8; McLean and Hewitt 1994: 114–19; McLean and Urken 1995: 83–9; Sommerlad and McLean 1988: 122–8.

Borland, Philip J. (1989), ‘Majority Systems and the Condorcet Jury Theorem’, Statistician, 38: 181–9.

Bovenkerk, Frank, Miles, Robert, and Verbunt, Gilles (1991), ‘Comparative Studies of Migration and Exclusion on Grounds of “Race” and Ethnic Background in Western Europe: A Critical Appraisal’, International Migration Review, 25: 375–91.

Bowles, Samuel, and Gintis, Herbert (1986), Democracy and Capitalism (New York: Basic Books).

Braddon‐Mitchell, David, and Jackson, Frank (1996), The Philosophy of Mind and Cognition (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell).

Brennan, H. Geoffrey (1995), ‘Condorcet [review of McLean and Hewitt 1994]’, History of Economics Review, 23 (Winter): 157–9.

—— (2001), ‘Collective Coherence?’, International Review of Law and Economics 21: 197–211.

—— and Lomasky, Loren (1993), Democracy and Decision (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— and Pettit, Philip (1990), ‘Unveiling the Vote’, British Journal of Political Science, 20: 311–34.

Brennan, Teresa, and Pateman, Carole (1979), ‘ “Mere Auxiliaries to the Commonwealth”: Women and the Origins of Liberalism’, Political Studies, 27: 183–200.

Brighouse, Harry (1995), ‘Neutrality, Publicity and Public Funding of the Arts’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 24: 36–63.

Brubaker, Rogers (1992), Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Buchanan, Allen E. (1978), ‘Medical Paternalism’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 7: 371–90.

Budge, Ian (1996), The New Challenge of Direct Democracy (Oxford: Polity).

Buksti, Jacob A., and Eliassen, Kjell A. (eds.) (1979) ‘Corporate Pluralism in Nordic Democracies’, Special Issue of Scandinavian Political Studies, ns 2: 195–298.

Burke, Edmund (1774), ‘Speech to the Electorate at Bristol’, in Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke, ed. Paul Langford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), ii. 95–7.

Burnheim, John (1981a), ‘Statistical Democracy’, Radical Philosophy, 27: 5–12.

—— (1981b), ‘Statistical Democracy’, Thesis Eleven, 3: 60–71.

—— (1985), Is Democracy Possible? (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

(p.238) Burnstein, E., and Schu, Y. (1983), ‘Group Polarization’, in H. H. Blumberg, A. P. Hare, V. Kent and M. F. Davies (eds.), Small Groups and Social Interaction (Chichester: Wiley), ii 57–64.

Butler, Judith, and Scott, Joan W. (eds.) (1992), Feminists Theorize the Political (New York: Routledge).

Camilleri, Joseph A., and Falk, Jim (1992), The End of Sovereignty? The Politics of a Shrinking and Fragmenting World (Aldershot: Elgar).

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, and Faletto, Enzo (1979), Dependency and Development in Latin America, tr. M. M. Urquidi (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

Care, Norman S. (1984), ‘Career Choice’, Ethics, 94: 283–302.

Carens, Joseph (1987), ‘Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders’, Review of Politics, 49: 251–73.

Carnegie Commission on the Future of Public Broadcasting (1979), A Public Trust (New York: Bantam).

Castles, Stephen (1992), ‘The Australian Model of Immigration and Multiculturalism: Is it Applicable in Europe?’, International Migration Review, 26: 549–67.

—— (1994), ‘Democracy and Multicultural Citizenship: Australian Debates and their Relevance for Western Europe’, in Bauböck 1994b: 3–28.

Cayton, H. R., and Drake, St. Clair (1946), Black Metropolis (London: Jonathan Cape).

Chaiken, Shelly, Wood, Wendy, and Eagly, Alice H. (1996), ‘Principles of Persuasion’, in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (New York: Guilford Press), 702–43.

Cicero (1991), De Officiis, ed. M. T. Griffin and E. M. Atkins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Cnudde, Charles F., and Neubauer, Deane E. (eds.) (1969), Empirical Democratic Theory (Chicago: Markham).

Coase, R. H. (1974), ‘The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas’, American Economic Review (Papers & Proceedings), 64/2: 384–402.

Cohen, Joshua (1986), ‘An Epistemic Conception of Democracy’, Ethics, 97/1 (Oct): 26–38.

—— (1989), ‘Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy’, in Alan Hamlin and Philip Pettit (eds.), The Good Polity (Oxford: Blackwell), 17–34.

—— (1996), ‘Procedure and Substance in Deliberative Democracy’, in Seyla Benhabib (ed.), Democracy and Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 95–119.

—— (1998), ‘Democracy and Liberty’, in Elster 1998: 185–231.

—— and Rogers, Joel, et al. (1995), in E. O. Wright (ed.), Associations and Democracy (London: Verso).

—— and Sabel, Charles (1997), ‘Directly‐Deliberative Polyarchy’, European Law Journal, 3: 313–42.

(p.239) Coleman, Jules L. (1989), ‘Rationality and the Justification of Democracy’, in Geoffrey Brennan and Loren E. Lomasky (eds.), Politics and Process: New Essays in Democratic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 194–220.

Coleman, Jules L., and Ferejohn, John (1986), ‘Democracy and Social Choice’, Ethics, 97/1 (Oct.): 6–25.

Commission on Social Justice, UK Labour Party (1993), The Justice Gap (London: Institute for Public Policy Research).

—— (1994), Social Justice: Strategies for National Renewal (London: Vintage/ Random House).

Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de (1784), ‘Sur les élections par scrutin’, Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences année 1781 (Paris: De l'imprimerie royale), 31–4. Tr. and reprinted in Sommerlad and McLean 1988: 119–22; McLean and Hewitt 1994: 111–13; McLean and Urken 1995: 81–3.

—— (1785), Essai sur l'application de l'analyse à la probabilité des décisions rendues à la pluralité des voix (Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale [fascimile ed. New York: Chelsea, 1972]). Comprised of: Discours préliminaire, pp. i–cxci; Essai, pp. 1–304. Tr. and excerpted in: Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 69–80 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: pp. lvi–lxx); Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 81–9 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: pp. clxviii–clxxix); Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 90–108 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: 119–36); Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 109–18 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: 287–96); McLean and Hewitt 1994: 120–30 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: pp. lvi–lxx); McLean and Hewitt 1994: 130–8 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: pp. clxviii–clxxix); McLean and Urken 1995: 91–113 (corresponding to Condorcet 1785: 279–304).

—— (1788), ‘On the Constitution and the Functions of Provincial Assemblies’, tr. and excerpted in McLean and Hewitt 1994: 139–68; McLean and Urken 1995: 113–44; Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 129–66.

—— (1792), ‘A Survey of the Principles Underlying the Draft Constitution’, tr. and excerpted in McLean and Hewitt 1994: 190–227; McLean and Urken 1995: 145–50; Sommerlad and McLean 1989: 216–22.

Connolly, William E. (1991), Identity\Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Constant, Benjamin (1815), ‘Principles of Politics Applicable to All Representative Governments’, in Political Writings, tr. and ed. Biancamaria Fontana (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 171–305.

Converse, Philip E. (1964), ‘The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics’, in David Apter (ed.), Ideology and Discontent (New York: Free Press), 206–61.

Coote, Anna, and Lenaghan, Jo (1997), Citizens' Juries: Theory into Practice (London: Institute for Public Policy Research).

(p.240) Copp, David (1993), ‘Could Political Truth be a Hazard for Democracy?’, in David Copp, Jean Hampton and John E. Roemer (eds.), The Idea of Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 101–17.

Corden, W. M. (1977), The Theory of Protection (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Coser, Lewis A. (1974), Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment (New York: Free Press).

Coughlan, Peter J. (2000), ‘In Defense of Unanimous Jury Verdicts: Mistrials, Communication and Strategic Voting’, American Political Science Review, 94/2 (June): 375–94.

Crick, Bernard (1989), Essays on Politics and Literature (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Currie, Gregory (1995), Image and Mind: Film, Philosophy and Cognitive Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1999), Meeting of Minds: Thought, Imagination and Perception (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Dahl, Robert A. (1956), A Preface to Democratic Theory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— (1961), Who Governs? (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (ed.) (1966), Political Oppositions in Western Democracies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1970), After the Revolution? (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1971), Polyarchy (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (ed.) (1973), Regimes and Oppositions (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1979), ‘Procedural Democracy’, in Philosophy, Politics and Society, 5th ser., ed. P. Laslett and J. Fishkin (Oxford: Blackwell), 97–133.

—— (1982), Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1985), A Preface to Economic Democracy (Berkeley: University of California Press).

—— (1989), Democracy and its Critics (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— and Lindblom, Charles E. (1953), Politics, Economics and Welfare (New York: Harper & Row).

—— and Neubauer, Deane E. (eds.) (1968), Readings in Modern Political Analysis (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall).

—— and Tufte, Edward R. (1973), Size and Democracy (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press).

Dahrendorf, Ralf (1958), ‘Homo Sociologicus’, in Dahrendorf, Essays in Social Theory (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968), 19–87.

Damgaard, Erik, and Eliassen, Kjell A. (1980), ‘Reduction of Party Conflict through Corporate Participation in Danish Law‐Making’, Scandinavian Political Studies, ns 3: 105–21.

(p.241) Dancy, Jontathan, and Sosa, E. (eds.) (1992), A Companion to Epistemology (Oxford: Blackwell).

Daniels, Norman (1979), ‘Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Theory Acceptance in Ethics’, Journal of Philosophy, 76/5: 256–82.

Danielson, Michael N. (1976), The Politics of Exclusion (New York: Comunbia University Press).

Davidson, Donald (1980), Essays on Actions and Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1984), Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Davies, Martin (1994), ‘The Mental Simulation Debate’, in Peacocke 1994: 99–127.

—— and Stone, Tony (1998), ‘Folk Psychology and Mental Simulation’, in Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Current Issues in the Philosophy of Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, for the Royal Institute of Philosophy, 1998), 53–82.

Davis, J. H., Bray, R. M., and Holt, R. W. (1977), ‘The Empirical Study of Decision Processes in Juries: A Critical Review’, in J. L. Tapp and F. J. Levine (eds.), Law, Justice and the Individual in Society: Psychological and Legal Issues (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston), 326–61.

Dawes, R., McTavish, J., and Shaklee, H. (1977), ‘Behavior, Communications and Assumptions about Other People's Behaviour in a Commons Dilemma Situation’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35: 1–35.

Dawes, R. M., van de Kragt, A. J. C., and Orbell, J. M. (1990), ‘Cooperation for the Benefit of Us—Not Me, or My Conscience’, in Mansbridge 1990: 97–110.

Day, Patricia, and Klein, Rudolph (1987), Accountabilities: Five Public Services (London: Tavistock).

Derrida, Jacques (1978), Writing and Difference, tr. Alan Bass (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

De Swaan, Abram (1988), In Care of the State (Oxford: Polity).

Dewey, John (1927), The Public and its Problems (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1954).

Diamond, Larry (1999), Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

Downs, Anthony (1957), An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper).

—— (1973), Opening up the Suburbs (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Dryzek, John S. (1987), Rational Ecology (Oxford, Blackwell).

—— (1990), Discursive Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1992), ‘Ecology and Discursive Democracy: Beyond Liberal Capitalism and the Administrative State’, Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 3: 18–42.

(p.242) Dryzek, John S. (1995), Democracy in Capitalist Times (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (1996), ‘Political Inclusion and the Dynamics of Democratization’, American Political Science Review, 90: 475–87.

—— (2000), Deliberative Democracy and Beyond (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (2001), ‘Legitimacy and Economy in Deliberative Democracy’, Political Theory, 29: 651–69.

Dummett, Michael (1985), Voting Procedures (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1997), Principles of Electoral Reform (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Duncan, Greg J., Gustafsson, Björn, Hauser, Richard, Schmaus, Günther, Jenkins, Stephen, Messinger, Hans, Muffels, Ruud, Nolan, Brian, Ray, Jean‐Claude, and Voges, Wolfgang (1995), ‘Poverty and Social‐Assistance Dynamics in the United States, Canada and Europe’, in Katherine McFate, Roger Lawson and William Julius Wilson (eds.), Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy (New York: Russell Sage Foundation), 67–108.

Duncan, Greg J., with Richard D. Coe, Mary E. Corcoran, Martha S. Hill, Saul D. Hoffman and James N. Morgan (1984), Years of Poverty, Years of Plenty: The Changing Economic Fortunes of American Workers and Families (Ann Arbor: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan).

Dworkin, Ronald (1985), ‘Can a Liberal State Support Art?’, in Dworkin, A Matter of Principle (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press), 221–33.

—— (2000), The Sovereign Virtue (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Easton, David (1965), A System Analysis of Political Life (New York: Wiley).

Eckstein, Harry (1966), Division and Cohesion in Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Edelman, Murray (1977), Political Language (New York: Academic Press).

—— (1995), From Art to Politics: How Artistic Creations Shape Political Conceptions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Edgeworth, Francis Y. (1925), ‘The Pure Theory of Taxation’, in Edgeworth, Papers Relating to Political Economy (London: Macmillan), ii 100–16.

Elder, Neil, Thomas, Alastair H., and Arter, David (1982), The Consensual Democracies: The Government and Politics of the Scandinavian States (Oxford: Martin Robertson).

Eliot, T. S. (1943), ‘The Social Function of Poetry’, in Eliot (ed.), On Poetry and Poets (London: Faber & Faber, 1958), 15–25.

Elster, Jon (1976), ‘A Note on Hysteresis in the Social Sciences’, Synthese, 33: 371–91.

—— (1979), Ulysses and the Sirens (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.243) —— (1983), ‘Belief, Bias and Ideology’, in Elster, Sour Grapes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 141–66.

—— (1986a), ‘Introduction’, in Elster (ed.), Rational Choice (Oxford: Blackwell), 1–33.

—— (1986b), ‘The Market and the Forum: Three Varieties of Political Theory’, in Elster and Hylland 1986: 103–32.

—— (1988), ‘Consequences of Constitutional Choice: Reflections on Tocqueville’, in Elster and Slagstad 1988: 81–101.

—— (1994), ‘Argumenter et négocier dans deux Assemblées constituantes’, Revue Française de Science Politique, 44/22: 187–256.

—— (ed.) (1998a), Deliberative Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1998b), ‘Introduction’, in Elster 1998a: 8–9.

—— and Hylland, Aanund (eds.) (1986), Foundations of Social Choice Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— and Slagstad, Rune (eds.) (1988), Constitutionalism and Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Ely, John Hart (1980), Democracy and Distrust (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Erikson, Robert, and Goldthorpe, John H. (1992), The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Estlund, David (1989a), ‘Democratic Theory and the Public Interest: Condorcet and Rousseau Revisited’, American Political Science Review, 83/4 (Dec.): 1317–22.

—— (1989b), ‘The Persistent Puzzle of the Minority Democrat’, American Philosophical Quarterly, 26: 143–51.

—— (1990), ‘Democracy without Preference’, Philosophical Review, 49: 397–424.

—— (1993), ‘Making Truth Safe for Democracy’, in David Copp, Jean Hampton and John E. Roemer (eds.), The Idea of Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press), 71–100.

—— (1994), ‘Opinion Leaders, Independence and Condorcet's Jury Theorem’, Theory and Decision, 36/2: 131–62.

—— (1997), ‘Beyond Fairness and Deliberation: The Epistemic Dimension of Democratic Authority’, in James Bohman and Willian Rehg (eds.), Deliberative Democracy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press), 173–204.

—— (1998), ‘The Insularity of the Reasonable: Why Political Liberalism Must Admit the Truth’, Ethics, 108 (Jan.): 252–75.

—— (2001), Deliberation Down and Dirty: Must Political Expression be Civil?', in Thomas R. Hensley (ed.), The Boundaries of Freedom of Expression and Order in American Democracy (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press), 49–79.

—— Waldron, Jeremy, Grofman, Bernard, and Feld, Scott (1989), ‘Controversy: Democratic Theory and the Public Interest: Condorcet (p.244) and Rousseau Revisited’, American Political Science Review, 83/4 (Dec.): 1317–40.

Etzinoi, Amitai (1993), The Spirit of Community (London: HarperCollins).

Evans, Martin, Paugam, Serge, and Prélis, Joseph A. (1995), Chunnel Vision: Poverty, Social Exclusion and the Debate on Social Welfare in France and Britain (Discussion Paper WSP/115; London: Welfare State Programme, STICERD, London School of Economics).

Feddersen, Timothy, and Pesendorfer, Wolfgang (1998), ‘Convicting the Innocent: The Inferiority of Unanimous Jury Verdicts under Strategic Voting’, American Political Science Review, 92: 23–36.

Feinberg, Joel (1974), ‘The Rights of Animals and Unborn Generations’, in William T. Blackstone (ed.), Philosophy and Environmental Crisis (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press), 43–68.

—— (1986), Harm to Self. Vol. iii of Feinberg, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law (New York: Oxford University Press).

Field, Marilyn J., and Gold, Marthe R. (eds.) (1998), Summarizing Population Health: Directions for the Development and Application of Population Metrics (Report of the Committee on Summary Measures of Population Health, Division of Health Care Services, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press).

Finlay, Moses I. (1978), The World of Odysseus, 2nd edn. (New York: Viking).

Fiorina, Morris (1981), Retrospective Voting in American National Elections (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Fishkin, James S. (1991), Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1995), The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (2000), ‘Citizen Juries (and Other Methods of Informed Citizen Consultation)’, in The International Encyclopedia of Elections, ed. Richard Rose (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press), 38–9.

Foucault, Michel (1975), Discipline and Pubish: The Birth of the Prison, tr. Alan Sheridan (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977).

Fox, J., and Guyer, M. (1977), ‘Group Size and Others' Strategy in an N‐Person Game’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21: 323–39.

Frankfurt, Harry G. (1971), ‘Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person’, Journal of Philosophy, 68: 5–20.

Franklin, Mark N., Mackie, Thomas T., Valen, Henry, et al. (1992), Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Fraser, Nancy (1994), ‘After the Family Wage: Gender Equity and the Welfare State’, Political Theory, 22: 591–618.

—— (1995), ‘From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a “Post‐Socialist” Age’, New Left Review, 212: 68–93.

(p.245) Frazer, Elizabeth, and Lacey, Nicola (1993), The Politics of Community: A Feminist Critique of the Liberal–Communitarian Debate (Brighton: Harvester‐Wheatsheaf).

Frey, Bruno S., and Bohnet, Iris (1996), ‘Cooperation, Communication and Communitarianism: An Experimental Approach’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 4: 323–37.

Friedman, Milton (1962), Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Fuller, Lon (1964), The Morality of Law, 2nd edn. (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Fung, Archon (1995), ‘Extended Condorcet and Experimentalist Models of Epistemic Democracy’, Mimeo, Department of Political Science, MIT.

Galanter, Marc (1984), Competing Equalities: Law and the Backward Classes in India (Delhi: Oxford University Press).

Gambetta, Diego (1994a), ‘Godfather's Gossip’, Archives Européenes de Sociologie, 35: 199–223.

—— (1994b), ‘Inscrutable Markets’, Rationality and Society, 6: 353–68.

Gamson, William A. (1995), ‘Hiroshima, the Holocaust and the Politics of Exclusion: 1994 Presidential Address’, American Sociological Review, 60: 1–20.

Gardiner, Karen, and Hills, John (1999), ‘Policy Implications of New Data on Income Mobility’, Economic Journal, 109/1: F91–F111.

Gastil, Raymond D. (1991), ‘The Comparative Survey of Freedom: Experiences and Suggestions’, in Alex Inkeles (ed.), On Measuring Democracy: Its Consequences and Concomitants (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books), 21–46.

Gaus, Gerald (1997), ‘Does Democracy Reveal the Voice of the People? Four Takes on Rousseau’, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 75/2 (June): 141–62.

Gaventa, John (1980), Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press).

Geertz, Clifford (1973a), The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic).

—— (1973b), ‘The Politics of Meaning’, in Geertz 1973a: 311–26.

Gehrlein, William (1983), ‘Condorcet's Paradox’, Theory and Decision, 15: 161–97.

Gelman, Andrew, and King, Gary (1993), ‘Why are American Presidential Election Campaign Polls So Variable When Votes are So Predictable?’, British Journal of Political Science, 23: 409–52.

Gerardi, Dino (2000), ‘Jury Verdicts and Preference Diversity’, American Political Science Review, 94/2 (June): 395–406.

Gerbasi, K. C., Zuckerman, M., and Reis, H. T. (1977), ‘Justice Needs a New Blindfold: A Review of Mock Jury Research’, Psychological Bulletin, 84: 323–45.

(p.246) Gerber, Elisabeth R., and Jackson, John E. (1993), ‘Endogenous Preferences and the Study of Institutions’, American Political Science Review, 87: 639–56.

Gibson, Diane, and Goodin, Robert E. (1999), ‘The Veil of Vagueness’, in Morten Egeberg and Per Lægreid (eds.), Organizing Political Institutions: Essays for Johan P. Olsen (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press), 357–85.

Gilbert, Margaret (1989), On Social Facts (London: Routledge).

Gilligan, Carol (1982), In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Gintis, Herbert (1972), ‘A Radical Analysis of Welfare Economics and Individual Development’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 68: 572–99.

Glazer, Nathan, and Moynihan, Daniel P. (1963), Beyond the Melting Pot (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

—— and—— (eds.) (1975), Ethnicity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— and Young, Ken (eds.) (1983), Ethnic Pluralism and Public Policy (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath).

Goffman, Erving (1961), Asylums (New York: Doubleday).

Goldman, Alvin I. (1994), ‘Argumentation and Social Epistemology’, Journal of Philosophy, 91: 27–49.

Goldthorpe, John H. (1980), Social Mobility and Class Structure in Modern Britain (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Goodin, Robert E. (1976a), The Politics of Rational Man (London: Wiley).

—— (1976b), ‘Possessive Individualism Again’, Political Studies, 24: 488–501.

—— (1980), Manipulatory Politics (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1982a), ‘Banana Time in British Politics’, Political Studies, 30: 42–58.

—— (1982b), Political Theory and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— (1983), ‘Voting through the Looking Glass’, American Political Science Review, 77: 420–34.

—— (1985), Protecting the Vulnerable (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— (1986), ‘Laundering Preferences’, in Elster and Hylland 1986: 75–101.

—— (1988), ‘What is So Special about Our Fellow Countrymen?’, Ethics, 98: 663–86.

—— (1989a), ‘Do Motives Matter?’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 19: 405–20.

—— (1989b), No Smoking: The Ethical Issues (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— (1990a), ‘Liberalism and the Best Judge Principle’, Political Studies, 38: 181–95.

—— (1990b), ‘Stabilizing Expectations: The Role of Earnings‐Related Benefits in Social Welfare Policy’, Ethics, 100: 530–53.

(p.247) —— (1991), ‘Permissible Paternalism: In Defence of the Nanny State’, The Responsive Community, 1: 42–51.

—— (1992a), Green Political Theory (Oxford: Polity).

—— (1992b), ‘If People were Money . . . ’, in Brian Barry and Robert E. Goodin (eds.), Free Movement (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf), 6–22.

—— (1992c), Motivating Political Morality (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (1993), ‘Democracy, Preferences and Paternalism’, Policy Sciences, 26: 229–47. Revised as Ch. 3 in this volume.

—— (1995a), ‘Political Ideals and Political Practice’, British Journal of Political Science, 25: 37–56.

—— (1995b), Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1996a), ‘Enfranchising the Earth, and its Alternatives’, Political Studies, 44: 835–49. Revised as Ch. 11 in this volume.

—— (1996b), ‘Designing Constitutions: The Political Constitution of a Mixed Commonwealth’, Political Studies, 44: 635–46.

—— (1996c), ‘Institutionalizing the Public Interest: The Defense of Deadlock and Beyond’, American Political Science Review, 90: 331–43.

—— (1996d), ‘Inclusion and Exclusion’, Archives Européenes de Sociologie, 37: 343–71. Revised as Ch. 10 in this volume.

—— (1996e), ‘Structures of Political Order: The Relational Feminist Alternative’, in Nomos XXXVIII: Political Order, ed. Russell Hardin and Ian Shapiro (New York: New York University Press), 498–521.

—— (1997), ‘Conventions and Conversions: Or, Why is Nationalism Sometimes So Nasty?’, in Jeff McMahan and Robert McKim (eds.), The Ethics of Nationalism (New York: Oxford University Press), 88–104.

—— (1999b), ‘The Sustainability Ethic: Political, Not (Just) Moral’, Journal of Applied Philosophy, 16: 267–74.

—— (1999c), ‘Treating Likes Alike, Intergenerationally and Internationally’, Policy Sciences, 32: 189–206.

—— (2000a), ‘Accountability: Elections as One Form’, in The International Encyclopedia of Elections, ed. Richard Rose (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press), 2–4.

—— (2000b), ‘Preference Failures’, paper presented to ‘Fairness and Goodness’ workshop, World Health Organization, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, Mar. 2000.

—— (2000c), ‘Trusting Individuals vs Trusting Institutions: Generalizing the Case of Contract’, Rationality and Society, 12: 381–95.

—— (2001), ‘Consensus Interruptus’, Journal of Ethics, 5: 121–31.

—— (2002), ‘The Paradox of Persisting Opposition’, Politics, Philosophy and Economics, 1: 109–46. Revised as Chs. 6–7 in this volume.

—— and Brennan, Geoffrey (2001), ‘Bargaining over Beliefs’, Ethics, 111: 256–77. Revised as Ch. 4 in this volume.

(p.248) Goodin, Robert E. and Dryzek, John (1980), ‘Rational Participation: The Politics of Relative Power’, British Journal of Political Science, 10: 273–92.

—— and Gibson, Diane (1997), ‘Rights, Young and Old’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 17: 185–203.

—— Headey, Bruce, Muffels, Ruud, and Dirven, Henk‐Jan (1999), The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— Pateman, Carol, and Pateman, Roy (1997), ‘Simian Sovereignty’, Political Theory, 25: 821–49.

—— and Roberts, K. W. S. (1975), ‘The Ethical Voter’, American Political Science Review, 69: 926–8.

Granger, Giles‐Gaston (1968), ‘Condorcet’, in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills (London: Collier‐Macmillan), iii 213–15.

Granovetter, Mark (1985), ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481–510.

Greenberg, Edward S. (1986), Workplace Democracy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Grice, H. Paul (1975), ‘Logic and Conversation’, in Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman (eds.), The Logic of Grammar (Encino, Calif: Dickenson), 64–75.

—— (1989), Studies in the Way of Words (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Grofman, Bernard (1993), ‘Public Choice, Civic Republicanism and American Politics: Perspectives of a “Reasonable Choice” Modeler’, Texas Law Review, 71: 1541–87.

—— and Feld, Scott L. (1988), ‘Rousseau's General Will: A Condorcetian Perspective’, American Political Science Review, 82/2 (June): 567–76.

—— and Owen, Guillermo (eds.) (1986), Information Pooling and Group Decision Making (Westport, Conn.: JAI Press).

—— Owen, Guillermo, and Feld, Scott L. (1983), ‘Thirteen Theorems in Search of the Truth’, Theory and Decision, 15: 261–78.

Guarnaschelli, Serena, McKelvey, Richard D., and Palfrey, Thomas R. (2000), ‘An Experimental Study of Jury Decision Rules’, American Political Science Review, 94/2 (June): 407–24.

Gustafsson, Gunnel, and Richardson, Jeremy (1980), ‘Post‐Industrial Changes in Policy Style’, Scandinavian Political Studies, ns 3: 21–37.

Gutmann, Amy (1985), ‘Communitarian Critics of Liberalism’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 14: 308–22.

—— (1987), Democratic Education (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— and Thompson, Dennis (1996), Democracy and Disagreement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Habermas, Jürgen (1962), The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, tr. Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence (Oxford: Polity, 1989).

(p.249) —— (1964), ‘The Public Sphere’, S. and F. Lennox, New German Critique, 3: 49–55.

—— (1973), Legitimation Crisis, tr. Thomas McCarthy (London: Heinemann).

—— (1992), Between Facts and Norms, tr. William Rehg (Oxford: Polity, 1996).

—— (1993), ‘Struggles for Recognition in Constitutional States’, European Journal of Philosophy, 1: 128–55.

—— (1995), ‘Reconciliation through the Public Use of Reason: Remarks on John Rawls's Political Liberalism’, Journal of Philosophy, 92: 109–31.

Hadley, Roger, and Hatch, Stephen (1981), Social Welfare and the Failure of the State (London: Allen & Unwin).

Hale, Sir Matthew (1716), The History of the Common Law of England, ed. Charles M. Gray (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971).

Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, and Jay, John (1787–8), The Federalist, ed. Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1961).

Hampshire, Stuart (2000), Justice is Conflict (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Hardin, Russell (1982), ‘Exchange Theory on Strategic Bases’, Social Science Information, 21: 251–72.

—— (1983), ‘Unilateral versus Mutual Disarmament,’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, 12: 236–54.

—— (1993), ‘The Street‐Level Epistemology of Trust’, Politics and Society, 21: 505–29.

—— (1995), One for All (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (1999), Liberalism, Constitutionalism and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press).

Harding, Sandra, and Hintikka, Merill B. (1983), ‘Introduction’, in Harding and Hintikka (eds.), Discovering Reality (Dordrecht: D. Reidel), pp. ix–xix.

Harrington, Michael (1962), The Other America: Poverty in the United States (New York: Macmillan).

Harsanyi, John C. (1965), ‘Bargaining and Conflict Situations in the Light of a New Approach to Game Theory,’ American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings), 55 (May): 447–57.

—— (1966), ‘A General Theory of Rational Behavior in Game Situations’, Econometrica, 34: 613–34.

—— (1967–8), ‘Games of Incomplete Information Played by Bayesian Players’, Management Science, 14: 159–82, 320–34, 486–502.

Hartmann, Heidi (1981), ‘The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism’, in Lydia Sargent (ed.), Women and Revolution: A Discussion of the Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism (Boston: South End Press), 1–41.

(p.250) Hastie, R., Penrod, S. D., and Pennington, N. (1983), Inside the Jury (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Hausner, Jerzy, Jessop, Bob, and Nielsen, Klaus (ed.) (1995), Strategic Choice and Path‐Dependency in Post‐Socialism (Aldershot: Elgar).

Hawthorne, James (2001), ‘Voting in Search of the Public Good: The Probabilistic Logic of Majority Judgements’, Mimeo., Department of Political Science, University of Oklahoma.

Hazlitt, William (1869), ‘On Coffee‐House Politicians’, in Hazlitt, Table Talk, or Original Essays (New York: Chelsea House, 1983), 261–83.

Heal, Jane (1998), ‘Understanding Other Minds from the Inside’, in O'Hear 1998: 83–100.

Held, Virginia (1987), ‘Non‐Contractual Society’, in M. Hanen and K. Nielsen (eds.), Science, Morality and Feminist Theory (Calgary: University of Calgary Press), 111–38.

—— (1989), ‘Birth and Death’, Ethics, 99: 362–88.

Hibbs, Douglas (1987), The American Political Economy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Hicks, John R. (1941), ‘The Rehabilitation of Consumers' Surplus’, Review of Economics Studies, 8: 108–16.

Hirst, Paul (1994), Associative Democracy (Oxford: Polity).

Hobbes, Thomas (1651), Leviathan (London: Andrew Crooke).

Hochschild, Jennifer L. (1984), The New American Dilemma: Liberal Democracy and School Desegregation (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Hoffman, Stanley (1981), Duties Beyond Borders (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press).

Hollis, Martin (1977), Models of Man: Philosophical Thoughts on Social Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1981), ‘Economic Man and Original Sin’, Political Studies, 29: 167–80.

Honneth, Axel (1992), ‘Integrity and Disrespect: Principles of a Conception of Morality Based on the Theory of Recognition’, Political Theory, 20: 187–201.

Hume, David (1739), A Treatise of Human Nature (London: John Noon).

—— (1777a), An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (London: Cadell).

—— (1777b), ‘Of Miracles’, in Hume (1777a): sec. 10.

Hunter, Floyd (1953), Community Power Structures (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press).

Huntington, Samuel P. (1997), The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (London: Simon & Schuster).

Hyllund, Aanund, and Zeckhauser, Richard (1979), ‘The Impossibility of Bayesian Group Decisions with Separate Aggregation of Beliefs and Values,’ Econometrica, 47: 1321–36.

Ionescu, Ghita, and Madariaga, Isabel de (1968), Opposition (London: Watts).

(p.251) Jackson, Frank, and Pettit, Philip (1990), ‘In Defense of Folk Psychology’, Philosophical Studies, 57: 7–30.

Janis, Irving L. (1982), Groupthink, 2nd edn. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).

Jefferson, Thomas (1766–1812), Parliamentary Pocket‐Book. Reprinted in Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings, ed. Wilbur Samuel Howell, 2nd ser. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 47–162.

Jencks, Christopher (1994), The Homeless (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— Smith, Marshall, Ackland, Henry, Bane, Mary Jo, Cohen, David, Gintis, Herbert, Heyns, Barbara, and Michelson, Stephan (1972), Inequality (New York: Basic).

Johnson, Norman (1987), The Welfare State in Transition: The Theory and Practice of Welfare Pluralism (Brighton: Wheatsheaf).

Jordan, Bill (1996), A Theory of Poverty and Social Exclusion (Oxford: Polity).

Kagan, R. A. (1978), Regulatory Justice: Implementing a Wage‐Price Freeze (New York: Russell Sage Foundation).

Kahneman, Daniel, Slovick, Paul, and Tversky, Amos (eds.) (1982), Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Kalven, Harry, Jr., and Zeisel, Hans (1966), The American Jury (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Kant, Immanuel (1784), ‘What is Enlightenment?’, in The Philosophy of Kant, tr. and ed. Carl J. Friedrich (New York: Random House, 1949), 132–9.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss (1972), Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Kettl, Donald F. (2000), The Global Public Management Revolution: A Report on the Transformation of Governance (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution).

Key, V. O., Jr, and Crouch, Winston W. (1939), The Initiative and the Referrenda in California (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Kiewiet, D. Roderick (1983), Micropolitics and Macroeconomics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

King, Desmond S. (1995), Separate and Unequal (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— and Waldron, Jeremy (1988), ‘Citizenship, Social Citizenship and the Defence of Welfare Provision’, British Journal of Political Science, 18/4: 415–43; reprinted in Waldron 1993: 271–308.

Kirchheimer, Otto (1969), ‘Changes in the Structure of Political Compromise’, in F. S. Burin and K. L. Shell (eds.), Politics, Change (New York: Columbia University Press), 131–59.

Klausen, Jytte (1995), ‘Social Rights Advocacy and State Building: T. H. Marshall in the Hands of Social Reformers’, World Politics, 47: 244–67.

(p.252) Kleinig, John (1983), Paternalism (Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld).

Kostakopoulau, Theodora (1996), ‘Towards a Theory of Constructive Citizenship in Europe’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 4: 338–59.

—— (2001), Citizenship, Identity and Immigration in the European Union (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

Krauss, Robert M., and Fussell, Susan R. (1996), in ‘Social Psychological Models of Interpersonal Communications’, in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (New York: Guilford Press), 655–701.

Kreps, David M. (1990), ‘Corporate Culture and Economic Theory’, in J. Alt and K. Shepsle (eds.), Perspectives on Positive Political Economy (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), 90–143.

—— and Wilson, Robert (1982), ‘Reputation and Imperfect Information’, Journal of Economic Theory, 27: 253–79.

Kuflik, Arthur (1977), ‘Majority Rule Procedure’, in Nomos XVIII: Due Process, ed. J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman (New York: New York University Press), 296–322.

Kuran, Timur (1998), ‘Insincere Deliberation and Democratic Failure’, Critical Review, 12: 529–44.

Kvavik, Robert (1976), Interest Groups in Norwegian Politics (Oslo: Universiteitsforlaget).

Kymlicka, Will (1989), Liberalism, Community and Culture (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1990), ‘Communitarianism’, in Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 199–237.

—— (1995), Multicultural Citizenship (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— and Norman, Wayne (1994), ‘Review Article: Return of the Citizen’, Ethics, 104: 352–81.

Lacey, Nicola (1998), Unspeakable Subjects: Feminist Essays in Legal and Social Theory (Oxford: Hart).

Lahda, Krishna K. (1992), ‘The Condorcet Jury Theorem, Free Speech and Correlated Votes’, American Journal of Political Science, 36/3 (Aug.): 617–34.

Lampman, Robert J. (1974), ‘What Does it Do for the Poor? A New Test for National Policy’, Public Interest, 34: 66–82.

Laslett, Peter (1956), ‘The Face to Face Society’, in Philosophy, Politics & Society, 1st ser., ed. P. Laslett (Oxford: Blackwell), 157–84.

—— and Fishkin, James S. (eds.) (1992), Justice between Generations: Philosophy, Politics and Society, 6th ser. (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Lasswell, Harold D. (1950), Politics: Who Gets What, When, How? (New York: P. Smith).

Leblebici, Huseyin, and Salanick, Gerald R. (1982), ‘Stability in Inter‐organizational Exchanges: Rulemaking Processes of the Chicago Board of Trade’, Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 27: 227–42.

(p.253) Lehrer, Keith (1976a), ‘Rationality in Science and Society: A Consensual Theory’, in Gilbert Ryle (ed.), Contemporary Aspects of Philosophy (London: Orel Press), 14–30.

—— (1976b), ‘When Rational Disagreement is Impossible’, Nous, 10: 327–32.

—— (2001a), ‘Individualism versus Communitarianism: A Consensual Compromise’, Journal of Ethics, 5: 105–20.

—— (2001b), ‘The Rationality of Dissensus: A Reply to Goodin’, Journal of Ethics, 5: 132–6.

—— and Wagner, Carl (1981), Rational Consensus in Science and Society: A Philosophical and Mathematical Study (Dordrecht: D. Reidel).

Levin, Jonathan, and Nalebuff, Barry (1995), ‘An Introduction to Vote‐Counting Schemes’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9/1 (Winter): 3–26.

Lewin, Leif (1998), ‘Majoritarianism and Consensus Democracy: The Swedish Experience’, Scandinavian Political Studies, ns 2: 195–206.

Lewis, David (1969), Convention (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (1979), ‘Scorekeeping in a Language Game’, Journal of Philosophical Logic, 8: 339–59.

Lijphart, Arend (1975), The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands, 2nd edn. (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

—— (1977), Democracy in Plural Societies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

—— (1998), ‘Consensus and Consensus Democracy: Cultural, Structural, Functional and Rational Choice Explanations’, Scandinavian Political Studies, ns 2: 99–108.

—— (1999), Patterns of Democracy (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Lindblom, Charles E. (1965), The Intelligence of Democracy (New York: Free Press).

—— (1977), Politics and Markets (New York: Basic).

Lindsay, A. D. (1929), The Essentials of Democracy, 2nd edn. (London: Oxford University Press, 1935).

Lippmann, Walter (1955), The Public Philosophy (New York: New American Library).

Lipset, Seymour Martin (1963), The First New Nation: The United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective (New York: Basic).

—— and Rokkan, Stein (eds.) (1967), Party Systems and Voter Alignments (New York: Free Press).

List, Christian, and Goodin, Robert E. (2001), ‘Epistemic Democracy: Generalizing the Condorcet Jury Theorem’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 9: 277–306. Revised as Ch. 5 in this volume.

Little, I. M. D. (1952), ‘Social Choice and Individual Values’, Journal of Political Economy, 60: 422–32.

Lloyd, Genevieve (1993), The Man of Reason: ‘Male’ and ‘Female’ in Western Philosophy (London: Routledge).

(p.254) Locke, John (1690), Second Treatise of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960).

Lockwood, David (1974), ‘For T. H. Marshall’, Sociology, 8: 363–7.

Lowenstein, Karl (1938), ‘Legislative Control of Political Extremism in European Democracies’, Columbia Law Review, 38: 591–622, 725–74.

Lowi, Theodore J. (1969), The End of Liberalism (New York: Norton).

Luce, R. Duncan, and Raiffa, Howard (1957), Games and Decisions (New York: Wiley).

Lukes, Steven (1974), Power: A Radical View (London: Macmillan).

Lupia, Arthur (1994), ‘Shortcuts versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections’, American Political Science Review, 88: 63–76.

—— and McCubbins, Matthew D. (1998), The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Lægreid, Per, and Roness, Paul G. (1996), ‘Political Parties, Bureaucracies and Corporatism’, in Kaare Strom and Lars Svasand (eds.), Challenges to Political Parties: The Case of Norway (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press), 167–80.

Macaulay, Stewart (1963), ‘Non‐Contractual Relations in Business’, American Sociological Review, 28: 55–67.

MacCallum, Gerald C., Jr (1966), ‘Legislative Intent’, Yale Law Journal, 75: 754–87.

MacIntyre, Alisdair (1967), ‘Egoism and Altruism’, in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Macmillan), ii 462–6.

—— (1981), After Virtue (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press).

—— (1988), Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press).

McLean, Iain (1989), Democracy and New Technology (Oxford: Polity).

—— and Hewitt, Fiona (tr. and ed.) (1994), Condorcet: Foundations of Social Choice and Political Theory (Aldershot: Elgar).

—— and Urken, Arnold B. (tr. and ed.) (1995), Classics of Social Choice (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).

Macpherson, C. B. (1962), The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1973), Democratic Theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1977), The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Madison, James (1788a), Federalist, 14, in Hamilton et al. 1787–8: 83–9.

——(or perhaps Alexander Hamilton) (1788b), Federalist, 55, in Hamilton et al., 1787–8: 372–8.

—— (1788c), Federalist, 62, in Hamilton et al. 1787–8: 415–22.

—— (1788d), Federalist, 63, in Hamilton et al. 1787–8: 422–31.

(p.255) —— (1840), Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (New York: Norton, 1966).

Majone, Giandomenico (1994), ‘The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe’, West European Politics, 17: 77–101.

Malpas, J. E. (1999), Place and Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Manin, Bernard (1987), ‘On Legitimacy and Political Deliberation’, Political Theory 15: 338–68.

—— (1997), Principles of Representative Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— Przeworski, Adam, and Stokes, Susan C. (1999), ‘Introduction’, in Przeworski, Stokes, and Manin (eds.), Democracy, Accountability and Representation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 1–26.

Mann, Michael (1985), Socialism Can Survive: Social Change and the Labour Party (Fabian Tract, 502; London: Fabian Society).

Mansbridge, Jane J. (1980), Beyond Adversary Democracy (New York: Basic).

—— (ed.) (1990), Beyond Self‐interest (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

March, James G. (1972), ‘Model Bias in Social Action’, Review of Educational Research, 42: 413–29.

—— (1976), ‘The Technology of Foolishness’, in March and Johan P. Olsen, Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations (Bergen: Universitetsforlaget), 69–81.

—— and Olsen, Johan P. (1989), Rediscovering Institutions (New York: Free Press).

—— and—— (1995), Democratic Governance (New York: Free Press).

Marcus, George E., and Hanson, Russell L. (eds.) (1993), Reconsidering the Democratic Public (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press).

Marshall, T. H. (1949), ‘Citizenship and Social Class’, in Marshall, Class, Citizenship and Social Development (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 70–134.

Martin, Rex (1993), A System of Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Marx, Karl (1844), ‘Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts’, in Tucker 1972: 52–104.

—— (1871), ‘The Civil War in France’, in Tucker1972: 526–76.

Massey, Douglas S., and Denton, Nancy A. (1993), American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Mason, Sir Anthony et al. (1992), ‘ACT TV Ltd v Commonwealth’. Commonwealth Law Reports, 177: 106.

May, John D. (1978), ‘Defining Democracy: A Bid for Coherence and Consensus’, Political Studies, 26: 1–14.

(p.256) May, Kenneth O. (1952), ‘A Set of Independent, Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Simple Majority Decision’, Econometrica, 20: 680–4.

Meehan, Elizabeth (1993), Citizenship and the European Community (London: Sage).

Meijer, Hans (1969), ‘Bureaucracy and Policy Formulation Sweden’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 4: 102–16.

Merrill, Samuel, III (1984), ‘A Comparison of Efficiency of Multicandidate Electoral Systems’, American Journal of Political Science, 28/1 (Feb.): 23–48.

Merton, Robert K. (1973), The Sociology of Science, ed. N. W. Storer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— and Kitt, Alice S. (1950), ‘Contributions to the Theory of Reference Group Behavior’, in Robert K. Merton and Paul F. Lazarsfeld (eds.), Continuities in Social Research (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press), 40–105.

Michelman, Frank (1986), ‘Traces of Self‐Government’, Harvard Law Review, 100: 4–77.

Midgaard, Knut, Stenstadvold, Halvor, and Underdal, Arild (1973), ‘An Approach to Political Interlocutions’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 8: 9–36.

Milbrath, L. W. (1960), ‘Lobbying as a Communication Process’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 24: 33–53.

Mill, James (1823), ‘Essay on Government’. Reprinted in James Mill: Political Writings, ed. Terence Ball (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Mill, John Stuart (1843), A System of Logic (London: Longmans, Green).

—— (1859), On Liberty, in Wollheim 1975: 5–141.

—— (1861), Considerations on Representative Government, in Wollheim 1975: 142–423.

Miller, David (1992), ‘Deliberative Democracy and Social Choice’, Political Studies, 40/5 (Special Issue): 54–67.

Reprinted in David Held (ed.), Prospects for Democracy (Oxford: Blackwell), 54–67.

—— (1995), ‘Citizenship and Pluralism’, Political Studies, 43: 432–50.

Miller, Nicholas R. (1986), ‘Information, Electorates and Democracy: Some Extensions and Interpretations of the Condorcet Jury Theorem’, in Bernard Grofman and Guillermo Owen (eds.), Information Pooling and Group Decision Making, (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press), 175–94.

Mills, C. Wright (1940), ‘Situated Actions and Vocabularies of Motive’, American Sociological Review, 5: 904–13.

Minnow, Martha (1990), Making All the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion and American Law (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).

Montaigne, Michel de (1580), ‘On the Art of Conversation’, in The Essays of Michel de Montaigne, tr. and ed. M. A. Screech (Harmondsworth: Allen Lane/Penguin, 1991), book 3, essay 8, pp. 1044–69.

Moore, Barrington, Jr. (1967), Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (London: Allen Lane).

(p.257) —— (1970), Reflections on the Causes of Human Misery (Boston: Beacon Press).

Morgenstern, Oskar (1950), On the Accuracy of Economic Observation (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Morriss, Peter (1987), Power: A Philosophical Analysis (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

Mueller, Dennis C. (1989), Public Choice II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Mulgan, Tim (1999), ‘The Place of the Dead in Liberal Political Philosophy’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 7: 52–70.

Mulhall, Stephen, and Swift, Adam (1996), Liberals and Communitarians, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Blackwell).

Murray, Christopher J. (1996), ‘Rethinking DALYs’, in Murray and Alan D. Lopez. (eds.), The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard School of Public Health, for World Health Organization and World Bank), 1–98.

Myers, D. G., and Lamm, H. (1976), ‘The Group as a Polarizer of Attitudes’, Psychological Bulletin, 83: 602–27.

Myrdal, Gunnar (1944), The American Dilemma (New York: Harper & Row).

Naess, Arne, Christophersen, Jens A., and Kvalø, Kjell (1956), Democracy, Ideology and Objectivity: Studies in the Semantics and Cognitive Analysis of Ideological Controversy (Oxford: Blackwell).

Nagel, Thomas (1970), The Possibility of Altruism (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1986), The View from Nowhere (New York: Oxford University Press).

Netzer, Dick (1978), The Subsidized Muse: Public Support for the Arts in the United States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Nicholson, Linda (ed.) (1990), Feminism/Postmodernism (New York: Routledge).

—— (1996), ‘Identity and the Politics of Recognition’, Constellations, 3: 1–16.

Nisbet, Robert A. (1966), The Sociological Tradition (New York: Basic).

Nordhaus, William D. (1975), ‘The Political Business Cycle’, Review of Economic Studies, 42: 169–90.

North, Douglass C. (1990), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Nozick, Robert (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia (Oxford: Blackwell).

Nussbaum, Martha (1990), Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature (New York: Oxford University Press).

—— (1995), Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life (Boston: Beacon Press).

—— (1997), Cultivating Humanity (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press).

(p.258) O'Hear, Anthony (ed.) (1998), Current Issues in the Philosophy of Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, for the Royal Institute of Philosophy).

Olsen, Johan P. (1972), ‘Voting, “Sounding Out” and the Governance of Modern Organisations’, Acta Sociologica, 15: 267–83.

—— (1983), Organized Democracy: Political Institutions in a Welfare State—the Case of Norway (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget).

—— (1995), ‘The Changing Political Organization of Europe’, The European Yearbook of Comparative Government and Public Administration, 2, J. J. Hesse and T. A. J. Toonen eds. (Baden‐Baden/Boulder, Colo.: Nomos/Westview).

O'Neill, Onora (1988), ‘Children's Rights and Children's Lives’, Ethics, 98: 445–63.

—— and Ruddick, William (eds.) (1979), Having Children: Philosophical and Legal Reflections on Parenthood (New York: Oxford University Press).

Orbell, J. M., von de Kragt, A. J. C., and Dawes, R. M. (1988), ‘Explaining Discussion‐Induced Cooperation’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 811–19.

Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (1997), Family, Market and Community: Equity and Efficiency in Social Policy (Paris: OECD).

—— (1998), ‘Low‐Income Dynamics in Four OECD Countries’, OECD Economic Outlook, 64: 171–86.

Ostrom, Elinor, Baugh, William, Guarasci, Richard, Parks, Roger B., and Whitaker, Gordon P. (1973), Community Organization and the Provision of Police Service (Sage Professional Papers in Administrative and Policy Sciences, 03–001; Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage).

Page, Benjamin I. (1996), Who Deliberates? Mass Media in Modern Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

—— and Shapiro, Robert Y. (1992), The Rational Public (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Parsons, Talcott (1965), ‘Full Citizenship for the Negro American? A Sociological Problem’, in Parsons and Kenneth B. Clark (eds.), The Negro American (Boston: Houghton Mifflin), 709–54.

Pateman, Carole (1970), Participation in Democratic Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1980), ‘ “The Disorder of Women”: Women, Love and the Sense of Justice’, Ethics, 91: 20–34.

—— (1988), The Sexual Contract (Oxford: Polity).

Peacocke, Christopher (ed.) (1994), Simulation and the Unity of Consciousness: Current Issues in the Philosophy of Mind (Proceedings of the British Academy, 83; Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy).

(p.259) Pennock, Roland J. (1979), Democratic Political Theory (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Peters, R. S. (1966), Ethics and Education (London: Allen & Unwin).

Pettit, Philip (1982), ‘Habermas on Truth and Justice’, in G. H. R. Parkinson (ed.), Marx and Marxisms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 207–28.

—— (1996), The Common Mind, 2nd edn. (New York: Oxford University Press).

Phillips, Anne (1995), The Politics of Presence: Democracy and Group Representation (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Pico, Giovanni, Conte della Mirandola (1486), ‘Oration on the Dignity of Man’ (tr. Elizabeth Livermoore Forbes), in Ernst Cassirer, Paul Oskar Kristeller and John Herman Randall, Jr. (eds.), The Renaissance Philosophy of Man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948).

Piketty, Thomas (1995), ‘Social Mobility and Redistributive Politics’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110: 551–84.

Pitkin, Hanna F. (1967), The Concept of Representation (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

—— (1972), Wittgenstein and Justice (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

—— (1981), ‘Justice: On Relating Private and Public’, Political Theory, 9: 327–52.

Pixley, Jocelyn F. (1993), Citizenship and Employment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Plamenatz, John P. (1973), Democracy and Illusion (London: Longman).

Pocock, J. G. A. (1971), Politics, Language and Time (New York: Atheneum).

—— (1973), ‘Verbalizing a Political Act: Toward a Politics of Speech’, Political Theory, 1: 27–45.

Polanyi, Michael (1958), Personal Knowledge (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

Polsby, Nelson W. (1980), Community Power and Political Theory, 2nd edn. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Popkin, Samuel L. (1991), The Reasoning Voter (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Popper, Karl R. (1945), The Open Society and its Enemies (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).

Posner, Richard A. (1979), ‘The Homeric Version of the Minimal State’, Ethics, 90: 27–46.

Power and Democracy Project (2000), ‘General Scheme: Power and Democracy 1998–2003’, http://www.sv.uio.no/mutr/eng/scheme.html (accessed 10 Oct 2000).

Przeworski, Adam (1998), ‘Deliberation and Ideolgical Domination’, in Elster 1998a: 140–60.

(p.260) Przeworski, Adam (1999), ‘Minimalist Conception of Democracy: A Defense’, in Ian Shapiro and Casiano Hacker‐Cordón (eds.), Democracy's Value (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 23–55.

Quine, W. V. O. (1961), ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’, in Quine, From a Logical Point of View, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press), 20–46.

Quinton, Anthony (ed.) (1967), Political Philosophy (London: Oxford University Press).

Rae, Douglas W. (1969), ‘Decision‐Rules and Individual Values in Constitutional Choice’, American Political Science Review, 63: 40–56.

—— (1975), ‘The Limits of Consensual Decision’, American Political Science Review, 69: 1270–94.

—— (2001), ‘Viacratic America: Plessy on Foot v. Brown on Wheels’, Annual Review of Political Science, 4: 417–38.

Raiffa, Howard (1982), The Art and Science of Negotiation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Rainwater, Lee, Rein, Martin, and Schwartz, Joseph (1986), Income Packaging in the Welfare State: A Comparative Study of Family Income (New York: Oxford University Press).

Ransom, Roger L., and Sutch, Richard (1977), One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Rawls, John (1958), ‘Justice as Fairness’, Philosophical Review, 67: 164–94.

—— (1967), ‘Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play’, in Sidney Hook (ed.), Law and Philosophy (New York: New York University Press), 3–18.

—— (1971), A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— (1980), ‘Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory’, Journal of Philosophy, 77: 515–72.

—— (1993), Political Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press).

—— (1997), ‘The Idea of Public Reason Revisited’, University of Chicago Law Review, 94: 765–807.

Regan, Donald H. (1986), ‘Duties of Preservation’, in B. G. Norton (ed.), The Preservation of Species (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 195–220.

Richardson, Henry (1997), ‘Democratic Intentions’, in Bohman and Rehg 1997: 349–82.

Riker, William H. (1961), ‘Voting and the Summation of Preferences: An Interpretive Bibliographic Review of Selected Developments during the Last Decade’, American Political Science Review, 55: 900–11.

—— (1983), Liberalism Against Populism (San Francisco: W. Freeman).

Risse, Mathias (2001), ‘Arrow's Theorem, Indeterminacy and Multiplicity Reconsidered’, Ethics, 111: 706–34.

(p.261) Risse, Thomas (1999), ‘International Norms and Domestic Change: Arguing and Communicative Behavior in the Human Rights Area’, Politics and Society, 27: 529–59.

Roemer, John E. (1982), A General Theory of Exploitation and Class (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— (1988), Free to Lose (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— (1994), A Future for Socialism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Rohrschneider, Robert (1988), ‘Citizens' Attitudes toward Environmental Issues: Selfish or Selfless?’, Comparative Political Studies, 21: 347–67.

Rokkan, Stein (1966), ‘Norway: Numerical Democracy and Corporate Pluralism’, in Dahl 1966: 70–115.

—— (1975), ‘Votes Count, Resources Decide’, in Rokkan, Makt og Motiv (Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag), 216–24.

Room, Graham (1995), ‘Poverty in Europe: Competing Paradigms and Analysis’, Policy and Politics, 23: 103–13.

Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques (1762), ‘The Social Contract’, in The Social Contract and Discourses, tr. G. D. H. Cole (London: Everyman/Dent, 1973), 164–278.

Routley, Richard, and Routley, Val (1979), ‘Against the Inevitability of Human Chauvinism’, in K. E. Goodpaster and K. M. Sayre (eds.), Ethics and Problems of the 21st Century (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press), 36–59.

Rubinstein, Ariel (1982), ‘Perfect Equilibria in a Bargaining Model’, Econometrica, 50: 97–109.

Ruddick, Sara (1980), ‘Maternal Thinking’, Feminist Studies, 6: 342–67.

—— (1989), Maternal Thinking (New York: Ballantine Books).

Ruggie, John Gerard (1993), ‘Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations’, International Organization, 47: 139–74.

Ruin, Olof (1974), ‘Participatory Democracy and Corporatism: The Case of Sweden’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 9: 171–86.

Russell, Bertrand (1938), Power: A New Social Analysis (London: Allen & Unwin).

Rustow, Dankwart A. (1955), The Politics of Compromise: A Study of Politics and Cabinet Government in Sweden (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Ryan, Alan (1998), ‘In a Conversational Idiom’, Social Research, 65: 473–89.

Ryle, Gilbert (1949), The Concept of Mind (London: Hutchinson).

Sagoff, Mark (1988), The Economy of the Earth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1994), ‘Should Preferences Count?’, Land Economics, 70: 127–44.

Sandel, Michael J. (1982), Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.262) Sandel, Michael J. (ed.) (1984a), Liberalism and its Critics (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (1984b), ‘The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self’, Political Theory, 12: 81–96.

—— (1996), Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Sanders, Lynn (1997), ‘Against Deliberation’, Political Theory, 25: 347–76.

Sartre, Jean‐Paul (1950), What is Literature?, tr. Bernard Frechtman (London: Methuen).

Saward, Michael (1992), Co‐optive Politics and State Legitimacy (Aldershot: Dartmouth).

—— (1998), The Terms of Democracy (Oxford: Polity).

Scarrow, Susan E. (2001), ‘Direct Democracy and Institutional Change: a Comparative Investigation’, Comparative Political Studies, 34/6 (Aug.): 651–65.

Scarry, Elaine (1995), ‘On Vivacity: The Difference between Daydreaming and Imagining‐under‐Authorial‐Instruction’, Representations, 52: 1–26.

—— (1996), ‘The Difficulty of Imagining Other People’, in Joshua Cohen (ed.), For Love of Country (Boston: Beacon Press), 98–110.

Scharpf, Fritz W. (1999), Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Schattschneider, E. E. (1960), The Semi‐Sovereign People (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston).

Schelling, Thomas C. (1960), The Strategy of Conflict (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Schmitter, Philippe C. (1977), ‘Modes of Interest Intermediation and Models of Social Change in Western Europe’, Comparative Political Studies, 10: 7–38.

Schober, Michael F. (1998), ‘Conversational Evidence for Rethinking Meaning’, Social Research, 65: 511–34.

—— and Clark, Herbert H. (1989), ‘Understanding by Addressees and Overhearers’, Cognitive Psychology, 21: 211–32.

Schoeman, F. (1980), ‘Rights of Children, Rights of Parents and the Moral Basis of the Family’, Ethics, 91: 6–19.

Schön, Donald A., and Rein, Martin (1994), Frame Reflection (New York: Basic).

Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1950), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 3rd edn. (New York: Harper & Row).

Schutz, Alfred (1943), ‘The Problem of Rationality in the Social World’, Economica, 10: 130–49.

Schweikhart, David (1980), Capitalism or Worker Control? (New York: Praeger).

Scott, Joan W. (1991), ‘Experience’, Critical Inquiry, 17: 773–97.

Searle, John R. (1969), Speech Acts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.263) —— (1983), ‘The Word Turned Upside Down’, New York Review of Books, 30 (27 Oct.): 74–9.

—— (1995), The Construction of Social Reality (New York: Free Press).

Seidenfeld, Teddy, Kadane, Joseph B., and Schervish, Mark J. (1989), ‘On the Shared Preferences of Two Bayesian Decision Makers’, Journal of Philosophy, 86: 225–44.

Selznick, Philip (1949), TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).

—— (1992), The Moral Commonwealth: Social Theory and the Promise of Community (Berkeley, Calif.: Univ. of Calif. Press).

Sen, Amartya K. (1970), Collective Choice and Social Welfare (San Francisco: Holden‐Day).

—— (1981), Poverty and Famines (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1982), Choice, Welfare and Measurement (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (1983), ‘Poor, Relatively Speaking’, Oxford Economic Papers, 35: 153–69.

Shachar, Ayelet (2001), Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women's Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Shaffer, William R. (1998), Politics, Parties and Parliaments: Political Change in Norway (Columbus: Ohio State University Press).

Shapley, Lloyd S., and Grofman, Bernard (1984), ‘Optimizing Group Judgmental Accuracy in the Presence of Interdependencies’, Public Choice, 43/3: 329–43.

Shaw, George Bernard (1889), Fabian Essays in Socialism (London: Fabian Society).

Shklar, Judith N. (1991), American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Shonfield, Andrew (1965), Modern Capitalism (London: Oxford University Press).

Sidgwick, Henry (1907), The Methods of Ethics, 7th edn. (London: Macmillan).

Simmel, Georg (1908), ‘The Phenomenon of Outvoting’, in The Sociology of Georg Simmel, tr. and ed. Kurt H. Wolff (New York: Free Press, 1950), 239–49.

—— (1922), ‘The Web of Group‐Affiliations’ (tr. R. Bendix) in Simmel 1955: 125–95.

—— (1955), Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations, tr. Kurt H. Wolff and Reinhard Bendix (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press).

Simon, Herbert A. (1985), ‘Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology and Political Science’, American Political Science Review, 79: 293–304.

Simpson, A. W. B. (1973), ‘The Common Law and Legal Theory’, in Oxford Essays in Jurisprudence, 2nd ser., A. W. B. Simpson ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 77–99.

(p.264) Singer, Peter (1974), ‘Sidgwick and Reflective Equilibrium’, The Monist, 58: 490–517.

—— (1981), The Expanding Circle (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Skinner, Quentin (1971), ‘On Performing and Explaining Linguistic Actions’, Philosophical Quarterly, 21: 1–21.

Skocpol, Theda (1979), States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Smith, Adam (1776), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, R. H. Campbell, A. S. Skinner, and W. B. Todd eds. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).

Smith, Dorothy E. (1987), Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology (Boston: Northeastern University Press).

Smith, Graham, and Wales, Corrine (1999), ‘The Theory and Practice of Citizens' Juries’, Policy and Practice, 27: 295–308.

Smith, Kimberly K. (1998), ‘Storytelling, Sympathy and Moral Judgment in American Abolitionism’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 6: 356–77.

Sniderman, Paul M. (1993), ‘The New Look in Public Opinion Research’, in A. W. Finifter (ed.), Political Science: The State of the Discipline II (Washington, DC: American Political Science Association).

Somers, Margaret R. (1994), ‘Rights, Relationality and Membership: Rethinking the Making and Meaning of Citizenship’, Law and Social Inquiry, 19: 63–112.

Sommerlad, Fiona, and McLean, Iain (tr. and ed.) (1989), The Political theory of Condorcet (Social Studies Faculty Centre Working Paper, 1/89; Oxford: Faculty of Social Sciences, Oxford University).

Sperber, Dan, and Wilson, Deidre (1986), ‘Loose Talk’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 86: 153–71.

Spinner‐Halev, Jeff (1994), The Boundaries of Citizenship: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality in the Liberal State (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

Spitz, Elaine (1984), Majority Rule (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers).

Steiner, George (1963), ‘Humane Literacy’, in Steiner, Language and Silence (London: Faber & Faber, 1967), 21–9.

—— (1967), ‘Literature and Post‐History’, in Steiner, Language and Silence (London: Faber & Faber), 413–24.

Steiner, Jurg, and Dorff, R. (1980), A Theory of Political Decision Modes (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press).

Stocker, Michael (1982), ‘Responsibility Especially for Beliefs’, Mind, 91: 398–417.

Stone, Christopher (1973), ‘Should Trees Have Standing?’, Southern California Law Review, 45: 450–501 at 471.

Strøm, Kaare (1990), Minority Governments and Majority Rule (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

(p.265) Sunstein, Cass R. (1988), ‘Beyond the Republican Revival’, Yale Law Journal, 97: 1539–90.

—— (1991), ‘Preferences and Politics’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 20: 3–34.

—— (1993a), ‘Democracy and Shifting Preferences’, in David Copp, Jean Hampton and John E. Roemer (eds.), The Idea of Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 196–230.

—— (1993b), Democracy and the Problem of Free Speech (New York: Free Press).

—— (1995), ‘Incompletely Theorized Agreements’, Harvard Law Review, 108: 1733–72.

—— (1996a), ‘Leaving Things Undecided’, Harvard Law Review, 110: 4–101.

—— (1996b), Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict (New York: Oxford University Press).

—— (2001), Republic.com (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (2002), ‘The Law of Group Polarization’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 10: 74–94.

Taagepera, Rein, and Shugart, Matthew S. (1989), Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Tamir, Yael (1993), Liberal Nationalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Tangian, A. S. (2000), ‘Unlikelihood of Condorcet's Paradox in a Large Society’, Social Choice and Welfare, 17: 337–65.

Taylor, Charles (1978), Hegel and Modern Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1985), Philosophical Papers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1989), Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1992), Multiculturalism and ‘the Politics of Recognition’ (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (1993), ‘Modernity and the Rise of the Public Sphere’, Tanner Lectures on Human Values, 14: 203–60.

Taylor, Michael (1969), ‘Proof of a Theorem on Majority Rule’, Behavioral Science, 14: 228–31.

Taylor, Serge (1984), Making Bureaucracies Think: The Environmental Impact Statement Strategy of Administrative Reform (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press).

Therborn, Göran (1989), ‘ “Pillarization” and “Popular Movements”—Two Variants of Welfare State Capitalism: The Netherlands and Sweden’, in Francis G. Castles (ed.), The Comparative History of Public Policy (Oxford: Polity), 192–241.

Thomas, Carol (1993), ‘Deconstructing the Concept of Care’, Sociology, 27: 649–69.

(p.266) Thompson, Dennis (1970), The Democratic Citizen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Thompson, James D., and McEwan, W. J. (1958), ‘Organizational Goals and Environment: Goal Setting as an Interaction Process’, American Sociological Review, 23: 23–31.

Tilly, Charles (1998), ‘Contentious Conversation’, Social Research, 65: 491–510.

Tilton, Timothy A. (1990), The Political Theory of Swedish Social Democracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Tocqueville, Alexis de (1835), Democracy in America, tr. George Lawrence, J. P. Mayer and Max Lerner eds. (New York: Harper & Row, 1966).

Torgersen, Ulf (1970), ‘The Trend towards Political Consensus’, Acta Sociologica, 61: 159–72.

Reprinted in Erik Allardt and Stein Rokkan (eds.), Mass Politics (New York: Free Press, 1970), 93–104.

Tronto, Joan C. (1987), ‘Beyond Gender Difference to a Theory of Care’, Signs, 12: 644–63.

—— (1993), Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care (London: Routledge).

Tucker, Robert C. (ed.) (1972), The Marx‐Engels Reader (New York: Norton).

Tully, James (1995), ‘Constitutional Demands for Cultural Recognition’, Journal of Political Philosophy, 3: 118–40.

—— (1999), ‘The Agonic Freedom of Citizens’, Economy and Society, 28: 101–22.

Tushnet, Mark (2001), ‘Non‐Judicial Constitutional Review’, paper presented to Workshop on ‘Human Rights Protection’, Melbourne, 14 Dec.

Tyler, Tom R. (1990), Why People Obey the Law (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press).

Uhr, John (1998), Deliberative Democracy in Australia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Van Alstyne, Marshall, and Brynjolfsson, Erik (1996), ‘Could the Internet Balkanize Science?’, Science, 274/5292 (29 Nov.): 1479–80.

—— and—— (1997), ‘Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans?’, paper presented to 17th International Conference on Information Systems, Cleveland, Ohio.

van Kersbergen, Kees (1995), Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State (London: Routledge).

Van Parijs, Philippe (1998), ‘The Disfranchisement of the Elderly, and Other Attempts to Secure Intergenerational Justice’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 27/4 (Fall): 292–333.

Vinson, Fred M. (1948), ‘Opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court’, Shelley v. Kramer, 334 US 1, 4–23.

(p.267) Waldron, Jeremy (1989), ‘Democratic Theory and the Public Interest: Condorcet and Rousseau Revisited’, American Political Science Review, 38/4 (Dec.): 1322–8.

—— (1991), ‘Homelessness and the Issue of Freedom’, UCLA Law Review, 39/2: 295–324. Reprinted in Waldron 1993: 309–38.

—— (1993), Liberal Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1995), ‘Legislators' Intentions and Unintentional Legislation’, in Andrei Marmor (ed.), Law and Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 329–56.

—— (1999a), The Dignity of Legislation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

—— (1999b), Law and Disagreement (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Walker, R. B. J. (1993), Inside/Outside (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Wallerstein, Immanuel (1979), The Capitalist World‐Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Walzer, Michael (1968), ‘A Day in the Life of a Socialist Citizen: Two Cheers for Participatory Democracy’, Dissent, 15/3: 243–7. Reprinted in Walzer1970: 229–41.

—— (1970), Obligations (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— (1983), Spheres of Equality (Oxford: Martin Robertson).

—— (1987), Interpretation and Social Criticism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

—— (1993), ‘Exclusion, Injustice and the Democratic State’, Dissent, 40/2: 55–64.

—— (1994), Thick and Thin: Moral Argument at Home and Abroad (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press).

Waring, Marilyn (1988), If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics (New York: Harper & Row).

Warner, Floyd (1953), Community Power Structures (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press).

Wasserstrom, Richard (1964), ‘Rights, Human Rights and Racial Discrimination’, Journal of Philosophy, 61: 628–41.

—— (1977), ‘Racism, Sexism and Preferential Treatment’, UCLA Law Review, 24: 581–662.

Watson, Gary (1977), ‘Skepticism about Weakness of Will’, Philosophical Review, 86: 316–39.

Weber, Eugen (1976), Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press).

Weiler, J. H. H. (1991), ‘The Transformation of Europe’, Yale Law Journal, 100: 2403–83.

—— (1995), ‘The Reformation of European Constitutional Law’, paper presented to ‘Workshop on Constitutionalism’, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Sept.

(p.268) Weiss, Donald D. (1973), ‘Wollheim's Paradox: Survey and Solution’, Political Theory, 1/2 (May): 154–70.

Wendt, Alexander E. (1987), ‘The Agent‐Structure Problem in International Relations Theory’, International Organization, 41: 335–70.

White, Stephen K. (1991), Political Theory and Postmodernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Whorf, Benjamin Lee (1956), Language, Thought and Reality (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

Wikler, Daniel (1979), ‘Paternalism and the Mildly Retarded’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 8: 377–92.

Williams, Bernard (1973), ‘Deciding to Believe’, in Williams, Problems of the Self (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 136–51.

Wilson, Bryan (ed.) (1970), Rationality (Oxford: Blackwell).

Wit, Jöorgen (1998), ‘Rational Choice and the Condorcet Jury Theorem’, Games and Economic Behavior, 22: 364–76.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1958), Philosophical Investigations, tr. G. E. M. Anscombe (Oxford: Blackwell).

—— (1974), Tractatus Logico‐Philosophicus, tr. D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

Wittman, Donald (1995), The Myth of Democratic Failure: Why Political Institutions are Efficient (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Wolff, Robert Paul (1980), ‘There's Nobody Here But Us Persons’, in Carol C. Gould and Marx W. Wartofsky (eds.), Women and Philosophy (New York: Putnam), 128–44.

Wollheim, Richard (1962), ‘A Paradox in the Theory of Democracy’, in Philosophy, Politics and Society, 2nd series, P. Laslett and W. G. Runciman ed. (Oxford: Blackwell), 71–87.

—— (ed.) (1975), John Stuart Mill, Three Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— (1984), The Thread of Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Wordsworth, William (1820), ‘Observations Prefixed to “Lyrical Ballads” ’, in What is Art?, Alexander Sesokske ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 261–74.

World Bank (1994), Averting the Old Age Crisis: Policies to Protect the Old and Promote Growth (New York: Oxford University Press).

World Health Organization (2000), The World Health Report: Health Systems: Improving Performance (Geneva: WHO).

Wyatt‐Brown, Bertram (1982), Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Yanay, Uri (1995), ‘Personal Safety and the Mixed Economy of Protection’, Social Policy and Administration, 29: 110–21.

Yankelovich, Daniel (1991), Coming to Public Judgment: Making Democracy Work in a Complex World (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press).

Young, H. Peyton (1988), ‘Condorcet's Theory of Voting’, American Political Science Review, 82/4 (Dec.): 1231–44.

(p.269) —— (1995), ‘Optimal Voting Rules’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9/1 (Winter): 51–64.

Young, Iris Marion (1990), Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (1995), ‘Together in Difference: Transforming the Logic of Group Political Conflict’, in Will Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of Cultural Minorities (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 155–77.

—— (1997), ‘Communication and the Other: Beyond Deliberative Democracy’, in Young, Intersecting Voices (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 60–74.

—— (2000), Inclusion and Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

—— (2001), ‘Activist Challenges to Deliberative Democracy’, Political Theory, 29: 670–90.

Young, Oran R. (1967), The Intermediaries: Third Parties in International Crises (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

—— (ed.) (1975), Bargaining: Formal Theories of Negotiation (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press). (p.270)