Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought$

R. J. Hankinson

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780199246564

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0199246564.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 23 February 2017

(p.455) References

(p.455) References

Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:


  • AGP Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie

  • AJP American Journal of Philology

  • ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt

  • BACAP Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy

  • BHM Bulletin of the History of Medicine

  • BICS Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies

  • CAG Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca

  • CJP Canadian Journal of Philosophy

  • CMG Corpus Medicorum Graecorum

  • CP Classical Philology

  • CQ Classical Quarterly

  • HSCP Harvard Studies in Classical Philology

  • JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies

  • JP Journal of Philosophy

  • OSAP Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy

  • PAS Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

  • PCPS Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society

  • Phron. Phronesis

  • PQ Philosophical Quarterly

  • QJRAS Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society

  • RM Review of Metaphysics

  • RUSCH Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities

Achinstein, P. (1983), The Nature of Explanation (Oxford).

—— (ed.) (1983), The Concept of Evidence (Oxford).

Ackrill, J. L. (1962), Aristotle's Categories and de Interpretatione (Oxford).

Algra, K. (1995), Concepts of Space in Greek Thought (Leiden).

—— van der Horst, P., and Runia, D. (eds.) (1997), Polyhistor: Studies in the History and Historiography of Ancient Philosophy (Leiden).

Allan, D. J. (1975), ‘Causality Ancient and Modern’, PAS Suppl. 39.

Allbut, C. W. (1921), Greek Medicine in Rome (London).

Annas, J. (1982), ‘Inefficient Causes’, PQ 32: 311–26.

—— and Barnes, J. (1985), The Modes of Scepticism (Cambridge).

—— —— (1994), Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism (Cambridge).

Anscombe, G. E. M. (1956), ‘Aristotle and the Sea‐Battle’, Mind 65: 1–15; repr. in Anscombe (1981a).

—— (1969), ‘Causality and Extensionality’, JP 66: 1529; repr. in Anscombe (1981b).

(p.456) Anscombe, G. E. M. (1975), ‘Causality and Determination’, in Sosa (1975); repr. in Anscombe (1981b).

—— (1981a), Collected Papers, i: From Parmenides to Wittgenstein (Minneapolis).

—— (1981b), Collected Papers, ii: Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind (Minneapolis).

Armstrong, A. H. (1937), ‘Emanation in Plotinus’, Mind 46: 61–6.

—— (1940), The Architecture of the Intelligible Universe in the Philosophy of Plotinus (Cambridge).

—— (1960), ‘The Background of the Doctrine that the Intelligibles are not outside the Intellect’, in Gigon et al. (1960).

—— (1966–88), Plotinus, Loeb Classical Library, 7 vols. (Harvard and London).

Armstrong, D. M. (1983), What is a Law of Nature? (Cambridge).

Asmis, E. (1984), Epicurus' Scientific Method (Ithaca, NY).

Bailey, C. (1928), The Greek Atomists and Epicurus (Oxford).

Ballester, L. G. (1972), Galeno (Madrid).

—— (1988), ‘Soul and Body, Disease of the Soul and Disease of the Body’, in Vegetti and Manuli (1988).

Balme, D. M. (1939), ‘Greek Science and Mechanism I: Aristotle on Nature and Chance’, CQ 33: 129–38.

—— (1941), ‘Greek Science and Mechanism II: The Atomists’, CQ 35: 23–8.

—— (1962a), ‘Development of Biology in Theophrastus and Aristotle: Theory of Spontaneous Generation’, Phron. 7: 91–104.

—— (1962b), ‘Genos and Eidos in Aristotle's Biology’, CQ 12: 81–98.

—— (1972), Aristotle's ‘De Partibus Animalium’ I and ‘De Generatione Animalium’ I (Oxford).

—— (1987a), ‘The Place of Biology in Aristotle's Philosophy’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

—— (1987b), ‘Aristotle's Use of Division and Differentiae’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

—— (1987c), ‘Teleology and Necessity’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

Baltussen, J. N. M. (1993), Theophrastus on Theories of Perception (Utrecht).

Bardong, K. (1937), Galeni de Causis Procatarcticis, CMG Suppl. vol. ii (Berlin).

Barnes, J. (1969), ‘Aristotle's Theory of Demonstration’, Phron. 14: 123–52; repr. with revisions in Barnes et al. (1975).

—— (1972), ‘Aristotle's Concept of Mind’, PAS 75: 101–44; repr. in Barnes et al. (1979b).

—— (1975), Aristotle's ‘Posterior Analytics’ (Oxford).

—— (1979), The Presocratic Philosophers, 2 vols. (London).

—— (1980), ‘Proof Destroyed’, in Barnes et al. (1980).

—— (1981), ‘Proof and the Syllogism’, in Berti (1981).

—— (1982a), ‘Medicine, Experience and Logic’, in Barnes et al. (1982).

—— (1982b), ‘The Beliefs of a Pyrrhonist’, PCPS ns 28: 1–29.

—— (1983a), ‘Ancient Skepticism and Causation’, in Burnyeat (1983).

—— (1983b), ‘Immaterial Causes’, in OSAP 1: 169–92.

—— (1987a), Early Greek Philosophy (Harmondsworth).

—— (1987b), ‘An Aristotelian Way with Scepticism’, in Matthen (1987).

—— (1988), ‘Bits and Pieces’, in Barnes and Mignucci (1988).

(p.457) —— (1989), ‘Antiochus of Ascalon’, in Barnes and Griffin (1989).

—— (1990), The Toils of Scepticism (Cambridge).

—— (1994), Aristotle: Posterior Analytics (Oxford); 2nd edn. of Barnes (1975).

—— (ed.) (1995), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (Cambridge).

—— and Griffin, M. (eds.) (1989), Philosophia Togata (Oxford).

—— and Mignucci, M. (eds.) (1988), Matter and Metaphysics (Naples).

—— Schofield, M., and Sorabji, R. R. K. (eds.) (1975), Articles on Aristotle, i: Science (London).

—— —— —— (eds.) (1979a), Articles on Aristotle, iii: Metaphysics (London).

—— —— —— (eds.) (1979b), Articles on Aristotle, iv: Psychology and Aesthetics (London).

—— Burnyeat, M. F., and Schofield, M. (eds.) (1980), Doubt and Dogmatism (Oxford).

—— Brunschwig, J., Burnyeat, M. F., and Schofield, M. (eds.) (1982), Science and Speculation (Cambridge).

—— Mansfeld, J., and Schofield, M. (eds.) (1998), Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy (Cambridge).

Barrow, J. D. (1991), Theories of Everything (Oxford).

Bates, D. (ed.) (1995), Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions (Cambridge).

Bennett, J. (1988), Events and their Names (Indianapolis).

Berkeley, G. (1949–58), Complete Works, ed. A. A. Luce and T. E. Jessop, 9 vols. (London).

Berti, E. (ed.) (1981), Aristotle on Science: The Posterior Analytics, Proceedings of the VIII Symposium Aristotelicum (Padua).

Bett, R. (1986), ‘Immortality and the Nature of the Soul in the Phaedrus’, Phron. 31: 1–26.

Blacker, C., and Loewe, M. (eds.) (1975), Ancient Cosmologies (London).

Bluck, R. S. (1961), Plato'sMeno’ (Cambridge).

Bobzien, S. (1986), Die stoische Modallogik (Würzburg).

Bodnár, I. M. (1988), ‘Anaximander's Rings’, CQ ns 38: 49–51.

—— (1992), ‘Anaximander on the Stability of the Earth’, Phron. 37: 336–42.

Boese, H. (1960), Procli Tria Opuscula (Berlin).

Bolton, R. (1987), ‘Definition and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Posterior Analytics and Generation of Animals’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

Bostock, D. (1986), Plato's ‘Phaedo’ (Oxford).

Bouché–Leclercq, A. (1879–82), Histoire de la divination dans l'antiquité, 4 vols. (Paris).

—— (1899), L'Astrologie grecque (Paris).

Bourgey, L. (1953), Observation et expérience chez les médecins de la collection Hippocratique (Paris).

—— (1955), Observation et expérience chez Aristote (Paris).

—— (1975), ‘Observation and Experiment in Analogical Explanation’ (ch. 3 of Bourgey 1955, trans. into Eng.), in Barnes et al. (1975).

Bowersock, G. W. (1969), Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (Oxford). Bréhier, E. (1929), La Philosophie de Plotin (Paris).

Brock, A. J. (1929), Greek Medicine (London).

(p.458) Brody, B. (1972), ‘Towards an Aristotelian Theory of Explanation’, Philosophy of Science, 39: 20–31.

Bruns, I. (1887, 1892), Alexandri Aphrodisiensis Praeter Commentaria Scripta Minora, Supplementum Aristotelicum, 2 vols. (Berlin).

Brunschwig, J. (ed.) (1978), Les Stoïciens et leur logique (Paris).

—— (1980), ‘Proof Defined’, in Barnes et al. (1980).

—— and Nussbaum, M. C. (eds.) (1993), Passions and Perceptions (Cambridge and Paris).

Burkert, W. (1972), Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, Eng. trans. of German edn. 1962 (Cambridge, Mass.).

Burnet, J. (1892), Early Greek Philosophy (London).

Burnyeat, M. F. (1980), ‘Can the Sceptic Live his Scepticism?’, in Barnes et al. (1980); Burnyeat (1983).

—— (1981), ‘Aristotle on Understanding Knowledge’, in Berti (1981).

—— (1982), ‘The Origins of Non‐Deductive Inference’, in Barnes et al. (1982).

—— (ed.) (1983), The Skeptical Tradition (Berkeley, Calif.).

—— (1984), ‘The Sceptic in his Place and Time’, in Rorty et al. (1984).

—— (ed. and introd.) (1990), The ‘Theaetetus’ of Plato, trans. M. J. Levitt (Indianapolis).

Bury, R. G. (1933, 1935, 1936, 1949), Sextus Empiricus, Loeb Classical Library, 4 vols. (London).

Bussanich, J. (1990), The One and its Relation to Intellect in Plotinus (Leiden).

Carteron, H. (1923), La Notion de force dans le systéme d'Aristote (Paris).

—— (1975), ‘Does Aristotle have a Mechanics?’ (introd. to Carteron 1923, trans. into Eng.), in Barnes et al. (1975).

Centrone, B. (1990), Pseudopythagorica Ethica, Elenchos, xvii (Naples).

Charlton, W. (1970), Aristotle's ‘Physics’, Books 1 and 2 (Oxford).

Cherniss, H. F. (1935), Aristotle's Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy (Baltimore).

Christiansen de Groot, J. (1983), ‘Philoponus on De Anima 2. 5, Physics 3. 3, and the Propagation of Light’, Phron. 28: 177–96.

Cooper, J. M. (1982), ‘Aristotle on Natural Teleology’, in Schofield and Nussbaum (1982).

—— (1985), ‘Hypothetical Necessity’, in Gotthelf (1985).

—— (1987), ‘Hypothetical Necessity and Natural Teleology’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

Cornford, F. M. (1937), Plato's Cosmology (Cambridge).

—— (1970), ‘Was the Ionian Philosophy Scientific?’, in Furley and Allen (1970) first pub. in Cornford, Principium Sapientiae (Cambridge, 1952).

Daiber, H. (1985), ‘A Survey of Theophrastean Texts and Ideas in Arabic’, in Fortenbaugh et al. (1985).

—— (1992), ‘The Meteorology of Theophrastus in Syriac and Arabic Translation’, in Fortenbaugh and Gutas (1992).

Dancy, R. M. (1989), ‘Thales, Anaximander, and Infinity’, Apeiron, 22: 159–90.

Davidson, D. (1967), ‘Causal Relations’, JP 64: 691–703; repr. in Sosa (1975) and Davidson (1980).

—— (1980), Essays on Actions and Events (Oxford).

Decleva Caizzi, F. (1981), Pirrone: Testimonianze (Naples).

(p.459) de Groot, C. (1983), ‘Philoponus on de Anima II.5, Physics III.3, and the Propagation of Light’, Phron. 28: 177–96.

Deichgräber, K. (1930), Die griechische Empirikerschule: Sammlung und Darstellung der Lehre (Berlin).

De Lacy, P. (1972), ‘Galen's Platonism’, AJP 93: 27–39.

—— (1978–84), Galen: On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato, ed., trans., and comm., 3 vols.: CMG v. 4. 1. 2 (Berlin).

—— (1992), Galen: On Semen, ed., trans., and comm.: CMG v. 3. 1 (Berlin).

—— and E. (1978), Philodemus, On Methods of Inference, 2nd edn. (Naples).

Denyer, N. (1981), ‘Time and Modality in Diodorus Cronus’, Theoria, 47: 31–53.

des Places, E. (1956), Platon: Epinomis (Paris).

—— (1966), Jamblique: Les mystères d'Égypte (Paris).

—— (1973), Numenius: Fragments (Paris).

Dicks, D. R. (1959), ‘Thales’, CQ ns 9: 294–309.

—— (1970), Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle (Ithaca, NY).

Diehl, E. (1903–6), Procli In Platonis Timaeum Commentaria (Leipzig).

Diels, H. (1879), Doxographi Graeci (Berlin).

—— and Kranz, W. (1951), Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th edn. (Berlin).

Dijksterhuis, E. J. (1987), Archimedes, trans. C. Dikshoorn, 2nd edn. (Princeton).

Dillon, J. (1977), The Middle Platonists (London).

—— (1987), ‘Iamblichus of Chalcis’, ANRW ii. 36. 2: 863–909.

—— (1988), “ ‘Orthodoxy” and “Eclecticism”: Middle Platonists and Neo‐Pythagoreans’, in Dillon and Long (1988).

—— (1993), The Handbook of Alcinous (Oxford).

—— and Long, A. A. (eds.), (1988), The Question of ‘Eclecticism’ (Berkeley, Calif.).

Dobson, J. F. (1925), ‘Herophilus of Alexandria’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, Sect. Hist. Med., 18: 19–32.

—— (1927), ‘Erasistratus’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, Sect. Hist. Med., 20: 825–32.

Dodds, E. R. (1928), ‘The Parmenides of Plato and the Origins of the Neoplatonic One’, CQ 22: 129–43.

—— (1951), The Greeks and the Irrational (Berkeley, Calif.).

—— (1960), ‘Numenius and Ammonius’, in Gigon (1960).

—— (1963), Proclus: The Elements of Theology, 2nd edn. (Oxford).

—— (1972), The Ancient Concept of Progress (Oxford).

Donagan, A., Perovich, A. N. and Wedin, M. (eds.) (1986), Human Nature and Natural Knowledge (Dordrecht).

Donini, P. L. (1971), ‘L'anima e gli elemente nel de Anima di Alessandro di Afrodisia’, Atti del'Accademia dei Scienze di Torino, 2/105: 98–107.

—— (1974), Tre studi sull'aristotelismo nel II secolo d.C (Turin).

—— (1975), ‘Fata e voluntà umana in Crisippo’, Atti del'Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, 109: 1–44.

—— (1987), ‘De fato di Alessandro: questioni di coerenza’, ANRW ii. 36. 2: 1244–59.

Drabkin, I. E. (1942), ‘Posidonius and the Circumference of the Earth’, Isis, 34: 509–12.

(p.460) Drabkin, I. E. (ed. and trans.) (1950), Caelius Aurelianus on Acute and Chronic Diseases (Baltimore).

Drake, S. (1957), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (New York).

Dreyer, J. L. E. (1906), History of Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler (Cambridge).

Drossaart Lulofs, H. (1965), Nicolaus Damascenus: On the Philosophy of Aristotle (Leiden).

Ducasse, C. J. (1926), ‘On the Nature and Observability of the Causal Relation’, JP 23; repr. in Sosa (1975).

Duckworth, W. H. L., Lyons, M. C., and Towers, B. (1962), Galen on Anatomical Procedures: The Later Books (Cambridge).

Duhem, P. (1913), Le Système du monde (Paris).

Duhot, J.‐J. (1989), La Conception Stoicienne de la causalité (Paris).

Dummett, M. (1954/1978a), ‘Can an Effect Precede its Cause?’, in Dummett (1978d).

—— (1964/1978b), ‘Bringing about the Past’, in Dummett (1978d).

—— (1970/1978c), ‘Wang's Paradox’, in Dummett (1978d).

—— (1978d), Truth and Other Enigmas (Oxford).

Düring, I. (1944), Aristotle's Chemical Treatise: Meteorologica Book IV (Göteborg).

Edelstein, L. (1936), ‘The Philosophical System of Posidonius’, AJP 57: 286–325.

—— (1967), Ancient Medicine (Baltimore).

—— and Kidd, I. G. (1972), Posidonius, i. The Fragments (Cambridge).

Edwards, M. J. (1990), ‘Porphyry and the Intelligible Triad’, JHS 110: 14–25.

Ellis, J. (1988), ‘The Aporematic Character of Theophrastus'Metaphysics’, in Fortenbaugh and Sharples (1988).

Engman, J. (1991), ‘Cosmic Justice in Anaximander’, Phron. 36: 1–25.

Everson, S. (ed.) (1990), Epistemology, Companions to Ancient Thought, i (Cambridge).

—— (ed.) (1991), Psychology, Companions to Ancient Thought, ii (Cambridge).

Ferejohn, M. (1991), The Origins of Aristotelian Science (New Haven).

Festa, N. (1891), Iamblichus: de Communi Mathematica Scientia Liber (Leipzig).

Fine, G. (1987), ‘Forms as Causes: Plato and Aristotle’, in Graeser (1987).

Flashar, H. (ed.) (1983), Die Philosophie der Antike, iii (Basel and Stuttgart).

Fortenbaugh, W. W., and Gutas, D. (eds.) (1992), Theophrastus: His Psychological, Doxographical and Scientific Writings, RUSCH v (New Brunswick and Oxford).

—— and Sharples, R. W. (eds.) (1988), Theophrastean Studies: On Natural Science, Physics, Metaphysics, Ethics, Religion and Rhetoric, RUSCH iii (New Brunswick and Oxford).

—— Huby, P. M., and Long, A. A. (eds.) (1985), Theophrastus of Eresus: On his Life and Work, RUSCH ii (New Brunswick and Oxford).

—— —— Sharples, R. W., and Gutas, D. (eds.) (1992), Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for his Life, Writings, Thought, and Influence, (= FHS&G) 2 vols. (Leiden).

Fraser, P. M. (1969), ‘The Career of Erasistratus of Ceos’, Rendiconti del' Istituto Lombardo, Let., Sci., Mor., e Stor., 103: 518–37.

(p.461) —— (1972), Ptolemaic Alexandria, 3 vols. (Oxford).

Frede, D. (1978), ‘The Final Proof of the Immortality of the Soul in Plato's Phaedo 102a–107a’, Phron. 23: 24–41.

—— (1985), ‘Aristotle on the Limits of Determinism: Accidental Causes in Metaphysics E 3’, in Gotthelf (1985).

Frede, M. (1974), Die stoische Logik (Göttingen).

—— (1979), ‘Des skeptikers Meinungen’, Neue Hefte für Philosophie, 15/16; Eng. trans. in Frede (1987a).

—— (1980), ‘The Original Notion of Cause’, in Barnes et al. (1980).

—— (1981), ‘Galen's Epistemology’, in Nutton (1981).

—— (1982), ‘On the Method of the So‐called Methodical School of Medicine’, in Barnes et al. (1982).

—— (1983), ‘Stoics and Skeptics on Clear and Distinct Impressions’, in Burnyeat (1983).

—— (1984), ‘The Skeptic's Two Types of Assent and the Possibility of Knowledge’, in Rorty et al. (1984).

—— (1985a), Galen: Three Treatises on the Nature of Science (Indianapolis).

—— (1985b), ‘Substance in Aristotle's Metaphysics’, in Gotthelf (1985); repr. in Frede (1987a).

—— (1986), ‘Philosophy and Medicine in Antiquity’, in Donagan et al. (1986).

—— (1987a), Essays in Ancient Philosophy (Oxford); contains all previously cited articles.

—— (1987b), ‘The Ancient Empiricists’, in Frede (1987a).

—— (1987c), ‘Numenius’, ANRW ii, 36. 2: 1034–75.

—— (1988), ‘The Empiricist Attitude towards Reason and Theory’, in Hankinson (1988e).

—— (1990), ‘An Empiricist View of Knowledge: Memorism’, in Everson (1990).

Freeland, C. (1991), ‘Accidental Causes and Real Explanations’, in Judson (1991b).

Furley, D. J. (1966), ‘Lucretius and the Stoics’, BICS 13: 13–33.

—— (1967), Two Studies in the Greek Atomists (Princeton).

—— (1973), ‘Notes on Parmenides’, in Lee et al. (1973); repr. in Furley (1989).

—— (1976a), ‘Aristotle and the Atomists on Motion in a Void’, in Machamer and Turnbull (1976); repr. in Furley (1989).

—— (1976b), ‘Anaxagoras in Response to Parmenides’, in Shiner and King‐Farlow (1976).

—— (1983), ‘Weight and Motion in Democritus' Theory’, OSAP 1: 193–209.

—— (1985), ‘The Rainfall Example in Physics II. 8’, in Gotthelf (1985); repr. in Furley (1989).

—— (1987a), ‘The Cosmological Crisis in Antiquity’, BACAP 2/1: 19; repr. in Furley (1989).

—— (1987b), The Greek Cosmologists, i (Cambridge).

—— (1989a), ‘The Dynamics of the Earth: Anaximander, Plato, and the Centrifocal Theory’, in Furley (1989b).

—— (1989b), Cosmic Problems (Cambridge).

—— (ed.) (1998), Routledge History of Philosophy, ii: Aristotle to Augustine (London).

(p.462) Furley, D. J. and Allen, R. E. (eds.), (1970, 1975), Studies in Presocratic Philosophy, 2 vols. (London).

—— and Wildberg, C. (1991), Place, Void, and Eternity: ‘Philoponus: Corollaries on Place and Void’, trans. D. Furley, with ‘Simplicius: Against Philoponus on the Eternity of the World’, trans. C. Wildberg (London).

—— and Wilkie, J. S. (1984), Galen on Respiration and the Arteries (Princeton). Furth, M. (1968), ‘Elements of Eleatic Ontology’, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 7: 111–32.

Gagarin, M. (1990), ‘The Ancient Tradition on the Identity of Antiphon’, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 31: 27–44.

Gallop, D. (1975), Plato: Phaedo (Oxford).

—— (1984), Parmenides of Elea: Fragments, Phoenix, Suppl. Vol. 18 (Toronto).

Garofalo, I. (1986), Galeni de Anatomicis Administrationibus I–IV (Pisa).

—— (1988), Erasistrato (Pisa).

—— (1991), ‘The Six Classes of Animals in Galen’, in López Férez (1991).

Gaukroger, S. (1978), Explanatory Structures (Atlantic Highlands, NJ).

Geach, P. M. (1969), God and the Soul (London).

—— (1972), Logic Matters (Oxford).

Gentzler, J. (1991), ‘Sumphōnein in Plato's Phaedo’, Phron. 36: 265–77.

Gigon, O., et al. (1960), Les Sources de Plotin, Entretiens sur l'Antiquité Classique, Fondation Hardt, v (Vandœvres, Geneva).

Gill, M. L. (1980), ‘Aristotle's Theory of Causal Action in Physics III. 3’, Phron. 25: 129–47.

—— (1987), ‘Matter and Flux in Plato's Timaeus’, Phron. 32: 34–53.

—— (1989), Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity (Princeton). Gingerich, O. (1980), ‘Was Ptolemy a Fraud?’, QJRAS 21: 253–66.

—— (1981), ‘Ptolemy Revisited: A Reply to R. R. Newton’, QJRAS 22: 40–4.

Glucker, J. (1978), Antiochus and the Late Academy, Hypomnemata, 56 (Göttingen).

—— (1988), ‘Cicero's Philosophical Affiliations’, in Dillon and Long (1988).

Goodman, N. (1954), Fact, Fiction and Forecast (Atlantic Highlands, NJ).

Gosling, J. C. B. (1975), Plato: Philebus (Oxford).

Gotthelf, A. (1976), ‘Aristotle's Conception of Final Causality’, RM 30: 226–54; repr. in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

—— (ed.) (1985), Aristotle on Nature and Living Things (Bristol).

—— and Lennox, J. G. (eds.) (1987), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology (Cambridge).

Gottschalk, H. B. (1980), Heraclides of Pontus (Oxford).

—— (1987), ‘Aristotelian Philosophy in the Roman World’, ANRW ii. 36. 2: 1079–1174.

Goulet, R. (1980), Cléomède: Théorie Élémentaire (Paris).

Graeser, A. (ed.) (1987), Mathematik und Metaphysik bei Aristoteles (Berne).

Grünbaum, A. (1968), Modern Science and Zeno's Paradoxes (London).

Guthrie, W. K. C. (1957), ‘Aristotle as an Historian of Philosophy’, JHS 77: 35–41; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970).

—— (1962–81), A History of Greek Philosophy, 6 vols. (Cambridge).

—— (1971), The Sophists (Cambridge).

(p.463) Hadot, P. (1960), ‘La Métaphysique de Porphyre’, in Porphyre, Entretiens sur l'Antiquité Classique, Fondation Hardt, xii (Vandœuvres, Geneva).

Hahm, D. E. (1977), The Origins of Stoic Cosmology (Columbus, Ohio).

Hankinson, R. J. (1987a), ‘Evidence, Externality and Antecedence’, Phron. 32: 80–100.

—— (1987b), ‘Causes and Empiricism’, Phron. 32: 329–48.

—— (1988a), ‘Stoicism, Science and Divination’, in Hankinson (1988e).

—— (1988b), ‘Galen Explains the Elephant’, in Matthen and Linsky (1988e).

—— (1988c), ‘Science and Certainty: The Central Issues’, in Hankinson (1988e).

—— (1988d), ‘Galien: La médecine et la philosophie antisceptique’, Revue de Philosophie Ancienne, 6/2: 229–69.

—— (ed.) (1988e), Method, Medicine, and Metaphysics (Edmonton).

—— (1989), ‘Galen and the Best of all Possible Worlds’, CQ ns 39: 206–27.

—— (1990a), ‘Saying the Phenomena’, Phron. 35: 194–215 (critical notice of von Staden 1989).

—— (1990b), ‘Perception and Evaluation: Aristotle on the Moral Imagination’, Dialogue, 19: 41–63.

—— (1991a), ‘Greek Medical Models of the Mind’, in Everson (1991).

—— (1991b), Galen on the Therapeutic Method: Books 1 and 2 (Oxford).

—— (1991c), ‘Galen's Anatomy of the Soul’, Phron. 36: 197–233.

—— (1991d), ‘Galen on the Foundations of Science’, in López Férez (1991).

—— (1992a), ‘Implications of Immortality’, BACAP 6: 1–32.

—— (1992b), ‘Galen's Philosophical Ecleticism’, ANRW ii. 36. 5: 3505–22.

—— (1992c), ‘Doing without Hypotheses: The Nature of Ancient Medicine’, in López Férez (1992).

—— (1993), ‘Actions and Passions’, in Brunschwig and Nussbaum (1993).

—— (1994a), ‘Galen's Theory of Causation’, ANRW ii. 37. 2: 1757–74.

—— (1994b), ‘Galen's Anatomical Procedures’, ANRW ii. 37. 2: 1834–55.

—— (1995a), The Sceptics (London).

—— (1995b), ‘Science’, in Barnes (1995).

—— (1995c), ‘Philosophy of Science’, in Barnes (1995).

—— (1995d), ‘The Growth of Medical Empiricism’, in Bates (1995).

—— (1995e), ‘Pollution and Infection: An Hypothesis Still‐Born’, Apeiron, 28: 25–65. ——(1996), ‘Cicero's Rope’, in Algra et al. (1997).

—— (1997a), ‘Sēmeion e tekmērion: L'evoluzione del vocabulario di segni e indicazioni nella Grecia classica’, in S. Settis (ed.), I Greci, ii/2: (Turin), 1169–87.

—— (1998a), ‘Explanation and Cause’, in Barnes et al. (1998).

—— (1998b), ‘Determinism and Indeterminism’, in Barnes et al. (1998).

—— (1998c), Galen on Antecedent Causes (Cambridge).

—— (1998d), ‘Hellenistic Biological Science’, in Furley (1998).

Harré, R. (1972), The Philosophies of Science (Oxford).

—— and Madden, E. H. (1975), Causal Powers (Oxford).

Hart, H. L. A., and Honoré, A. M. (1985), Causation in the Law, 2nd edn. (Oxford).

Hawking, S. (1988), A Brief History of Time (London).

(p.464) Heath, T. L. (1913), Aristarchus of Samos (Oxford).

—— (1921), History of Greek Mathematics, 2 vols. (Oxford).

—— (1932), Greek Astronomy (London).

Heinrich, D., Schulz, W., Volkmann‐Schluck, K. H. (eds.) (1960), Die Gegenwart der Griechen im neueren Denken, Festchrift H.‐G. Gadamer (Tübingen).

Heinze, R. (1892), Xenokrates (Leipzig; repr. Hildesheim, 1965).

Helmreich, G. (1893), Galeni Pergameni Opera Minora, iii (Leipzig).

—— (1907–9), Galenus: de Usu Partium, 2 vols. (Leipzig).

Hempel, C. G. (1965), Aspects of Scientific Explanation (London).

Henry, P. (1931), ‘La Liberté chez Plotin’, Revue Néoscholastique de Philosophie, 33: 50–79.

—— and Schwyzer, H.‐R. (1951–67), Plotinus: Editio Maior, 3 vols. (Paris).

—— (1962–82), Plotinus: Editio Minor, 3 vols. (Oxford).

Hermann, J. (1853), Platonis Dialogi Secundum Thrasylli Tetralogias Dispositi, vi (Leipzig).

Hesse, M. (1961), Forces and Fields (London).

Hiller, E. (1878), Theo Smyrnaeus: Expositio Rerum Mathematicarum (Leipzig).

Hintikka, K. J. J. (1973), Time and Necessity (Oxford).

Hocutt, M. (1974), ‘Aristotle's Four Becauses’, Philosophy, 49: 385–99.

Huby, P., and Neal, G. (eds.) (1989), The Criterion of Truth (Liverpool).

Hume, D. (1739–40), A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L. A. Selby‐Bigge (1888); 2nd edn. rev. P. H. Nidditch (Oxford, 1978).

—— (1748), Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, ed. L. A. Selby‐Bigge (1893); 3rd edn. rev. P. H. Nidditch (Oxford, 1975).

Hussey, E. (1972), The Presocratics (London).

—— (1983), Aristotle's ‘Physics’, Books 3 and 4 (Oxford).

Hutchinson, D. S. (1988), ‘Doctrines of the Mean and the Debate concerning Skills in Fourth‐Century Medicine, Rhetoric, and Ethics’, in Hankinson (1988).

Inwood, B. (1985), Ethics and Human Action in Early Stoicism (Oxford).

Ioppolo, A. M. (1986), Opinione e scienza (Naples).

—— (1988), ‘Le cause antecedente in Cic. de Fato 40’, in Barnes and Mignucci (1988).

Irwin, T. H. (1988), Aristotle's First Principles (Oxford).

Isaac, D. (1977), Proclus: Trois études sur la Providence I: Dix problèmes concernant la Providence (Paris).

Isnardi Parente, M. (1980), Speusippo: Frammenti (Naples).

—— (1982), Senocrate, Ermodoro: Frammenti (Naples).

Jaeger, W. (1938), Diokles von Karystos (Berlin).

Jones, W. H. S. (ed. and trans.) (1922), Hippocrates I, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

—— (1923), Hippocrates II, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

—— (1931), Hippocrates IV, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

—— (1946), Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece, Suppl. l, BHM 8 (Baltimore).

(p.465) Judson, L. (1991a), ‘Chance and “Always or for the Most Part” in Aristotle’, in Judson (1991b).

—— (ed.) (1991b), Essays on Aristotle's ‘Physics’ (Oxford).

Kalbfleisch, K. (1904), Galeni de Causis Continentibus: CMG Supp. I. (Berlin).

Kahn, C. H. (1960), Anaximander and the Origins of Greek Comsology (New York).

—— (1966), ‘The Greek Verb “to be” and the Concept of Being’, Foundations of Language, 2: 245–65.

—— (1968–9), ‘The Thesis of Parmenides’, RM 22: 700–24.

—— (1969–70), ‘More on Parmenides’, RM 23: 333–40.

—— (1974), ‘The Universe Governed by Law’ (ch. 3 of Kahn 1960); repr. in Mourelatos (1974).

—— (1985), ‘The Place of the Prime Mover in Aristotle's Teleology’, in Gotthelf (1985).

Kerferd, G. B. (1981), The Sophistic Movement (Cambridge).

Keyt, D. (1963), ‘The Fallacies in Phaedo 102a–107b’, Phron. 8: 167–72.

Kidd, I. G. (1989), ‘Posidonius and Philosopher‐Historian’, in Barnes and Griffin (1989).

—— and Edelstein, L. (1972), Posidonius: The Fragments (Cambridge).

King, H. R. (1956), ‘Aristotle without prima materia , Journal of the History of Ideas, 17: 370–89.

Kirk, G. S. (1955), ‘Some Problems in Anaximander’, CQ ns 5: 21–38; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970).

—— Raven, J. E., and Schofield, M. (1983), The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge).

Klibansky, R. (1953), Plato Latinus vol. iii (London).

Kripke, S. (1980), Naming and Necessity, 2nd edn. (Oxford).

Kudlien, F. (1962), ‘Posidonios und die Ärzteschule der Pneumatiker’, Hermes, 90: 419–29.

—— (1971), ‘Herophilus und der Beginn der medizinischen Skepsis’, in Gesnerus 21, 1–13.

—— (1974), ‘Dialektik und Medizin in der Antike’, Medizinhistorisches Journal, 9 (1974), 187–200.

Kühn, C. G. (1821–33), Galeni Opera Omnia, 20 vols. (Leipzig; repr. Hildesheim, 1966).

Kuhn, T. S. (1970), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn. (Chicago).

—— (1977), The Essential Tension (Chicago).

Kullmann, W. (1974), Wissenschaft und Methode (Berlin).

—— (1979), Die Teleologie in der Aristotelischen Biologie, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.–hist. Kl., Jahrgang 1979, 2 (Heidelberg).

—— (1985), ‘Different Concepts of the Final Cause in Aristotle’, in Gotthelf (1985).

Laffranque, M. (1964), Poseidonios d'Apamée: Essai de mise au point (Paris).

Lakatos, I. (1970), ‘The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes’, in Lakatos and Musgrave (1970).

(p.466) Lakatos, I. and Musgrave, A. (eds.) (1970), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (Cambridge).

Lang, P. (1911), De Speusippi Academic Scriptis (Bonn; repr. Frankfurt, 1964).

Lapidge, M. (1978), ‘Stoic Cosmology’, in Rist (1978).

Laursen, S. (1988), ‘Epicurus'On Nature Book XXV: Long–Sedley 20b, c and j’, Cronache Ercolanesi, 18: 7–18.

Lee, E. N., Mourelatos, A. P. D., and Rorty, R. (eds.) (1973), Exegesis and Argument, Phron. Suppl. Vol. 1.

Lejeune, A. (1956), L'Optique de Claude Ptolemée (Louvain).

Lennox, J. (1985), ‘Theophrastus on the Limits of Teleology’, in Fortenbaugh et al. (1985).

—— (1987), ‘Divide and Explain: The Posterior Analytics in Practice’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

Lesher, J. H. (1978), ‘Xenophanes' Scepticism’, Phron. 23: 1–21.

—— (1992), Xenophanes of Colophon: Fragments, Phoenix, Suppl. Vol. 30 (Toronto).

Littré, E. (1839–61), Œuvres Complètes d'Hippocrate, 10 vols. (Paris).

Lloyd, A. C. (1976), ‘The Principle that the Cause is Greater than its Effect’, Phron. 21: 146–56.

—— (1990), The Anatomy of Neoplatonism (Oxford).

Lloyd, G. E. R. (1964), ‘Experiment in Early Greek Philosophy and Medicine’, PCPS ns 10: 50–72; repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1966), Polarity and Analogy (Cambridge).

—— (1967), ‘Popper versus Kirk: A Controversy in the Interpretation of Greek Science’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 18: 21–38; repr. In G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1968), ‘Plato as a Natural Scientist’, JHS 88: 78–92.

—— (1970), Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle (London).

—— (1973), Greek Science after Aristotle (London).

—— (1975a), ‘A Note on Erasistratus of Ceos’, JHS 95: 172–5.

—— (1975b), ‘Alcmaeon and the Early History of Dissection’, Sudhoffs Archiv, 59: 113–47; repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1975c), ‘The Hippocratic Question’, CQ ns 25: 171–92; repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1975d), ‘Greek Cosmologies’, in Blacker and Loewe (1975); repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1978), ‘Saving the Appearances’, CQ ns 28: 202–22; repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (ed.) (1978b), Hippocratic Writings (Harmondsworth).

—— (1979), Magic, Reason and Experience (Cambridge).

—— (1982a), ‘The Debt of Greek Philosophy and Science to the Ancient Near East’, Pedilavium, 14: 1–19; repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1982b), ‘Observational Error in Later Greek Science’, in Barnes et al. (1982); repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

—— (1983a), ‘Plato on Mathematics, Nature, Myth, and Science’, Humanities, International Christian University Publication IV–B, 18: 11–30 (Mitaka, Tokyo); repr. in G. E. R. Lloyd (1991).

(p.467) —— (1983b), Science, Folklore and Ideology (Cambridge).

—— (1987), The Revolutions of Wisdom (Berkeley, Calif.).

—— (1991), Methods and Problems in Greek Science, Collected Papers (Cambridge).

Lloyd‐Jones, H. (1971), The Justice of Zeus (Berkeley, Calif.).

Locke, J. (1690), An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. J. M. Yolton (London, 1961).

Long, A. A. (1970), ‘Stoic Determinism and Alexander of Aphrodisias'de Fato i–xiv’, AGP 52: 247–68.

—— (ed.) (1971), Problems in Stoicism (London).

—— (1974), Hellenistic Philosophy (London).

—— (1975–6), ‘Heraclitus and Stoicism’, Philosophia, 5–6: 133–56.

—— (1982), ‘Astrology: Arguments Pro and Contra’, in Barnes et al. (1982).

—— (1988), ‘Ptolemy On the Criterion’, in Dillon and Long (1988); repr. in Huby and Neal (1989).

—— and Sedley, D. N. (eds.) (1987), The Hellenistic Philosophers, 2 vols. (Cambridge).

Longrigg, J. (1971), ‘Erasistratus’, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, iv. 382–6.

—— (1972), ‘Herophilus’, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vi. 316–19.

Lonie, I. M. (1964), ‘Erasistratus, the Erasistrateans, and Aristotle’, BHM 38: 426–43.

—— (1978), ‘Cos versus Cnidus and the Historians’, History of Science, 16: 42–75, 77–92.

López Férez, J. A. (ed.) (1991), Galeno: Obra, Pensamiento y Influencia (Madrid).

—— (ed.) (1992), Tratados Hipocráticos: Actas del VII Colloque Internationale Hippocratique (Madrid).

Luck, G. (1953), Der Akademiker Antiochus, Noctes Romanae, 7 (Bern and Stuttgart).

Lynch, J. P. (1972), Aristotle's School (Berkeley).

Lyons, M. C. (1969), Galeni de Causis Contentivis, CMG Supp. Or. II (Berlin).

McDiarmid, J. B. (1953), ‘Theophrastus on the Presocratic Causes’, HSCP 61: 85–156; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970).

McDowell, J. (1973), Plato: Theaetetus (Oxford).

Machamer, P., and Turnbull, R. J. (eds.) (1976), Motion and Time, Space and Matter (Columbus, Ohio).

Mackie, J. L. (1966), ‘The Direction of Causation’, American Philosophical Journal, 75: 441–66.

—— (1974), The Cement of the Universe (Oxford).

—— (1975), ‘Causes and Conditions’, in Sosa (1975).

McKirahan, R. (1992), Principles and Proofs (Princeton).

Makin, S. (1991), ‘An Ancient Principle about Causation’, PAS 91: 135–22.

—— (1993), Indifference Arguments (Oxford).

Manitius, C. (1898), Gemini Elementa Astronomiae (Leipzig).

—— (1974), Procli Diadochi Hypotyposis Astronomicarum Positionum (Stuttgart).

Mansfeld, J. (1985a), ‘Myth, Science, Philosophy: A Question of Origins’, in U. K. Goldsmith and P. K. Kenevan (eds.), Hypatia, Festschrift for Hazel E. Barnes (Boulder, Colo.); repr. in Mansfeld (1990b).

(p.468) Mansfeld, J. (1985b), ‘Aristotle and Others on Thales, or the Beginnings of Natural Philosophy; with Some Remarks on Xenophanes’, Mnemosyne, 38: 109–29; repr. in Mansfeld (1990b).

—— (1988a), ‘Compatible Alternatives: Middle Platonist Theology and the Xenophanes Reception’, in R. van den Broek, T. Baarda, and J. Mansfeld (eds.), Knowledge of God in the Greco‐Roman World (Leiden); repr. in Mansfeld (1990b).

—— (1988b), ‘De Melisso, Xenophane, Gorgia: Pyrrhonizing Aristotelianism’, Rheinisches Museum, 131: 239–76; repr. in Mansfeld (1990b).

—— (1989), ‘Chrysippus and the Placita’, Phron. 34: 211–42.

—— (1990a), ‘Doxography and Dialectic: The Sitz im Leben of the Placita’, ANRW ii. 36. 4: 3056–229.

—— (1990b), Studies in the Historiography of Greek Philosophy (Assen).

—— (1992a), ‘A Theophrastean Excursus on God and Nature and its Aftermath in Hellenistic Thought’, Phron. 37: 314–35.

—— (1992b), ‘Phusikai doxai for Aristotle to Aëtius (and Beyond)’, in Fortenbaugh and Gutas (1992).

Marcus, R. (1953), Questions and Answers on Genesis, Philo Suppl. I, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

Marx, F. (1915), A. Cornelii Celsi Quae Supersunt (Berlin).

Matthen, M. (1987a), ‘Individual Substances as Hylomorphic Complexes’, in Matthen (1987).

—— (ed.) (1987b), Aristotle Today (Edmonton, Alberta).

—— (1988), ‘Empiricism and Ontology in Ancient Medicine’, in Hankinson (1988e).

—— and Hankinson, R. J. (1993), ‘Aristotle's Universe: Its Form and Matter’, Synthese, 96/3: 417–35.

—— and Linsky, B. (eds.) (1988), Philosophy and Biology, CJP Suppl. Vol. 14 (Edmonton, Alberta).

May, M. T. (1967), Galen on the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body (Ithaca, NY).

Merlan, P. (1960), From Platonism to Neo‐Platonism, 2nd edn. (The Hague).

Mignucci, M. (1965), La teoria aristotelica della scienza (Padua).

—— (1978), ‘Sur la logique modale des stoïciens’, in Brunschwig (1978).

—— (1981), ‘hōs epi to polu et nécessaire dans la conception aristotélicienne de la science’, in Berti (1981).

Modrak, D. K. W. (1987), Aristotle: The Power of Perception (Chicago).

Monro, D. B. (1897), Homer: Iliad, Books XIII–XXIV, 4th edn. (Oxford).

Moore, A. W. (1991), The Infinite (London).

Moraux, P. (1942), Alexandre d'Aphrodise, exégète de la noétique d'Aristote (Paris).

—— (1973, 1984), Der Aristotelismus bei den Greichen, 2 vols. (Berlin).

—— (1981), ‘Galien comme philosophe’, in Nutton (1981).

—— (1985), ‘Galen on Aristotle's de Partibus Animalium’, in Gotthelf (1985).

Moravcsik, J. (1974), ‘Aristotle on Adequate Explanations’, Synthese, 28: 3–18.

—— (1975), ‘Aitia as Generative Factor in Aristotle's Philosophy’, Dialogue, 14: 622–38.

(p.469) —— (1991), ‘What Makes Reality Intelligible? Reflections on Aristotle's Theory of aitia’, in Judson (1991).

Mourelatos, A. P. D. (1965), ‘The Real, Appearances, and Human Error in Early Greek Philosophy’, RM 19: 346–65.

—— (1970), The Route of Parmenides (New Haven).

—— (ed.) (1974), The Pre‐Socratics (Garden City, NJ; 2nd edn. Princeton, 1994).

—— (1981), ‘Pre‐Socratic Origins of the Principle that there are no Origins of Nothing’, JP 78: 649–65.

—— (1984), ‘Aristotle's Rationalist Account of Qualitative Interaction’, Phron. 29: 1–162.

—— (1987), ‘Quality, Structure, and Emergence in Later Pre‐Socratic Philosophy’, BACAP 2: 127–94.

—— (1989), ‘ “X is really Y”: The Ionian Origins of a Thought‐Pattern’, in K. J. Boudouris (ed.), Ionian Philosophy, Studies in Greek Philosophy, i (Athens).

Mure, G. R. G. (1975), ‘Cause and Because in Aristotle’, Philosophy, 50: 356–7.

Nagel, E. (1961), The Structure of Science (London).

—— (1979), Teleology Revisited (New York).

Nasti de Vincentis, M. (1981), ‘Logica scettica e implicazione stoica’, in Giannantoni (1981).

—— (1984), ‘Stopper on Nasti's Contention and Stoic Logic’, Phron. 29: 313–24.

Neugebauer, O. (1957), The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, 2nd edn. (Providence, RI).

—— (1972), ‘On Some Aspects of Greek Astronomy’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 116: 243–51.

Newton, R. R. (1977), The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy (Baltimore and London).

—— (1980), ‘Comments on “Was Ptolemy a Fraud?” by Owen Gingerich’, QJRAS 21: 388–99.

Newton Smith, W. H. (1980), The Rationality of Science (Oxford).

Nussbaum, M. C. (1978), Aristotle: de Motu Animalium (Princeton).

—— (1986), The Fragility of Goodness (Cambridge).

Nutton, V. (1972), ‘Galen and Medical Autobiography’, PCPS ns 18: 50–62.

—— (1973), ‘The Chronology of Galen's Early Career’, CQ ns 23: 158–71.

—— (ed.) (1981), Galen: Problems and Prospects (London).

O'Brien, D. (1967), ‘The Last Argument of Plato's Phaedo (i)’, CQ ns 17: 198–231.

—— (1968), ‘The Last Argument of Plato's Phaedo (ii)’, CQ ns 18: 95–106.

—— (1981), Theories of Weight in the Ancient World, i: Democritus (Leiden).

—— (1984), Theories of Weight in the Ancient World, ii: Plato (Leiden).

O'Keefe, T. J. (1997), ‘Epicurus on Reduction, Determinism and Freedom’, University of Texas at Austin, Ph.D. thesis.

O'Meara, D. J. (1993), Plotinus: An Introduction to the Enneads (Oxford).

O'Neil, W. M. (1986), Early Astronomy (Sydney).

Owen, G. E. L. (1960), ‘Eleatic Questions’, CQ ns 10: 84–102; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970) and Owen (1986).

—— (1975), ‘Tithenai ta phainomena’, in Barnes et al. (1975) and Owen (1986).

—— (1986), Collected Papers, ed. M. C. Nussbaum (London).

(p.470) Peck, A. L. (trans.) (1933), Aristotle: Parts of Animals (Cambridge, Mass. and London).

——(trans.) (1970), Aristotle: Historia Animalium (Cambridge, Mass. and London).

Pellegrin, P. (1982), La Classification des animaux chez Aristote (Paris).

—— (1985), ‘Aristotle: A Zoology without Species’, in Gotthelf (1985).

—— (1986), Aristotle's Classification of Animals (trans. by A. Preuss of Pellegrin 1982) (Calif.).

—— (1987), ‘Logical Difference and Biological Difference: The Unity of Aristotle's Thought’, in Gotthelf and Lennox (1987).

Philips, E. D. (1973), Aspects of Greek Medicine (New York).

Pines, S. (1961), ‘Omne quod movetur necesse est ab aliquo moveri: A Refutation of Galen by Alexander of Aphrodisias, and the Theory of Motion’, Isis, 52: 21–54.

Pitt, J. C. (ed.) (1988), Theories of Explanation (Oxford).

Popper, K. R. (1958), ‘Back to the Presocratics’, PAS ns 59: 1–24.

—— (1959), The Logic of Scientific Discovery (trans. of Logik der Forschung, 1934) (London).

—— (1963), Conjectures and Refutations (London).

Potter, P. (1983), Hippocrates V, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

—— (1988), Hippocrates VI, Loeb Classical Library (London and Cambridge, Mass.).

Prior, A. W. (1955–8), ‘Diodoran Modalities’, PQ 5: 203–13; 8: 226–30.

Pritchard, J. B. (1969), Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 3rd edn. (Princeton).

Putnam, H. (1974), ‘The “Corroboration” of Theories’, in Schilpp (1974).

—— (1975), ‘The Meaning of “Meaning” ’, in Putnam, Mind, Language and Reality, Collected Papers, i (Cambridge).

—— (1993), Theophrastus: Metaphysics (Leiden).

Rawlings, H. R. (1975), A Semantic Study of PROPHASIS to 400 BC, Hermes Einzelschriften, 33 (Wiesbaden).

Rawson, E. (1982), ‘The Life and Death of Asclepiades of Bythinia’, CQ ns 32: 2.

—— (1985), Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic (London).

Reale, G. (1974), Aristotle: de Mundo (Naples).

Reesor, M. E. (1978), ‘Necessity and Fate in Stoic Philosophy’, in Rist (1978).

Reinhardt, K. (1916), Parmenides und die Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie (Bonn).

Repici, L. (1990), ‘Limits of Teleology in Theophrastus’, AGP 72: 182–213.

Rescher, N., and Marmurra, M. E. (1965), The Refutation by Alexander of Aphrodisias of Galen's Treatise on the Theory of Motion (Islamabad; 2nd edn. London, 1971).

Rist, J. M. (1962), ‘The Indefinite Dyad and Intelligible Matter in Plotinus’, CQ ns 12: 99–107.

—— (1967), Plotinus: The Road to Reality (Cambridge).

—— (1969), Stoic Philosophy (Cambridge).

—— (ed.) (1978), The Stoics (Berkeley, Calif.).

Robin, L. (1910), ‘La Conception aristotélicienne de la causalité’, AGP 23: 1–28, 184–210.

(p.471) —— (1944), Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec (Paris).

Robinson, H. M. (1974), ‘Prime Matter in Aristotle’, Phron. 19: 168–88.

Robinson, R. (1953), Plato's Earlier Dialectic (Oxford).

—— (1969), Essays in Greek Philosophy (Oxford).

Rorty, R., Schneewind, J., and Skinner, Q. (eds.) (1984), Philosophy in History (Cambridge).

Ross, W. D. (1924), Aristotle's Metaphysics, 2 vols. (Oxford).

—— (1936), Aristotle's Physics (Oxford).

—— and Fobes, F. H. (1929), Theophrastus' Metaphysics (Oxford).

Ruben, D.‐H. (1991), Explaining Explanation (London).

Runia, D. (1990), Exegesis and Philosophy: Studies on Philo of Alexandria (Aldershot).

Russell, B. (1912), ‘On the Notion of Cause’, PAS 13 (1912–13), 1–26; repr. in Russell (1918).

—— (1918), Mysticism and Logic (New York).

—— (1945), A History of Western Philosophy (London).

Salmon, W. C. (ed.) (1970), Zeno's Paradoxes (Indianapolis).

Sambursky, S. (1956), The Physical World of the Greeks (London).

—— (1959), Physics of the Stoics (London).

—— (1962), The Physical World of Late Antiquity (London).

Sandbach, F. H. (1975), The Stoics (London).

Schilpp, P. A. (ed.) (1974), The Philosophy of Karl Popper (La Salle, Ill.).

Schmidt, W. (1899), Heronis Alexandrini Opera Quae Supersunt Omnia I: Pneumatica et Automata (Leipzig).

Schofield, M. (1980), An Essay on Anaxagoras (Cambridge).

—— (1991), ‘Explanatory Projects in Physics 2. 3 and 7’, OSAP Suppl. 29–40.

—— and Nussbaum, M. C. (eds.) (1982), Language and Logos (Cambridge).

—— and Striker, G. (eds.) (1985), The Norms of Nature (Cambridge).

Sedley, D. (1977), ‘Diodorus Cronus and Hellenistic Philosophy’, PCPS ns 23: 74–120.

—— (1982a), ‘On Signs’, in Barnes et al. (1982).

—— (1982b), ‘Two Conceptions of Vacuum’, Phron. 27: 175–93.

—— (1983), ‘Epicurus' Refutation of Determinism’, in SUZETESIS: Studi sull'epicureismo greco e latino offerti a Marcello Gigante (Naples, 1983).

—— (1987), ‘Philoponus' Conception of Space’, in Sorabji (1987).

—— (1988), ‘Epicurean Anti‐ReductionismEpicurean Anti‐Reductionism’, in Barnes and Mignucci (1988).

—— (1991), ‘Is Aristotle's Teleology Anthropocentric?’, Phron. 36: 179–98.

—— (1993), ‘Chrysippus on Psychophysical Causality’, in Brunschwig and Nussbaum (1993).

Sharples, R. W. (1975a), ‘Aristotelian and Stoic Conceptions of Necessity in the de Fato of Alexander of Aphrodisias’, Phron. 20: 247–74.

—— (1975b), ‘Responsibility, Chance, and Not‐Being (Alexander of Aphrodisias'Mantissa 169–72)’, BICS 22: 76–84.

—— (1980), ‘Alexander of Aphrodisias' Second Treatment of Fate? De anima libri mantissa, pp. 179–86 Bruns’, BICS 27: 76–94.

—— (1981), ‘Necessity in the Stoic Doctrine of Fate’, Symbolae Osloenses, 16: 81–97.

(p.472) Sharples, R. W. (1982), ‘Alexander of Aphrodisias on Divine Providence: Two Problems’, CQ 32: 198–211.

—— (1983), Alexander of Aphrodisias on Fate (London).

—— (1987), ‘Alexander of Aphrodisias: Scholasticism and Innovation’, ANRW ii. 36. 1: 1176–1243.

—— (1990), ‘The School of Alexander’, in Sorabji (1990).

—— (1992), Alexander of Aphrodisias: Quaestiones 1.1–2.15 (London).

Shiner, R. A., and King‐Farlow, J. (eds.) (1976), New Essays on Plato and the Presocratics, CJP Suppl. Vol. 2.

Siegel, R. E. (1973), Galen on Psychology, Psychopathology, and Function and Diseases of the Nervous System (Basel).

Sigerist, H. E. (1951), A History of Medicine, i: Primitive and Archaic Medicine (Oxford).

—— (1961), A History of Medicine, ii: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian Medicine (Oxford).

Simon, M. (1906), Sieben Bücher Anatomie des Galen, 2 vols. (Leipzig).

Singer, C. (1956), Galen on Anatomical Procedures (Oxford).

Skemp, J. B. (1967), The Theory of Motion in Plato's Later Dialogues (Amsterdam).

—— (1985), ‘The Disorderly Motions Again’, in Gotthelf (1985).

Smith, A. (1974), Porphyry's Place in the Neoplatonic Tradition (The Hague).

Smith, W. D. (1973), ‘Galen on Coans and Cnidians’, BHM 47: 569–85.

—— (1979), The Hippocratic Tradition (New York).

Solmsen, F. (1960), Aristotle's System of the Physical World: A Comparison with his Predecessors (Ithaca, NY).

—— (1965), ‘Love and Strife in Empedocles' Cosmology’, Phron. 10: 109–48; repr. in Furley and Allen (1975).

Sorabji, R. (1974), ‘Body and Soul in Aristotle’, Philosophy, 49: 63–89; repr. in Barnes et al. (1979b).

—— (1980a), Necessity, Cause and Blame (London).

—— (1980b), ‘Causation, Laws, and Necessity’, in Barnes et al. (1980).

—— (1982), Time, Creation, and the Continuum (London).

—— (ed.) (1987), Philoponus and the Rejection of Aristotelian Science (London).

—— (1988), Matter, Space, and Motion (London).

—— (1989), ‘The Greek Origins of the Idea of Chemical Combination: Can Two Bodies be in the Same Place?’, BACAP 4: 35–63.

—— (ed.) (1990a), The Greek Commentators (London).

—— (1990b), Aristotle Transformed (London).

Sosa, E. (ed.) (1975), Causation and Conditionals (Oxford).

—— and Tooley, M. (eds.) (1993), Causation (rev. edn. of Sosa 1975) (Oxford).

Spencer, W. G. (trans.) (1935–8), Celsus ‘De Medicina’, 3 vols. (London).

Staden, H. von (1989), Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge).

Stalley, R. E. (1983), An Introduction to Plato's ‘Laws’ (Oxford).

Steckerl, F. (1958), The Fragments of Praxagoras of Cos and his School (Leiden).

Stevenson, J. G. (1974), ‘Aristotle as Historian of Philosophy’, JHS 94: 138–43; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970).

(p.473) Stokes, M. C. (1971), One and Many in Presocratic Philosophy (Cambridge, Mass.).

Stopper, M. R. (1983), ‘Schizzi Pirroniani’, Phron. 28: 265–97.

Stough, C. (1978), ‘Stoic Determinism and Moral Responsibility’, in Rist (1978).

Strang, C. (1963), ‘The Physical Theory of Anaxagoras’, AGP 45: 101–18; repr. in Furley and Allen (1975).

Striker, G. (1983), ‘The Ten Modes of Aenesidemus’, in Burnyeat (1983).

—— (1985), ‘Antipater, or the Art of Living’, in Schofield and Striker (1985).

Susemihl, F. (ed.) (1891–2), Geschichte der griechischen Literatur in der Alexandrinerzeit, 2 vols. (Leipzig).

Tarrant, H. (1984), Scepticism or Platonism? (Oxford).

—— (1989), ‘By Calculation of Reason?’, in Huby and Neal (1989).

Taylor, C. C. W. (1980), ‘“All perceptions are true”’: in Barnes et al. (1980).

Taylor, A. E. (1918), ‘The Philosophy of Proclus’, PAS 18: 600–35.

—— (1928), A Commentary on Plato's ‘Timaeus’ (Oxford).

Taylor, R. (1966), Action and Purpose (Englewood Cliffs, NJ).

—— (1975), ‘The Metaphysics of Causation’, in Sosa (1975).

Teodorsson, S.‐T. (1982), Anaxagoras' Theory of Matter, Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia, 43 (Gothenburg).

Theiler, W. (1964), Die Vorbereitung des Neuplatonismus, 2nd edn. (Berlin).

Thesleff, H. (1965), The Pythagorean Texts of the Hellenistic Period (Turku).

Thillet, P. (1984), Alexandre d'Aphrodise: Traité du Destin (Paris).

Thivel, A. (1981), Cnide et Cos? (Paris).

Thorndike, L. (1923–58), A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 vols. (New York).

Tieleman, T. (1996), Galen and Chrysippus on the Soul (Leiden).

Todd, R. B. (1976a), Alexander of Aphrodisias on Stoic Physics (Leiden).

—— (1976b), ‘The Four Causes: Aristotle's Exposition and the Ancients’, Journal for the History of Ideas, 37: 319–22.

—— (1980), ‘Some Concepts in Physical Theory in John Philoponus' Aristotelian Commentaries’, Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte, 24: 151–70.

—— (1988), Cleomedes: Caelestia (Leipzig).

Trouillard, J. (1955a), La Purification plotinienne (Paris).

—— (1955b), La Procession plotinienne (Paris).

—— (1958), ‘Agir par sonêtre même: la causalité selon Proclus’, Revue des Sciences Religieuses, 32: 347–57.

—— (1974), ‘Le Dynamisme physique selon Proclus’, Diotima, 2: 117–25.

—— (1977), ‘Les Degrés du “poiein” chez Proclus’, Dionysius, 1: 69–84.

Vallance, J. (1988), ‘Theophrastus and the Study of the Intractable’, in Fortenbaugh and Sharples (1988).

—— (1990), The Lost Theory of Asclepiades of Bithynia (Oxford).

van der Eijk, P. (1996), ‘Diocles and the Hippocratic Writings on the Method of Dietetics and the Limits of Causal Explanation’, in Wittern and Pellegrin (1996).

Van Fraassen, B. C. (1980), ‘A Re‐examination of Aristotle's Philosophy of Science’, Dialogue, 19: 20–45.

Van Raalte, M. (1988), ‘Cosmos as an Organic Whole in Theophrastus'Metaphysics’, in Fortenbaugh and Sharples (1988).

(p.474) Vegetti, M., and Manuli, P. (eds.) (1988), Le opere psicologiche di Galeno (Naples).

Vernant, J. P. (ed.) (1974), Divination et Rationalité (Paris).

Vlastos, G. (1950), ‘The Physical Theory of Anaxagoras’, PR 59: 31–57; repr. in Mourelatos (1974).

—— (1957), ‘Equality and Justice in Early Greek Cosmologies’, CP 42: 156–78; repr. in Furley and Allen (1970).

—— (1969), ‘Reasons and Causes in the Phaedo’, Philosophical Review, 78: 291–325; repr. in Vlastos (1971, 1981).

—— (ed.) (1971), Plato, i: Metaphysics and Epistemology (New York).

—— (1975), Plato's Universe (Oxford).

—— (1981), Platonic Studies, 2nd edn. (Princeton).

Von Arnim, H. (1903–5), Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 3 vols. (Leipzig) (= SVF) (vol. iv: Indexes, by M. Adler (Leipzig, 1924)).

Von Staden, H. (1975), ‘Experiment and Experience in Hellenistic Medicine’, BICS 22: 178–99.

Wallis, R. T. (1972), Neoplatonism (London).

Walzer, R. (1944), Galen on Medical Experience (Oxford).

—— (1949), Galen on Jews and Christians (Oxford).

Wardy, R. (1993), ‘Aristotelian Rainfall or the Lore of Averages’, Phron. 38: 18–30.

Warner, R. (trans.) (1972), Thucydides: The Peloponnesian War, 2nd edn. (Harmondsworth).

Wasserstein, A. (1962), ‘Greek Scientific Thought’, PCPS ns 8: 51–63.

Waterlow, S. (1982a), Nature, Change and Agency in Aristotle's Physics (Oxford).

—— (1982b), Passage and Possibility (Oxford).

Waterlow Broadie, S. (1987), ‘Necessity and Deliberation: Making Sense of de Interpretatione 9’, CJP 17: 289–306.

Weinberg, S. (1992), Dreams of a Final Theory (New York).

Wehrli, F. (1969), Straton von Lampsakos, 2nd edn. (Basel).

—— (1983), ‘Der Peripatos bis zum Beginn der römischen Kaiserzeit’, in Flashar (1983).

Wellmann, M. (1892), ‘Asclepiades von Preusa’, in Susemihl (1892: ii).

—— (1895), Die pneumatische Schüle bis auf Archigenes in ihrer Entwicklung dargestellt, Philosophische Untersuchungen, 14.

—— (1901), Fragmente der silkelischen Ärzte (Berlin).

—— (1903), ‘Diokles’, in Pauly‐Wissowa, Real‐Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft, 5. 1, cols. 802–12 (Stuttgart).

—— (1907), ‘Erasistratos’, ibid., cols. 333–50.

White, M. J. (1983), ‘Time and Determinism in the Hellenistic Philosophical Schools’, AGP 65: 40–62.

—— (1992), The Continuous and the Discrete (Oxford).

Whittaker, J., and Louis, P. (1990), Alkinoos: Enseignement des Doctrines de Platon, ed. and French trans. (Paris).

Whittaker, T. (1928), The Neoplatonists, 4th edn. (Cambridge).

Wieland, W. (1960), ‘Die Ewigkeit der Welt (der Streit zwischen Joannes Philoponus und Simplicius)’, in Heinrich et al. (1960).

(p.475) —— (1972), ‘Zeitliche Kausalstrukturen in der aristotelischen Logik’, AGP 54: 229–37.

—— (1975), ‘The Problem of Teleology’, in Barnes et al. (1975).

Wiesner, J. (ed.) (1987), Aristoteles, Werk und Wirkung, ii: Kommentierung, Überlieferung, Nachleben (Berlin).

Wilamowitz, U. von (1901), ‘Die hippokratische Schrift peri hierēs nousou’, Sitzungsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2–23 (Berlin).

Wildberg, C. (1987), Philoponus: Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World (London).

Williams, C. J. F. (1982), Aristotle's ‘De Generatione et Corruptione’ (Oxford).

Witt, R. E. (1937), Albinus and the History of Middle Platonism (Cambridge).

Wittern, R., and Pellegrin, P. (eds.) (1996), Hippokratische Medizin und antike Philosophie, Proceedings of the VIII Hipprocatic Colloquium (Olms).

Wolff, M. (1971), Fallgesetz und Massebegriff (Berlin).

—— (1978), Geschichte der Impetustheorie (Frankfurt).

—— (1987), ‘Philoponus and the Rise of Pre‐Classical Dynamics’, in Sorabji (1987).

Wright, G. H. von (1975), ‘On the Logic and Epistemology of the Causal Relation’, in Sosa (1975).

Wright, L. (1973–4), ‘The Astronomy of Eudoxus: Geometry or Physics?’, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 4: 165–72. (p.476)