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Big BusinessThe European Experience in the Twentieth Century$

Youssef Cassis

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198296065

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198296061.001.0001

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(p.238) Appendix

(p.238) Appendix

Source:
Big Business
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

List of Companies Included in the Samples: 1907, 1929, and 1953

This appendix provides a list of the companies included in the samples established for the analysis of business performance and business leadership for the years 1907 (1910 for France),1 1929, and 1953. Companies marked with an asterisk have not been included in the analysis of profits. The tables which follow do not pretend to be new lists of the 50 or 100 largest British, French, and German companies. Such rankings, based on a variety of criteria, are available in several other studies (see introduction to Part I). Combining the criteria of share capital and workforce, the samples have been established in order to ensure, first, that all top companies were included; secondly, that all sectors were represented; and thirdly that the specific composition of each country's big business was reflected. In order to make comparisons easier, figures related to share capital and total assets are given in pounds sterling for all three countries. Two levels of classification have been adopted: the first distinguishes between industry (including extractive industries), finance, and services; and the second between broadly defined industries within each of these three sectors. The bulk of the data has been collected in the Stock Exchange Yearbook for Britain, the Cote Desfossé for France, and the Handbuch der deutschen Aktiengesellschaften for Germany. Company monographs and existing lists of each country's largest companies have also been useful for estimates of workforce—especially David Jeremy's ‘The Hundred Largest Employers in the United Kingdom, in Manufacturing and Non‐manufacturing Industries, in 1907, 1935, and 1955’ (Business History, 33 (1991)), which has been systematically used for the workforce of Britain's major companies. The main objective of this appendix is to bring together, in a readily comparable format, data scattered in numerous publications of three different countries. Such data are readily available in the business magazine Fortune for the years 1972 and 1989 and do not need to be reproduced here.2 (p.239)

A1. Great Britain, 1907

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Vickers, Sons & Maxim

5,200

8,881

22,500

T. E. Vickers

Bolckow Vaughan

3,963

5,027

18,000

E. W. Richards

Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co.

3,594

7,994

25,000

Sir A. Noble

Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds

2,685

6,218

21,710

A. Keen

John Brown & Co.

2,640

3,940

16,205

Sir C. B. McLaren

Wigan Coal & Iron

2,193

2,144

10,000

Earl of Crawford

United Collieries

1,800

3,562

16,000

H. Mungall

Stewarts & Lloyds

1,400

2,422

10,600

J. C. Stewart

Dorman Long & Co.

1,260

2,213

9,500

A. J. Dorman

Palmers Shipbuilding

699

1,261

7,500

Sir C. B. McLaren

*Fife Coal Co.

831

12,947

C. Carlow

*Harland & Wolff

8,500

Lord Pirrie

Textile

Coats (J. & P.)

10,000

19,085

12,700

A. Coats

Calico Printers' Association

5,027

12,291

20,495

R. P. Hewitt

Bleachers' Association

4,570

7,816

11,280

H. S. Cross

Fine Cotton Spinners & Doublers' Association

4,500

9,191

30,000

Sir W. H. Houldsworth

Rylands & Sons

1,500

4,287

8,000

W. Carnelley

Food, drink, tobacco

Imperial Tobacco

15,495

21,297

6,000

Lord Winterstoke

Watney, Combe, Reid

6,322

12,679

H. C. O. Bonsor

Arthur Guinness, Son & Co.

4,500

8,845

3,550

Lord Iveagh

Bass, Ratcliff & Gretton

2,720

6,543

4,000

Lord Burton

*Fry, J. S. & Sons

800

4,600

J. S. Fry

Chemicals

United Alkali

5,819

9,981

12,000

J. Brock

Lever Brothers

3,400

5,141

4,700

W. H. Lever

Brunner Mond & Co.

2,299

4,260

4,000

Sir J. T. Brunner

*Reckitt & Sons

1,640

F. Reckitt

Kynoch

1,000

1,621

8,000

A. Chamberlain

Electrical engineering

British Westinghouse

3,250

5,000

G. Westinghouse

General Electric Co.

596

1,189

6,000

G. Byng

Mechanical engineering

Metropolitan Amalgamated

1,433

1,729

13,368

F. D. Docker

Howard & Bullough

1,000

1,712

5,000

Sir G. Bullough

Oil

Shell Transport & Trading

3,000

4,257

Sir M. Samuel

Burmah Oil

1,850

3,363

J. T. Cargill

Rubber

Dunlop Pneumatic Tyres

2,120

2,901

4,000

H. Du Cros

II. Finance

Banking

Lloyds Bank

3,852

76,132

2,880

J. S. Phillips

London City and Midland Bank

3,143

63,985

 5,000a

A. Keen

Barclay & Co.

3,100

50,515

F. A. Bevan

National Provincial Bank of England

3,000

60,975

H. Goschen

London & County Banking Co.

2,000

53,998

G. J. Goschen

Insurance

*Prudential Assurance

1,000

63,887

Sir H. Harben

*Royal Insurance Co.

392

14,647

W. Watson

*Commercial Union Assurance Co.

250

12,659

J. Trotter

III. Services

Shipping

Peninsular & Oriental

3,200

6,905

Sir T. Sutherland

Cunard Steam‐Ship Co.

2,000

5,395

4,420

W. Watson

*British India Steam Navigation Co.

1,657

D. Mackinnon

*Ellerman Lines

1,400

2,441

Sir J. R. Ellerman

Foreign and colonial

De Beers Consolidated Mines

4,500

12,340

A. Beit

Rio Tinto Co.

3,500

5,717

C. W. Fielding

Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa

3,250

7,194

Lord Harris

Distribution

Lipton

2,000

3,084

Sir T. J. Lipton

Home & Colonial Stores

1,200

1,680

W. C. Slaughter

Whiteley (William)

900

2,155

6,000

W. Whiteley

Harrods Stores

641

2,226

5,000

Sir A. J. Newton

Press

Amalgamated Press

1,050

1,545

Lord Northcliffe

(a) 1914.

(p.240) (p.241) (p.242)

A2. France, 1910

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Marine‐Homécourt

1,120

4,109

13,200

L. Molinos

Schneider

1,080

4,036

15,000a

E. Schneider

Nord‐Est

1,000

2,246

G. Griolet

Longwy

960

2,977

 7,000b

G. Rolland

Châtillon‐Commentry, Neuves‐Maisons

740

3,155

11,000

H. Darcy

*De Wendel et Cie

 9,000c

F. de Wendel

*Mines de Béthune

120

11,317d

E. de Marcère

*Mines de Lens

36

16,319e

A. Descamps

*Mines d'Aniche

10,567f

E. Dejardin

*Mines d'Anzin

16,393g

Cuvinot

Textile

Revillon Frères

1,200

2,275

L. Revillon

Food, drink, tobacco

Raffinerie et Sucrerie Say

1,530

3,066

J. Peytel

Chemicals

Saint‐Gobain

2,400

5,562

11,540

Marquis de Vogüé

Electrical engineering

Thomson‐Houston

2,400

5,231

 4,000h

F. Guillain

Compagnie Générale d'Électricité

720

2,778

 6,000i

E. Rodier

Mechanical engineering

Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques

720

2,809

10,500

Rubber

*Michelin

10,000j

A. J. Michelin

II. Finance

Banking

Crédit Lyonnais

10,000

99,558

16,000k

E. Béthenot

Société Générale

8,000

85,214

Baron Hély d'Oissel

Comptoir National d'Escompte

6,000

66,400

A. Rostand

Paribas

3,000

24,258

M. Renouard

Banque de l'Union Parisienne

2,400

12,346

L. Villars

Banque de l'Indochine

1,440

13,178

Hély d'Oissel

Insurance

*Assurances Généralesl

280

38,898

Baron de Neuflize

*La Nationalem

1,000

28,702

Comte Pillet‐Will

III. Services

Shipping

Messageries Maritimes

1,800

11,472

A. Lebon

Générale Transatlantique

1,560

6,710

J. Charles‐Roux

Foreign and colonial

Phosphates et Chemin de Fer de Gafsa

720

1,988

L. Molinos

Distribution

Galeries Lafayette

900

2,667

T. Bader

Utilities

Parisienne Distribution Électricité

4,000

6,241

Richemond

Générale des Eaux

1,600

6,669

Baron Hottinguer

Énergie Électrique du Littoral Méditerranéen

1,520

3,177

Féraud

Press and communication

Société du Petit Journal

1,200

1,554

C. Prevet

*Société du Petit Parisien

J. Dupuy

(a) In Le Creusot only. Schneider's total workforce probably exceeded 25,000.

(b) 1913.

(c) In French Lorraine only. De Wendel's total workforce in France and Germany has been estimated at 28,000.

(d) 1914.

(e) 1914.

(f) 1914.

(g) 1914.

(h) 1913.

(i) 1914.

(j) 1914.

(k) 1914.

(l) Life, fire, and marine insurance combined.

(m) Life and fire insurance combined.

(p.243) (p.244) (p.245)

A3. Germany, 1907

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairmana

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Friedrich Krupp AG

9,000

21,726

64,354

E. Haux

Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks

6,500

13,607

31,252

E. Kirdorf

‘Phoenix’

5,000

9,836

31,000

H. Kamp

Harpener Bergbau

4,000

8,039

26,000

R. Müser

Hibernia

3,000

5,997

19,212

H. Lindner

Oberschlesische Eisenbahnbedarfs

2,400

3,986

11,500

O. Niedt

Deutscher Kaiser

2,338

7,712

18,931

A. Thyssen

‘Union’

2,100

4,002

11,605

Mathies

Hohenlohe Werke

2,100

5,079

12,367

F. Lob

Vereinigte Königs‐und Laurahütte

1,800

3,483

23,224

E. Hilger

Rheinische Stahlwerke

1,750

2,689

10,000

E. Goecke

Rombacher Hüttenwerk

1,650

5,084

7,000

R. Hinsberg

Eschweiler Bergwerksverein

1,600

2,953

9,268

H. Schornstein

Kattowitzer

1,500

2,700

10,968

G. Williger

Oberschlesische Eisen‐Industrie

1,400

2,639

9,500

V. Zuckerkandl

Bochumer Verein

1,260

2,407

10,867

F. Baare

Deutsch‐Luxemburg

1,200

4,000

10,000

C. Knupe

Gutehoffnungshütte

1,200

4,266

21,657

P. Reusch

Textiles

Nordwolle

1,125

3,245

8,000

C. Lahusen

Kammgarnspinnerei Stöhr

500

1,673

3,000

E. Stöhr

Food, drink, tobacco

Gebrüder Stollwerck

800

1,303

2,500

L. Stollwerck

Schultheiss Brauerei

700

775

R. Funke

Chemicals

Bayer

1,800

3,247

7,811

C. Duisberg

BASF

4,100

8,877

H. von Brunck

Hoechst

1,800

3,898

6,000

G. von Brüning

Electrical engineering

Allgemeine Elektricitäts‐Gesellschaft (AEG)

5,000

11,500

30,667

E. Rathenau

Siemens Schuckertwerke

4,500

7,418

A. Berliner

Siemens & Halske

3,150

6,279

42,866b

A. Berliner

Felten & Guilleaume‐Lahmeyer

2,750

5,602

11,760

B. Salomon

Mechanical engineering

Stettiner Maschinenbau ‘Vulcan’

500

2,890

6,450

R. Zimmermann

II. Finance

Banking

Deutsche Bank

10,000

93,600

 8,475c

A. Gwinner

Dresdner Bank

9,000

50,600

E. Gutmann

Disconto‐Gesellschaft

8,500

42,500

A. Schöller

Darmstädter Bank

7,700

30,650

M. von Klitzing

Insurance

Concordia

300

7,167

P. Hensel

Victoria zu Berlin

150

32,258

O. Gerstenberg

III. Services

Shipping

Hamburg‐Amerikanische Packetfahrt (HAPAG)

6,250

11,953

A. Ballin

Norddeutscher Lloyd

6,250

13,466

H. Wiegand

Utilities

Berliner Elektrizitäts‐Werke

3,205

5,602

E. Rathenau

(a) Executive board chairman.

(b) Workforces of Siemens & Halske and Siemens Schuckertwerke combined.

(c) 1914.

(p.246) (p.247) (p.248)

B1. Great Britain, 1929

Share capital

Total assets

Workforcea

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds

12,590

18,340

50,000

Sir J. F. Beale

Vickers

12,469

21,884

44,162

Sir H. A. Lawrence

Dorman Long

11,248

15,498

27,452

Sir A. J. Dorman

Harland & Wolff

10,205

16,508

30,000

Viscountess Pirrie

United Steel

9,324

15,883

19,229

W. B. Jones

Stewarts & Lloyds

5,514

9,238

14,000

A. C. Macdiarmid

*Manchester Collieries

5,478

14,199

J. Ramsden

Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Co.

3,924

9,757

13,512

E. L. Hann

*Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Collieries

2,100

13,636

Lord Joicey

*Metal Box

1,319

12,813

F. N. Hepworth

Textile

Courtaulds

32,000

46,705

22,506

S. Courtauld

Coats (J. & P.)

20,250

 32,526b

10,000

J. O. M. Clark

British Celanese

8,461

14,578

H. Dreyfus

Fine Cotton Spinners & Doublers' Association

8,350

15,543

30,000

H. W. Lee

Bleachers' Association

6,206

12,250

8,500

Sir A. J. Sykes

Montague Burton

4,000

11,000

M. Burton

Food, drink, tobacco

Imperial Tobacco Co.

50,858

76,544

30,000

Lord Dulverton

Distillers

12,891

21,723

W. H. Ross

Arthur Guinness, Son & Co.

9,500

16,664

Lord Iveagh

Lyons (J.) & Co.

8,376

14,492

30,000

I. Salmon

Watney, Combe, Reid

8,056

18,820

5,000

Sir R. Garton

United Dairies

5,474

6,959

J. H. Maggs

Tate & Lyle

4,412

11,366

7,000

Sir L. Lyle

Bass, Ratcliff & Gretton

3,596

10,776

4,000

J. Gretton

Cadbury Brothers

3,224

11,685

B. Cadbury

Bovril

3,000

6,195

Lord Luke of Pavenham

Chemicals

Imperial Chemical Industries

76,355

125,180

49,706

Sir H. D. McGowan

Lever Brothers

56,628

68,712

60,000

F. D'Arcy Cooper

*Reckitt & Sons

5,060

8,100

P. B. Reckitt

Boots Pure Drug Co.

2,900

5,474

7,129

J. C. Boot

Electrical engineering

General Electric Co.

5,854

12,970

24,000

Sir H. Hirst

Associated Electrical Industries

4,732

8,601

30,000

Sir F. J. C. Poole

Gramophone Co.

3,340

5,296

10,000e

A. Clark

British Insulated Cables

2,667

5,815

8,200

Sir A. Roger

Callenders Cable & Construction Co.

1,916

 4,009d

14,000

Sir J. F. Flannery

Lucas (Joseph)

1,191

2,540

20,000

H. J. Sayer

Mechanical engineering

Babcock & Wilcox

4,579

7,811

8,700

Sir J. Dewrance

Platt Brothers

3,710

5,972

Sir W. R. Preston

Motor cars

*Ford Motor Co.

7,000

 7,128e

Sir P. Perry

Morris Motors

5,000

8,856

10,200

Sir W. R. Morris

Austin Motor Co.

2,150

4,709

19,000

Sir H. Austin

Oil

Shell Transport & Trading

31,121

 38,860f

9,396

Lord Bearsted

Anglo‐Persian Oil

23,925

44,345

7,274

J. Cadman

Rubber

Dunlop Rubber Co.

12,251

26,438

28,000

Sir E. Geddes

II. Finance

Banks

Barclays Bank

15,858

385,539

12,977

F. C. Goodenough

Lloyds Bank

15,810

431,183

12,993

J. W. B. Pease

Midland Bank

13,433

408,315

13,070

R. McKenna

National Provincial Bank

9,479

306,695

Sir H. Goschen

Westminster Bank

9,320

332,592

R. F. Beckett

Other finance

*Commercial Union Assurance

3,540

51,452

Sir R. Horne

*Royal Insurance

2,800

47,565

A. A. Paton

*Prudential Assurance

1,249

228,567

17,318

Sir E. Horne

III. Services

Shipping

Royal Mail Steam Packet

8,800

 20,315g

Lord Kylsant

Elder Dempster

8,485

13,633

Lord Kylsant

Cunard Steam Ship

8,070

18,457

13,000

Sir T. Royden

Peninsular & Oriental

7,633

29,244

Earl of Inchcape

Foreign and colonial

British American Tobacco

28,074

34,911

Sir H. Cunliffe‐Owen

De Beers Consolidated

6,362

16,157

Sir E. Oppenheimer

Rio Tinto Co.

3,750

8,230

Sir A. G. Geddes

Distribution

Home & Colonial Stores

2,981

6,760

15,000

W. May

Marks & Spencer

1,010

2,108

11,555

S. Marks

Press and communication

Allied Newspapers

6,750

 9,125h

Lord Camrose

Gaumont‐British Picture Corporation

3,750

7,174

I. Ostrer

Associated Newspapers

3,350

5,886

Viscount Rothermere

*Smith, W. H.

322

13,452i

Viscount Hambleden

(a) 1935 unless otherwise stated.

(b) 1928.

(c) 1929.

(d) 1928.

(e) 1929.

(f) 1928.

(g) 1928.

(h) 1928.

(i) 1929.

(p.249) (p.250) (p.251) (p.252)

B2. France, 1929

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Mines de Lens

1,780

11,852

19,537

E. Bollaërt

Mines d'Anzin

1,780

6,891

25,665

G. Teissier

Mines de Marles

1,664

2,959

17,943

A. Bénac

Mines de Vicoigne‐Nœuds & Drocourt

1,440

9,149

17,390

L. Dupont

Marine‐Homécourt

1,440

 5,661a

T. Laurent

Mines d'Aniche

1,312

3,441

18,484

Nord‐Est

1,096

 7,945b

E. Cuvelette

*De Wendel

937

33,000

F. de Wendel

Longwy

840

7,459

9,724

A. Dreux

Schneider & Cie

800

5,973

E. Schneider

Houillére de Sarre et Moselle

800

3,527

11,165

H. de Peyerimhoff

Textile

Saint‐Frères

2,400

5,585

9,000

A. Saint

Dollfus‐Mieg

608

2,549

E. Thierry‐Mieg

Agache Fils

400

1,831

D. Agache

Food, drink, tobacco

Say (Raffinerie et Sucrerie)

611

2,392

Grands Moulins de Paris

800

2,378

F. de Lavit

Chemicals

Kuhlmann

2,500

7,847

7,000

D. Agache

Alais, Froges et Camargue (Pechiney)

2,100

8,463

9,000

G. Cordier

Saint‐Gobain

1,800

10,717

15,000

A. Gérard

Electrical engineering

Thomson‐Houston

2,640

5,218

10,000c

C. Laurent

Compagnie Générale d'Électricité

1,040

6,857

15,000

P. Azaria

Jeumont

640

2,938

3,500

V. Rault

Mechanical engineering

Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques

918

4,606

16,000

L. Dardel

Fives‐Lille

600

 3,660d

Denfert‐Rochereau

Motor car

Citroën

3,200

 14,146e

31,200

A. Citroën

Peugeot

1,520

5,750

20,000

J. P. Peugeot

*Renault

960

25,500

L. Renault

Oil

Huiles de Pétroles

1,920

4,408

*Compagnie Française des Pétroles

800

1,204

E. Mercier

Rubber

Michelin

1,200

8,846

E. Michelin

II. Finance

Banks

Société Générale

5,000

108,431

A. Homberg

Crédit Lyonnais

3,264

111,531

Baron Brincard

Comptoir d'Escompte

3,200

82,243

P. Boyer

Banque de Paris et des Pays‐Bas

2,400

36,410

G. Griolet

Banque de l'Indochine

576

27,151

S. Simon

Insurance

*La Nationalef

360

13,722

Baron Davillier

*L'Uniong

320

12,288

F. Vernes

*Assurances Généralesh

280

10,721

E. Mallet

III. Services

Shipping

Compagnie Générale Transatlantique

1,672

11,332

J. Dal Piaz

Chargeurs Réunis

800

6,157

C. Chaumet

Messageries Maritimes

640

3,652

A. Lebon

Foreign and colonial

SCOA (Société Commerciale de l'Ouest Africain)

1,260

2,293

F. François‐Marsal

Peñarroya

1,250

5,182

Distribution

Galeries Lafayette

1,600

6,550

T. Bader

Au Bon Marché

800

 3,928i

Press and communication

Agence Havas

640

1,782

L. Remier

Hachette

584

2,784

E. Fouret

Utilities

Énergie Électrique du Littoral Méditerranéen

2,640

7,325

G. Cordier

Union d'Électricité

2,200

7,102

A. Petsche

Compagnie Générale des Eaux

410

3,862

(a) June 1930.

(b) June 1930.

(c) More than 10,000 employees in 1922.

(d) June 1930.

(e) June 1930.

(f) Life, fire, general, and reinsurance combined.

(g) Life, fire, and general combined.

(h) Life and fire combined.

(i) June 1930.

(p.253) (p.254) (p.255)

B3. Germany, 1929

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairmana

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Vereinigte Stahlwerke

40,000

107,290

182,591

A. Vögler

Mannesmannröhren Werke

9,263

12,550

23,323

H. Bierweis

Friedrich Krupp AG

8,000

23,639

76,750

W. Buschfeld

Harpener Bergbau

5,015

11,225

25,584

E. Fickler

Klöckner‐Werke

5,500

11,691

27,924

A. Haarmann

Gutehoffnungshütte

4,000

7,990

11,139

P. Reusch

Hoesch

3,568

8,949

20,962

F. Springorum

Rheinbraun

3,360

5,772

G. Brecht

Ilseder Hütte

3,225

6,436

8,000

G. Meyer

Köln‐Neuessener Bergwerksverein

2,771

5,494

7,300

F. Winkhaus

Mitteldeutsche Stahlwerke

2,500

5,046

11,212

O. Sempell

Textile

Vereinigte Glanzstoff‐Fabriken

3,825

11,563

13,400

F. Blüthgen

Nordwolle

3,750

11,991

24,500

C. Lahusen

Bemberg

2,000

3,548

5,700

*Dierig

1,500

3,233

7,000

C. Dierig

Food, drink, tobacco

Schultheiss‐Patzenhofer Brauerei

2,550

6,082

7,100

W. Sobernheim

Ostwerke

2,275

3,920

L. Katzenellenbogen

Süddeutsche Zucker

1,500

2,986

B. Seeliger

Gebrüder Stollwerck

823

1,322

3,300

J. Stollwerck

Chemicals

IG Farben

55,000

104,511

114,185

C. Bosch

Wintershall

10,000

20,655

7,375

A. Rosterg

Burbach‐Kaliwerke

6,250

11,767

K. Hartwig

Electrical engineering

Allgemeine Elektricitäts‐Gesellschaft (AEG)

9,313

27,422

65,000

F. Deutsch

Siemens Schuckertwerke

6,000

21,037

C. Köttgen

Siemens & Halske

5,355

20,325

116,000b

A. Franke

Bergmann Elektrizitäts‐Werke

2,200

4,836

12,000

S. Bergmann

Robert Bosch

1,500

4,150

10,000

R. Bosch

Mechanical engineering

Knorr Bremse

2,500

4,261

*Linke‐Hoffman‐Busch

1,500

3,552

9,696

O. Österlen

Deutsche Schiff und Maschinenbau

1,250

3,177

12,000

Blohm & Voss

700

4,825

9,000

R. Rosenstiel

Motor car

Opel

3,000

4,960

F. von Opel

Daimler‐Benz

2,518

5,828

17,300

W. Kissel

Oil

Deutsche Erdöl

5,020

7,104

16,390

E. Middendorf

Rubber

Continental

2,005

5,102

18,135

W. Tischbein

II. Finance

Banks

Deutsche Bankc

7,500

145,965

14,800d

O. Wassermann

Disconto‐Gesellschaft

6,750

85,183

E. Mosler

Dresdner Bank

5,000

125,631

9,484e

W. Frisch

Commerz‐und Privat Bank

3,750

93,826

C. Harter

Darmstädter‐und National (Danat) Bank

3,000

131,101

7,500f

J. Goldschmidt

Insurance

*Frankfurter Allgemeine Versicherung

1,000

4,408g

*Victoria zu Berlin

300

19,245

III. Services

Shipping

Hamburg‐Amerikanische Packetfahrt (HAPAG)

8,069

18,973

W. Cuno

Norddeutscher Lloyd

6,445

21,497

C. Stimming

Distribution

Rudolph Karstadt

4,000

16,847

R. Karstadt

(a) Executive board chairman.

(b) Siemens & Halske and Siemens Schuckertwerke.

(c) 1929. The Deutsche Bank and Disconto‐Gesellschaft merged in 1929; the capital and total assets of the new bank were respectively £14.3 million and £276.7 million.

(d) 1926.

(e) 1925.

(f) 1926.

(g) 1928.

(p.256) (p.257) (p.258)

C1. Great Britain, 1953

Share capital

Total assets

Workforcea

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Vickers

20,679

141,790

70,000

Sir R. Weeks

Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds

19,216

77,245

62,000

J. H. Jolly

Steel Co. of Wales

16,936

97,870

20,750

E. H. Lever

United Steel

15,291

70,364

34,785

Sir W. B. Jones

Tube Investments

12,726

57,583

32,000

I. A. R. Stedeford

Stewarts & Lloyds

11,786

73,815

42,000

A. C. Stewart

*Richard Thomas & Baldwins

10,829

25,500

E. H. Lever

Dorman Longb

7,515

45,284

31,000

Sir E. Hunter

Metal Box

7,270

30,271

24,818

Sir R. Barlow

Harland & Wolff

6,996

22,773

32,000

Sir F. E. Rebbeck

Textile

Courtaulds

56,000

123,797

25,381

J. C. Hanbury‐Williams

Coats (J. & P.)

20,050

77,819

R. Laidlaw

British Celanese

11,509

31,710

13,212

G. H. Whigham

Food, drink, tobacco

Imperial Tobacco

72,959

221,397

25,000

Sir R. J. Sinclair

BAT

46,073

271,593

D. M. Oppenheim

Distillers

25,576

118,555

20,000

H. J. Ross

Guinness

14,500

31,430

Earl of Iveagh

British Cocoa & Chocolate

12,483

48,534

20,000

L. J. Cadbury

Lyons (J.) & Co.

10,892

33,460

35,000

M. Gluckstein

Tate & Lyle

8,144

24,656

G. V. Tate

Chemicals

Imperial Chemical Industries

94,729

439,170

115,306

J. Rogers

Unilever

73,511

304,827

50,287

Sir G. Heyworth

Boots Pure Drug

6,520

30,086

35,938

Lord Trent

*Reckitt & Colman

6,000

27,100

J. B. Upton

Beecham Group

5,350

25,719

Lord Dovercourt

Electrical engineering

Associated Electrical Industries

20,741

84,105

87,000

Sir G. E. Bailey

General Electric Co.

17,355

70,473

60,000

Sir H. Railing

British Insulated Callenders Cables

14,329

62,397

39,000

Sir A. Roger

English Electric

13,252

69,948

39,000

Sir G. H. Nelson

Lucas (Joseph)

7,133

36,746

45,000

A. B. Waring

Motor car

British Motor Corporationc

34,970

91,650

23,000

L. P. Lord

*Ford Motor Co.

11,943

60,220

24,773

Sir R. Smith

Aeronautics

De Haviland Aircraft

10,771

39,710

25,990

F. T. Hearle

Hawker Siddeley

7,882

62,758

75,000

T. O. M. Sopwith

Rolls‐Royce

4,000

25,109

37,500

Lord Hives

Oil

Shell Transport and Trading

66,515

110,315

25,712

Sir F. Godber

Anglo‐Iranian Oil (BP)

32,844

363,335

22,212

Sir W. Fraser

Burmah Oil

24,605

54,298

Sir K. B. Harper

Rubber

Dunlop Rubber Co.

17,254

110,424

100,000

Lord Baillieu

II. Finance

Banks

Barclays Bank

22,915

1,474,146

20,205

A. W. Tuke

Lloyds Bank

15,818

1,332,702

18,315

Lord Balfour of Burleigh

Midland Bank

15,159

1,517,322

17,000

Marquess of Linlithgow

National Provincial Bank

9,479

922,275

11,000

Earl of Selborne

Westminster Bank

9,320

939,988

12,000

Lord Aldenham

Insurance

*Royal Insurance

5,600

122,027

A. C. Tod

*Commercial Union Assurance

3,540

138,255

J. Leslie

*Prudential Assurance

1,450

664,874

19,922

Sir G. L. Barstow

III. Services

Shipping

Cunard Steam‐Ship Co.

10,298

74,407

15,000

F. A. Bates

Peninsular & Oriental

9,929

171,041

Sir W. C. Currie

Distribution

Woolworths

20,000

63,453

60,000

S. V. Swash

Great Universal Stores

6,332

80,324

60,000

I. Wolfson

Marks & Spencer

5,873

30,941

28,405

Sir S. Marks

Press and communication

Ranksd

11,130

45,089

26,000

J. A. Rank

Kemsley Newspapers

9,250

21,998

Viscount Kemsley

Amalgamated Press

6,900

26,515

10,500

Viscount Camrose

(a) 1955.

(b) 1954.

(c) 1954.

(d) 1954.

(p.259) (p.260) (p.261)

C2. France, 1953

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairman

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Sidelor

15,306

70,454

18,647

J. Laurent

Usinor

12,245

71,902

19,000

F. Balthasar

Forges et Ateliers du Creusot

7,342

62,032

17,326

C. Schneider

Tréfileries et Laminoirs du Havre

4,617

23,539

7,500

L. Jaudeau

Nord‐Est

3,889

16,537

F. Balthasar

Vallourec

3,061

16,409

5,393

M. Silhol

Pont‐à‐Mousson

3,061

 17,257a

A. Grandpierre

Compagnie Française des Métaux

2,538

12,663

4,000

H. Thélier

Société Métallurgique de Normandie

2,148

22,175

4,461

F. Walckenaer

Longwy

1,329

29,262

13,607

J. Raty

*De Wendel & Cie

47,424

20,482

H. de Wendel

Textile

Celtex

5,168

14,843

L. Chatin

*Viscose Française

2,857

 11,437b

E. Carnot

Givet‐Izieux

2,679

12,926

C. Gillet

Saint‐Frères

1,855

9,800

7,000

R. Saint

Food, drink, tobacco

Astra

5,203

12,518

H. Dehollain

Raffinerie et Sucrerie Say

2,768

12,120

T. Robert

Georges Lesieur et ses fils

1,428

6,984

P. Lesieur

Chemicals

Pechiney

9,429

54,830

R. Piaton

Rhône‐Poulenc

6,444

27,526

9,706

F. Albert‐Buisson

Kuhlmann

6,224

22,792

15,000c

E. Périlhou

Ugine

6,122

36,655

8,600

E. Mathieu

Saint‐Gobain

5,047

55,429

35,000

P. Hély d'Oissel

L'Air Liquide

2,527

17,883

4,500

J. Delorme

Electrical engineering

Compagnie Générale d'Électricité

6,122

35,534

18,000

J. Jourdain

Alsthom

3,362

47,820

P. Le Bourhis

Thomson‐Houston

2,369

25,910

6,000

E. de Lassus

Jeumont

2,156

23,414

6,800

G. de la Rochette

Mechanical engineering

Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques

2,449

21,898

12,000

A. Bommelaer

Motor car

Citroën

6,540

39,939

17,400

R. Puiseux

Peugeot

4,592

23,306

16,000

J. P. Peugeot

Renault

60,351

28,000

P. Lefaucheux

Aeronautics

SNECMA

5,601

34,554

12,485

H. Desbruères

Oil

Compagnie Française des Pétroles

17,762

73,446

V. de Metz

Esso Standard

11,397

56,076

S. Scheer

Huiles de Pétrole (BP)

8,032

 41,404d

4,959

J. de Rohan

Rubber

Michelin

6,122

19,633

13,000

R. Puiseux

II. Finance

Banking

Paribas

2,812

90,411

E. Monick

Banque de l'Indochine

1,750

93,436

E. Minost

Crédit Lyonnais

1,020

442,512

E. Escarra

Société Générale

765

379,958

P. de Moüy

Comptoir d'Escompte

408

228,264

G. Gaussel

III. Services

Shipping

Messageries Maritimes

4,082

 67,757e

G. Anduze‐Faris

Chargeurs Réunis

2,551

14,224

F. C. Fabre

Distribution

Au Printemps

734

10,487

3,000

P. Laguionie

Press and communication

Hachette

1,148

13,799

R. Meunier de Houssoy

(a) 1952.

(b) 1952.

(c) 1956.

(d) 1952.

(e) 1954.

(p.262) (p.263) (p.264)

C3. Germany, 1953

Share capital

Total assets

Workforce

Chairmana

I. Industry

Heavy industry

Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks

31,453

144,821

O. Springorum

Mannesmann

20,513

93,264

18,000

W. Zangen

Rheinstahl

20,533

34,024

22,019

H. Reckmann

Klöckner‐Werke

17,949

55,729

W. Dubusc

*Dortmund‐Hörder Hüttenunion

15,726

64,420

19,764

F. Elshoff

*Phoenix

9,829

64,526

10,095

F. A. Goergen

Thyssen

9,829

 54,408b

6,050

H. G. Sohl

*Hüttenwerk Oberhausen

8,888

35,032

13,519

G. Bruns

Ilseder Hütte

8,738

21,251

12,692

P. Möllenberg

Rheinpreussen AG

8,547

21,158

18,436

*Rheinische Röhrenwerke

7,863

35,194

13,042

Gutehoffnungshütte

7,111

9,115

54,058

H. Reusch

*Hüttenwerk Rheinhausen

5,983

 36,938c

11,900

Gusstahlwerk Bochumer Verein

5,897

37,167

14,361

W. Geldmacher

Textile

Vereinigte Glanzstoff‐Fabriken

7,821

18,700

10,840

E. H. Vits

Christian Dierig

4,017

8,382

3,178

A. Flaitz

Food, drink, tobacco

*Margarine‐Union

8,547

29,885

K. Blessing

Süddeutsche Zucker

5,128

13,011

5,503

C. Quensell

Chemicals

Bayer

33,137

92,891

33,168

U. Haberland

BASF

29,068

71,371

27,208

C. Wurster

Hoechst

24,424

59,886

14,572

K. Winnacker

*Chemische Werke Hüls

10,256

24,192

7,745

P. Baumann

Wintershall

8,974

25,386

4,729

W. Zentgraf

Degussa

6,538

17,418

6,939

H. Schlosser

Electrical engineering

Siemens & Halske

20,513

63,236

96,400d

E. von Siemens

Siemens Schuckertwerke

17,094

69,872

F. Bauer

AEG

7,521

56,241

35,100

F. Spenrath

Felten & Guilleaume Carlswerk

6,615

14,486

4,848

J. Horatz

Accumulatoren‐Fabrik

5,994

13,245

G. Quandt

Robert Bosch

4,103

25,848

22,884

H. Waltz

Mechanical engineering

Klöckner‐Humboldt‐Deutz

5,556

22,410

16,853

H. Jakopp

Demag

3,624

26,256

H. Reuter

MAN

3,419

35,448

20,311

O. Meyer

Motor car

Daimler‐Benz

6,167

29,075

35,000

F. Könecke

Oil

*Deutsche Shell

10,256

36,625

5,647

*Esso AG

10,000

38,316

G. Geyer

Deutsche Erdöl

8,547

24,501

16,401

E. Grages

Rubber

Continental

7,556

19,473

13,657

W. Garbe

II. Finance

Banking

*Deutsche Bank

13,675

H. Abs

*Dresdner Bank

12,821

A. Hoelling

*Commerzbank

8,547

H. Erkelenz

Insurance

Allianz Versicherung

3,009

32,954

3,547

H. Goudefroy

*Münchner Rückversicherung

1,282

27,843

A. Alzheimer

III. Services

Shipping

HAPAG

3,963

20,584

W. Traber

Distribution

Karstadt

5,128

16,372

H. Loenen

(a) Executive board chairman.

(b) 1954.

(c) 1952.

(d) Siemens & Halske and Siemens Schuckertwerke.

(p.265) (p.266)

Notes:

(1) Profits and profitability of the companies included in the 1907 sample have been calculated for the years 1911–13 in order to include French companies, for which systematic data are only available from 1910–11 onwards.

(2) See Fortune, Sept. 1973 and 30 July 1990. For the purpose of this study, the performances of all companies with a turnover of $400 million or more, and the leaders of the 35 top British and the 30 top French and German companies, have been considered for 1972. The performances of all companies with a turnover of $2.5 billion or more, and the leaders of the 33 top British, French, and German companies, have been considered for 1989.