The sources of the attractiveness of descriptivism and of direct reference theories are identified and shown to be wanting. The intermediate position, RWR, is one in which a proper name may or may not have a bearer, though if it has one it will have it essentially (holding semantic facts constant), and if it lacks one this will also be essential. A full development of the view makes use of the notion of the practice of using a name (or, more generally, a word), and a preliminary attempt is made to identify the main components of the concept of a name-using practice and to say something constructive about their character.
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