Surveys the scope, themes, and style of Epictetus’ Discourses, starting with an assessment of their transmission by Epictetus’ student, Arrian. They should be read as an accurate record of how he taught the young men who were his students to internalize the principles of Stoicism and practise that philosophy in daily life. Epictetus’ expository style has three components: protreptic, elenctic, and doctrinal, for which he appeals to three respective authorities—Socrates, the Cynic Diogenes, and the Stoic Zeno.
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