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The New Politics of Inequality in Latin AmericaRethinking Participation and Representation$
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Douglas A. Chalmers, Carlos M. Vilas, Katherine Hite, Scott B. Martin, Kerianne Piester, and Monique Segarra

Print publication date: 1997

Print ISBN-13: 9780198781837

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198781830.001.0001

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Market‐Oriented Development Strategies and State–Society Relations in New Democracies: Lessons from Contemporary Chile and Spain

Market‐Oriented Development Strategies and State–Society Relations in New Democracies: Lessons from Contemporary Chile and Spain

Chapter:
(p.337) 14 Market‐Oriented Development Strategies and State–Society Relations in New Democracies: Lessons from Contemporary Chile and Spain
Source:
The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America
Author(s):

Eric Hershberg

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/0198781830.003.0014

Discusses Spain under the Socialist government of Felipe González and post‐Pinochet Chile under the Concertación as potential “social democratic” models, embodying what many view as a successful combination of market reforms with social equity and societal participation worthy of emulation by Latin America as a whole. The author finds significant limitations in the degree of popular‐sector participation in decision‐making (as seen through governments’ distancing and combative postures towards allied unions) and in the extent of re‐distributive social reforms under post‐transition center–left governments in both countries. The predominance of logic of market‐oriented reforms, economic and political stability, and of insulation from pressures from below acted to undercut the reformist ethos of both national governments, leaving them well short of social democratic ideals. At the same time, the González and Concertación governments helped consolidate formal electoral democracies in their countries that continue to be marred by a major weakness on the participation and equity fronts.

Keywords:   civil society participation, democratic consolidation, democratic transition, labour unions, market reforms, (left) political parties, social democracy, social policy

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