Varieties of Refugee Concerns: The Beginnings of a Policy Toolbox
The refugee policy toolbox includes such remedies as territorial asylum, local integration in countries of asylum, and resettlement abroad, as well as new variations on these themes. Efforts at internal protection before individuals have fled their home countries, have had mixed results. While the quality of asylum for refugees is hardly uniform given the wide discretion permitted to states, under international law, providing access to the territory of an asylum state will continue to be the primary form of protection. The experience in Germany is reflective of a recent trend by states, particularly in Europe, away from asylum as a refugee protection response.
Policy planning relating to forced migration is embryonic. The absence of resources, staff, and time devoted to developing strategies to mitigate crises is a glaring deficit in humanitarian action. At the international and national levels, new strategic planning capacities outside of the UN system are necessary.
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