Plurality Case Study Election Results: Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
This chapter and the next describe the political histories of the case studies presented in the book, paying particular attention to their democratic transitions, institutional choices, and experience of multiparty elections. Together with Ch. 7, they form the historical, empirical, and quantitative heart of the book, providing the foundational evidence against which earlier postulated theories are gauged (Chs 1 and 2), and upon which subsequent comparisons, recommendations, and conclusions are based. Chapter 5 deals with the plurality single-member districts (SMD) case studies undertaken in Malawi and Zambia, and the proportional representation (PR) and plurality SMD case studies in Zimbabwe (which used PR for its first two elections and plurality SMD for the next three). For each case study, full numerical results are given, along with an explanation of the electoral system formula and how that system came to be used; also included are summaries of the implications, for both parties and government, of election results, defining aspects of each newly elected parliament, and the election campaign that preceded it; the question of the validity and legitimacy of each published result is also addressed. A re-running exercise is carried out in Ch. 7 that uses the results presented here, and is based on the alternative vote in single-member districts (AV-SMD), the alternative vote in multi-member districts (AV-MMD), list PR in regionally defined multi-member districts, and list PR in one national multi-member districts; the list PR elections held in Zimbabwe are also re-run in Ch. 7 under plurality SMD, AV-SMD, and AV-SMD, together with the list PR method not utilized in the actual elections.
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