The Passive Leverage of the European Union
This chapter presents a theoretical framework for the EU’s passive leverage, defined as the traction that the EU has on the domestic politics of credible candidate states merely by virtue of its existence and its usual conduct. Passive leverage includes the political and economic benefits of EU membership, the costs of exclusion, and the way that the EU treats non-member states. The force of the EU’s passive leverage explains why the governments of virtually all credible future EU member states declare EU membership as their foremost foreign policy goal.
Keywords: benefits of membership, costs of exclusion, European Union, institutionalism, international institutions, international regimes, negative externalities, neorealism, passive leverage, regional integration, rules
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