Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
A Theory of Employment SystemsMicro-Foundations of Societal Diversity$

David Marsden

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198294221

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198294220.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 17 January 2017

(p.274) References

(p.274) References

Source:
A Theory of Employment Systems
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abraham, K. (1990) ‘Restructuring the employment relationship: the growth of market‐mediated work arrangements’. In Abraham, K. and McKersie, R. (eds), New Developments in the Labor Market: Toward a New Institutional Paradigm. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Abraham, K. and Farber, H. (1987) ‘Job duration, seniority, and earnings’. American Economic Review, 77 (3), June, pp. 278–97.

Abraham, K. G. and Medoff, J. L. (1985) ‘Length of service and promotions in union and non‐union work groups’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 38 (3), April, pp. 408–20.

ACAS (1990) Appraisal Related Pay. ACAS Advisory Booklet No. 14. HMSO, London.

Akerlof, G. and Yellen, J. (eds) (1986) Efficiency Wage Models of the Labour Market. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Alchian, A. and Demsetz, H. (1972) ‘Production, information costs, and economic organization’. American Economic Review, Dec., pp. 777–95.

Althauser, R. and Kalleberg, A. (1981) ‘Firms, occupations and the structure of labor markets: a conceptual analysis’. In Berg, I. (ed.), Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets. Academic Press, New York, Ch. 5, pp. 119–49.

Altmann, N., Köhler, C. and Meil, P. (eds) (1992) Technology and Work in German Industry. Routledge, London.

Aoki, M. (1988) Information, Incentives, and Bargaining in the Japanese Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Appelbaum, E. and Batt, R. (1994) The New American Workplace: Transforming Work Systems in the United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Armstrong, M. and Murlis, H. (1994) Reward Management: a Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice. 3rd edn. Kogan Page, London.

Arthur, M. B. and Rousseau, D. M. (eds) (1996) The Boundaryless Career: a New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era. Oxford University Press, New York.

Ashworth, T. (1980) Trench Warfare 191418: the Live and Let Live System. Macmillan, London.

Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing Working Practices: How Companies Achieve Flexibility to Meet New Needs. National Economic Development Office, London.

Axelrod, R. (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books, New York. (p.275)

Baraldi, L., Dumasy, J‐P. and Troussier, J‐F. (1995) ‘Accords salariaux innovants et théorie du salaire’. Économie Appliquée, 48 (4), pp. 105–37.

Baron, J., Davis‐Blake, A. and Bielby, W. (1986a) ‘The structure of opportunity: how promotion ladders vary within and among organizations’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31 (2), June, pp. 48–273.

Baron, J., Dobbin, F. and Devereaux Jennings, P. (1986b) ‘War and peace: the evolution of modern personnel administration in US industry’. American Journal of Sociology, 92 (2), Sept., pp. 350–83.

Barrat, O., Coutrot, T. and Mabile, S. (1996) ‘La négociation salariale en France: des marges de manoeuvre réduites au début des années quatre‐vingt‐dix’. In Données Sociales 1996. INSEE, Paris.

Bayet, A. (1996) ‘L’éventail des salaires et ses déterminants'. In Données Sociales 1996. INSEE, Paris.

Becker, G. S. (1975) Human Capital: a Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bees, M., and Swords, M. (eds) (1990) National Vocational Qualifications and Further Education. Kogan Page, London.

Belman, D. (1992) ‘Unions, the quality of labor relations, and firm performance’. In Mishel, L. and Voos, P. (eds), Unions and Economic Competitiveness. M. E. Sharpe, New York, pp. 41–107.

Béret, P. (1992) ‘Salaires et marchés internes: quelques évolutions récentes en France’. Économie Appliquée, 45(2), pp. 5–22.

Béret, P. and Dupray, A. (1998) ‘La formation professionnelle continue: de l'accumulation de compétences à la validation de la performance’. Formation Emploi, 63, July–Sept., pp. 61–80.

Berg, P. (1994) ‘Strategic adjustments in training: a comparative analysis of the US and German automobile industries’. In Lynch, L. (ed.), Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons. National Bureau of Economic Research, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Best, S. H. (1984) And Now for Something Completely Different: a Report on Personnel Management in Sumitomo Metal Industries, Japan. British Steel Corporation, London.

Betters, P. (1931) The Personnel Classification Board: its History, Activities and Organization. Brookings Institution, Washington.

Biedenkopf, K. (1970) Mitbestimmung im Unternehmen. Bericht der Sachverständigenkommission zur Auswertung der bisherigen Erfahrungen bei der Mitbestimmung. Deutscher Bundestag, Bochum.

Bishop, J. (1987) ‘The recognition and reward of employee performance’. Journal of Labor Economics, 5 (4), Part 2, Oct., pp. 36–56.

Blau, F. and Kahn, L. (1996) ‘International differences in male wage inequality: institutions versus market forces’. Journal of Political Economy, 104 (4), Aug., pp. 791–837.

BLS (1992) ‘Employment Cost Index’. In Handbook of Methods 1992, Ch. 8. Bulletin 2414. US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC.

BLS (1994) Employment Cost Indexes and Levels 1975–94, Bulletin 2447. US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC.

Booth, A. (1995) The Economics of the Trade Union. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bosch, G. and Lichte, R. (1982) ‘Die Funktionsweise informeller Senioritätsrechte: am (p.276) Beispiel einer betrieblichen Fallstudie’. In Dohse, K., Jürgens, U. and Russig, H. (eds). (See ref.)

Bowers, J., Deaton, D. and Turk, J. (1982) Labour Hoarding in British Industry. Blackwell, Oxford.

Boyer, R. and Orléan, A. (1995) ‘Stabilité de la coopération dans les jeux évolutionnistes stochastiques’. Revue économique, 46 (3), May, pp. 797–806.

Brandes, W., Buttler, F. et al. (1990) Der Staat als Arbeitgeber: Daten und Analysen zum Öffentlichen Dienst in der Bundesrepublik. Campus, Frankfurt.

Bridges, W. and Villemez, W. (1991) ‘Employment relations and the labor market: integrating institutional and market perspectives’. American Sociological Review, 56, pp. 748–64.

Bridges, W. and Villemez, W. (1994) The Employment Relationship: Causes and Consequences of Modern Personnel Administration. Plenum, New York.

Brossard, M. (1977) ‘La structure de l'organisation du travail dans l'entreprise et les pouvoirs dans le système de relations industrielles’. Thèse pour le Doctorat de Troisième Cycle, Université d'Aix‐Marseille II, Sept.

Brown, C., Nakata, Y., Reich, M. and Ulman, L. (1997) Work and Pay in the United States and Japan. Oxford University Press, New York.

Brown, J. (1989) ‘Why do wages increase with tenure? On‐the‐job training and life‐cycle wage growth observed within firms’. American Economic Review, 79 (5), Dec., pp. 971–91.

Brown, W. E. (1973) Piecework Bargaining. Heinemann, London.

Brown, W. (ed.) (1981) The Changing Contours of British Industrial Relations. Blackwell, Oxford.

Brown, Wilfred (1962) Piecework Abandoned: the Effect of Wage Incentive Systems on Managerial Authority. Heinemann, London.

Büchtemann, C., Schupp, J. and Soloff, D. (1993) ‘Übergänge von der Schule in den Beruf: Deutschland und USA im Vergleich’. Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt‐ und Berufsforschung, 26 (4).

Bullock, A. (Lord, Chairman) (1977) Report of the Committee of Inquiry on Industrial Democracy. Department of Trade, Cmnd 6706. HMSO, London.

Burawoy, M. (1979) Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Buttler, F., Franz, W., Schettkat, R. and Soskice, D. (eds) (1995) Institutional Frameworks and Labour Market Performance: Comparative Views on the US and German Economies. Routledge, London.

Buttrick, J. (1952) ‘The inside contract system’. Journal of Economic History, 12 (3), Summer, pp. 205–21.

Campinos‐Dubernet, M., Grando, J‐M., Möbus, M. and Margirier, G. (eds). (1991) Europe et Chantiers: le BTP en Europe: Structures Industrielles et Marché du Travail. Ministère de l'Equipement, du Logement, des Transports et de l'Espace, Paris.

Cannell, M. and Wood, S. (1992) Incentive Pay: Impact and Evolution. Institute of Personnel Management/National Economic Development Office, London.

Card, D. and Krueger, A. (1995) Myth and Measurement: the New Economics of the Minimum Wage. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Carrière‐Ramanoelina, M. and Zarifian, P. (1985) ‘Le technicien d'atelier dans la classification de la métallurgie: de la référence au métier à l'analyse de l'emploi; vers un ouvrier‐technicien?’ Formation Emploi, 9 (1), Jan.–Mar., pp. 11–24.

Carroll, M. (1993) ‘Performance‐related pay: a comparative study of the Inland (p.277) Revenue and a high street bank’. MSc dissertation, Faculty of Technology, UMIST, Manchester, Oct.

Cartter, A. M. (1959) Theory of Wages and Employment. Richard D. Irwin, Illinois.

CERC (Centre d'Etude des Revenus et des Coûts) (1987) Salaires et compléments de rémunération: analyse des pratiques d'entreprises. Documents du CERC, No. 87, 4ème trimestre, Documentation Française, Paris.

CERC (1988) La Structure des Salaires dans la Communauté Economique Européenne. Documentation Française, Paris.

Chandler, A. (1990) Scale and Scope: the Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Clark, J. (1994) ‘Greenfield sites and the “New Industrial Relations” ’. ISVET‐IRRU (ed.). Participation, Involvement and Company Performance in Great Britain. Franco Angeli, Milan.

Clark, R. and Ogawa, N. (1992) ‘Employment tenure and earnings profiles in Japan and the United States: comment’. American Economic Review, 82 (1), Mar., pp. 336–45.

Clegg, H. (1972) The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain. Blackwell, Oxford.

Coase, R. H. (1937) ‘The nature of the firm’. Economica, Nov., pp. 386–405.

Cole, R. E. (1979) Work, Mobility and Participation: a Comparative Study of American and Japanese industry. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Cole, R. (1989) Strategies for Learning: Small‐group Activities in American, Japanese and Swedish Industry. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Cole, R. (1994) ‘Different quality paradigms and their implications for organisational learning’. In Aoki, M. and Dore, R. (eds), The Japanese Firm: the Sources of Competitive Strength. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Commons, J. R. (1924) Legal Foundations of Capitalism. Macmillan, New York.

Conner, K. R. and Prahalad, C. K. (1996) ‘A resource‐based theory of the firm: knowledge versus opportunism’. Organization Science, 7 (5), Sept.–Oct., pp. 477–501.

Cook, M. (1993) Personnel Selection and Productivity. Wiley, New York.

Craig, C., Rubery, J., Tarling, R. and Wilkinson, F. (1980) Abolition and After: the Cutlery Wages Council. Department of Employment Research Paper No. 18, Department of Employment, London.

Craig, C., Rubery, J., Tarling, R. and Wilkinson, F. (1982) Labour Market Structure, Industrial Organisation and Low Pay. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cropanzano, R. and Fulger, R. (1991) ‘Procedural justice and worker motivation’. In Steers, R. and Porter, L. (eds), Motivation and Work Behavior. 5th edn. McGraw‐Hill, New York, pp. 131–43.

Crouch, C. (1995) ‘Organized interests as resources or as constraint: rival logics of vocational training policy’. In Crouch, C. and Traxler, F. (eds), Organized Industrial Relations in Europe: What Future? Avebury, Aldershot.

Crozier, M. (1963) Le Phénomène Bureaucratique. Seuil, Paris.

Cutcher‐Gershenfeld, J. (1991) ‘The impact on economic performance of a transformation in workplace relations’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 44 (2), Jan., pp. 241–60.

Dasgupta, P. (1988) ‘Trust as a commodity’. In Gambetta, D. (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Blackwell, Oxford.

Davis, L., Canter, R. and Hoffman, J. (1955) ‘Current job design criteria’. Journal of Industrial Engineering, 16, pp. 1–7.

Davis, L. E. (1971) ‘The coming crisis for production management: technology and organisation’. International Journal of Production Research, 9, pp. 65–82. (p.278)

Davis, S. J. (1992) ‘Cross‐country patterns of change in relative wages’. In NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1992. NBER, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 239–91.

Deakin, S. and Wilkinson, F. (1998) ‘Contract law and the economics of interorganizational trust’. In Lane, C. and Bachmann, R. (eds), Trust within and between Organizations: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Ch. 5. pp. 146–72.

DeFreitas, G., Marsden, D. W. and Ryan, P. (1991) ‘Youth employment patterns in segmented labor markets in the US and Europe’. Eastern Economic Journal, 17 (2), pp. 223–36.

Delp, V., Schmidt, L. and Wohlfahrt, K. (1974) ‘Gewerkschaftliche Betriebspolitik bei Ford’. In Jacobi, O., Müller‐Jentsch, W. and Schmidt, E. (eds), Gewerkschaften und Klassenkampf, Kritisches Jahrbuch ‘74. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt. pp. 161–75.

Dertouzos, M., Lester, R. and Solow, R. (1989) Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge. The MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

DiMaggio, P. and Powell, W. (1983) ‘The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields’. American Sociological Review, 48, Apr., pp. 147–60.

Doeringer, P. B. and Piore, M. J. (1971) Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Heath, Lexington.

Dohse, K., Jürgens, U. and Russig, H. (1982) ‘Hire and Fire?’ Senioritätsregelungen in amerikanischen Betrieben. Campus, Frankfurt.

Dore, R. (1973) British Factory—Japanese Factory: the Origins of Diversity in Industrial Relations. George Allen and Unwin, London.

Dore, R. P. and Sako, M. (1989) How the Japanese Learn to Work. Routledge, London.

Dougherty, C. (1987) ‘The German dual system: a heretical view’. European Journal of Education, 22 (2), pp. 195–9.

Drexel, I. (1980) Die Krise der Anlernung im Arbeitsprozess. Soziale Welt, 31 (3), pp. 368–95.

Drexel, I. (1993) Das Ende des Facharbeiteraufstiegs? Neue mittlere Bildungs‐ und Karrierewege in Deutschland und Frankreich: ein Vergleich. Campus Velag, Frankfurt.

Dugué, E. (1994) ‘La gestion des compétences: les savoirs dévalués, le pouvoir occulté’. Sociologie du Travail, 3, pp. 273–92.

Düll, K. (1986) ‘The analysis of new forms of work organisation—results of case studies from the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy’. In Grootings, P., Gustavsen, B. and Héthy, L. (eds), New Forms of Work Organisation and their Social and Economic Environment. Vienna Centre and Institute of Labour Research Budapest, Budapest.

Dunlop, J. T. (1958) Industrial Relations Systems. Holt, New York.

Eaton, A. and Voos, P. (1992) ‘Unions and contemporary innovations in work organization, compensation and employee participation’. In Mishel, L. and Voos, P. (eds), Unions and Economic Competitiveness. M. E. Sharpe, New York.

Elbaum, B. (1990) ‘L’évolution de l'apprentissage en Grande‐Bretagne et aux États‐Unis depuis les XIXème siècle’. Formation Emploi, 31, July–Sept., pp. 72–84.

Eldridge, J. E. T. (1968) Industrial Disputes: Essays in the Sociology of Industrial Relations. Routledge, London.

Elger, T. (1991) ‘Task flexibility and the intensification of labour in UK manufacturing in the 1980s’. In Pollert, A. (ed.), Farewell to Flexibility. Blackwell, Oxford. (p.279)

Eurostat (1972, 1978) European Structure of Earnings Survey. Eurostat, Luxembourg.

Eurostat (1995) ‘Labour costs in 1992’. Statistics in Focus, Population and Social Conditions, 1995, 14. Eurostat, Luxembourg.

Eustache, D. (1996) Les Nouvelles Politiques de Rémunération des Entreprises et les Réactions des Salariés. Centre d’Études et de Recherches sur les Qualifications, Étude No. 69. CEREQ, Marseille.

Eymard‐Duvernay, F. (1989) ‘Conventions de qualité et formes de coordination’. Revue Économique, 40 (2), Mar., pp. 329–60.

Eyraud, F. (1978) ‘La fin des classifications Parodi’. Sociologie du Travail, 20 (3), July–Sept. pp. 259–79.

Eyraud, F. (1981) ‘Action syndicale et salaire: une comparaison France/Grande‐Bretagne’. Thèse pour le Doctorat ès Sciences Economiques, Université d'Aix‐Marseille II.

Eyraud, F. and Rozenblatt, P. (1994) Les Formes Hiérarchiques: Travail et Salaires dans Neuf Pays Industrialisés. La Documentation Française, Paris.

Eyraud, F., d'Iribarne, A. and Maurice, M. (1988) ‘Des entreprises face aux technologies flexibles: une analyse de la dynamique du changement’. Sociologie du Travail, No. 1, 88, pp. 55–77.

Eyraud, F., Jobert, A., Rozenblatt, P. and Tallard, M. (1989) Les classifications dans l'entreprise: production des hiérarchies professionnelles et salariales. Document Travail Emploi, Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle, Paris.

Eyraud, F., Marsden, D. W. and Silvestre, J. J. (1990) ‘Internal and occupational labour markets in Britain and France’. International Labour Review, 129 (4), pp. 501–17.

Felstead, A. (1991) ‘The social organisation of the franchise: a case study of “controlled self‐employment” ’. Work, Employment and Society, 5 (1), Mar., pp. 37–57.

Finegold, D. and Soskice, D. (1988) ‘The failure of training in Britain: analysis and prescription’. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 4 (3), pp. 21–53.

Finniston, M. (1980) Engineering our Future: Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Engineering Profession, Cmnd 7794. HMSO, London.

Foulkes, F. (1980) Personnel Policies of Large Nonunion Companies. Prentice‐Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Foulkes, F. (1988) ‘Employment Security Developments in the Non‐union Sector’. Industrial Relations Research Association Series, Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting, Dec. 28–30. New York, pp. 411–17.

Fox, A. (1974) Beyond Contract: Work, Power and Trust Relations. Faber, London.

Freeman, R. and Katz, L. (1994) ‘Rising wage inequality: the United States vs. other advanced countries’. In Freeman, R. (ed.), Working under Different Rules. NBER/ Russell Sage Foundation, New York, Ch. 2, pp. 29–62.

Freeman, R. and Katz, L. (eds) (1995) Differences and Changes in Wage Structures. NBER, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Freeman, R. B. and Medoff, J. L. (1984) What Do Unions Do? Basic Books, New York.

Gallie, D. (1978) In Search of the New Working Class: Automation and Social Integration within the Capitalist Enterprise. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gallie, D. (1983) Social Inequality and Class Radicalism in France and Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gallie, D. and White, M. (1994) ‘Employer policies, employee contracts, and labour‐market structure’. In Rubery, J. and Wilkinson, F. (eds), Employer Strategy and the Labour Market. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Ch. 2. (p.280)

Géhin, J‐P. and Méhaut, P. (1993) Apprentissage ou Formation Continue? Stratégies Éducatives des Entreprises en Allemagne et en France. L'Harmattan, Paris.

Genda, Y. (1998) ‘Japan: wage differentials, and changes since the 1980s'. In Tachibanaki, T. (ed.), Wage Differentials: an International Comparison. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Gorgeu, A. and Mathieu, R. (1995) Recrutement et Production au Plus Juste: les Nouvelles Usines d'Équipement Automobile en France. Dossier No. 7. Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi, Noisy‐le‐Grand.

Gospel, H. (1998) ‘The revival of apprenticeship training in Britain?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations, 36 (3), Sept., pp. 435–57.

Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: a Study of Contacts and Careers. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Greenacre, L. (1990) ‘Competence and coherence: opportunities for education and industry in the emerging NVQ framework’. In Bees, M. and Swords, M. (eds). (See Ref.)

Gustman, A., Mitchell, O. and Steinmeier, T. (1994) ‘The role of pensions in the labor market: a survey of the literature’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47 (3), Apr., pp. 417–38.

Hamermesh, D. and Rees, A. (1993) The Economics of Work and Pay. 5th edn. Harper Collins, New York.

Hanada, M. and McBride, K. (1986) ‘Organizational structures in Japanese and US manufacturing’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, pp. 334–64.

Hashimoto, M. and Raisian, J. (1985) ‘Employment tenure and earnings profiles in Japan and the United States’. American Economic Review, 75, (Sept.), pp. 721–35.

Hashimoto, M. and Raisian, J. (1992) ‘Employment tenure and earnings profiles in Japan and the United States: reply’. American Economic Review, 82, pp. 346–54.

Hays, W. L. (1973) Statistics for the Social Sciences. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, London.

Hill, S. (1991) ‘Why quality circles failed but total quality management might succeed’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29 (4), pp. 541–68.

Hofbauer, H. and Nagel, E. (1987) Mobilität nach Abschluβ der betrieblichen Berufsausbildung. Mitteilungen aus der Institut für Arbeitsmarkt und Berufsforschung 1/87, Nürnberg, pp. 45–73.

Holmstrom, B. and Milgrom, P. (1991) ‘Multitask principal‐agent analysis: incentive contracts, asset ownership, and job design’. The Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 7, pp. 24–52.

Hunter, J. E. (1983) ‘A causal analysis of cognitive ability, job knowledge, job performance and supervisory ratings'. In Landy, F., Zedeck, S. and Cleveland, J. (eds), Performance Measurement and Theory. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Ichniowski, C. (1990) Human Resource Management Systems and the Performance of US Manufacturing Businesses. NBER Working Paper No. 3449, Sept.

INSEE (1996) L'Évolution des Salaires jusqu'en 1994. Synthèses, No. 4. Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, Paris.

d'Iribarne, Ph. (1989) La Logique de l'Honneur: Gestion des Entreprises et Traditions Nationales. Seuil, Paris.

Jacobs, E., Orwell, S., Paterson, P. and Weltz, F. (1978) The Approach to Industrial Change in Britain and Germany. Anglo‐German Foundation, London.

Jacoby, S. M. (1993) ‘Pacific ties: industrial relations and employment systems in Japan and the United States since 1900’. In Lichtenstein, N. and Harris, H. (eds), Industrial (p.281) Democracy in America: the Ambiguous Promise. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jacoby, S. M. (1985) Employing Bureaucracy: Managers, Unions, and the Transformation of Work in American Industry, 19001945. Columbia University Press, New York.

Jobert, A. (1990) ‘Les grilles de classification professionnelle: quelques repères historiques’. CFDT Aujourd'hui, No. 99, Dec., pp. 6–14.

Jobert, A. and Rozenblatt, P. (1985) ‘Portée et limite d'un accord de branche sur les classifications’. Formation Emploi, 9, Jan.–Mar., pp. 3–10.

Jones, C. and Walsh, K. (1997) ‘Boundaryless careers in the US film industry’. Industrielle Beziehungen, 4 (1), pp. 58–73.

Junankar, P. N. (ed.) (1987) From School to Unemployment? The Labour Market for Young People. Macmillan, London.

Jürgens, U. and Strömel, H‐P. (1987) ‘The communication structure between management and shop floor: a comparison of a Japanese and a German plant’. In Trevor M. (ed.), The Internationalization of Japanese Business: European and Japanese Perspectives. Campus, Frankfurt.

Jürgens, U., Malsch, T. and Dohse, K. (1993) Breaking from Taylorism: Changing Forms of Work in the Automobile Industry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kalleberg, A., Knoke, D., Marsden, P. and Spaeth, J. (1996) Organizations in America: Analyzing their Structures and Human Resource Practices. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.

Katz, E. and Ziderman, A. (1990) ‘Investment in general training: the role of information and labour mobility’. Economic Journal, 100 (403), Dec., pp. 1147–58.

Katz, H. C. (1985) Shifting Gears: Changing Labor Relations in the US Automobile Industry. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Katz, L., Loveman, G., and Blanchflower, D. (1995) ‘A comparison of changes in the structure of wages in four OECD countries’. In Freeman, R. and Katz, L. (eds), Differences and Changes in Wage Structures. NBER, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 25–65.

Kay, J. and Silberston, A. (1995) ‘Corporate governance’. National Institute Economic Review, 84, Aug.

Kern, H. and Schumann, M. (1984) Das Ende der Arbeitsteilung: Rationalisierung in der industriellen Produktion. C. H. Beck, München.

Kerr, C. (1954) ‘The balkanization of labor markets’. In Bakke (ed.), Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 92–110.

King, L., Hunter, J. and Schmidt, F. (1980) ‘Halo in a multi‐dimensional forced choice performance scale’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, pp. 507–16.

Kling, J. (1995) High performance work systems and firm performance. Monthly Labor Review, May, pp. 29–36.

Knights, D., Willmott, H. and Collinson, D. (eds) (1985) Job Redesign: Critical Perspectives on the Labour Process. Gower, Aldershot.

Kochan, T. and Osterman, P. (1994) The Mutual Gains Enterprise. Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1996) ‘What do firms do? Coordination, identity, and learning’. Organization Science, 7 (5), Sept.–Oct., pp. 502–18.

Koike, K. (1984) ‘Skill formation system in the US and Japan’. In Aoki, M. (ed.), The Economic Analysis of the Japanese Firm. North Holland, Amsterdam. (p.282)

Koike, K. (1988) Understanding Industrial Relations in Modern Japan. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Koike, K. (1997) Human Resource Development. Japanese Economy & Labor Series, No. 2, Japan Institute of Labour, Tokyo.

Koike, K. and Inoki, T. (eds). (1990) Skill Formation in Japan and Southeast Asia. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.

Koyo Shokugyo Sogo Kenkyusho (Institute of Employment and Occupation) (1982) Kigyo nai Rodoryoku no Yuko Katsuyo ni kansuru Jittai Chosa (A survey on the utilization of the internal work force). Koyo Shokugyo Sogo Kenkyusho.

Lam, A. (1992) Women and Japanese Management: Discrimination and Reform. Routledge, London.

Lam, A. (1994) ‘The utilisation of human resources: a comparative study of British and Japanese engineers in the electronics industries’. Human Resource Management Journal, 4 (3), Spring, pp. 22–40.

Lam, A. (1997) ‘Embedded firms, embedded knowledge: problems of collaboration and knowledge transfer in global cooperative ventures’. Organisation Studies, 18 (6), pp. 973–96.

Lam, A. (1998) ‘Tacit knowledge, organisational learning, and innovation: a societal perspective’. Danish Research Unit for Industrial Dynamics (DRUID), Aalborg University, Working Paper No. 78–12, Aalborg University.

Landers, R., Rebitzer, J. and Taylor, L. (1996) ‘Human resources practices and the demographic transformation of professional labour markets’. In Osterman, P. (ed.), Broken Ladders: Managerial Careers in the New Economy. Oxford University Press, New York.

Landy, F. and Farr, J. (1983) The Measurement of Work Performance: Methods, Theory, and Applications. Academic Press, New York.

Lane, C. and Bachmann, R. (eds) (1998) Trust Within and Between Organizations: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lawler, E. E. III. (1971) Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: a Psychological View. McGraw‐Hill, New York.

Lawler, E. E. III (1994) ‘From job‐based to competency‐based organizations’. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15 (3), pp. 3–15.

Lawler, E. E. III, Mohrman, S. A. and Ledford, G. E. (1992) Employee Involvement and Total Quality Management: Practices and Results in Fortune 1000 Companies. Jossey‐Bass, San Francisco.

Layard, R., Mayhew, K. and Owen, G. (eds) (1994) Britain's Training Deficit. Avebury, Aldershot.

Lazear, E. (1995) Personnel Economics. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Leighton, P. (1983) Contractual Arrangements in Selected Industries: a Study of Employment Relationships in Industries with Outwork. Department of Employment Research Paper No. 39. Department of Employment, London.

Lemmon, E. J. (1965) Beginning Logic. Nelson, London.

Leroy‐Beaulieu, P. (1896) Traité Théorique et Pratique d'Économie Politique. Guillaumin, Paris.

Levine, D. I. and D'Andrea Tyson, L. (1990) ‘Participation, productivity, and the firm's environment’. In Blinder, A. S. (ed.), Paying for Productivity. Brookings Institution, Washington DC, pp. 183–244.

Lincoln, J. R. and Kalleberg, A. L. (1990) Culture, Control and Commitment: a Study of (p.283) Work Organization and Work Attitudes in the United States and Japan. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lincoln, J. R. and Nakata, Y. (1997) ‘The transformation of the Japanese employment system: nature, depth, and origins’. Work and Occupations, 24 (1), Feb., pp. 33–55.

Lincoln, J., Hanada, M. and McBride, K. (1986) ‘Organizational structures in Japanese and US manufacturing’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, pp. 338–64.

Linhart, D., Rozenblatt P. and Voegele S. (1993) ‘Vers une nouvelle rémunération scientifique du travail?’ Travail et Emploi, No. 57, pp. 30–47.

Littler, C. (1985) ‘Taylorism, Fordism and job design’. In Knights, D., Willmott, H and Collinson, D. (eds). (See Ref.)

Lorenz, E. (1995) ‘Promoting workplace participation: lessons from Germany and France’. Industrielle Beziehungen, 2 (1), pp. 46–63.

Lutz, B. (1975) Krise des Lohnanreizes: ein empirisch‐historischer Beitrag zum Wandel der Formen betrieblicher Herrschaft am Beispiel der deutschen Stahlindustrie. Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt.

Lutz, B. (1976) ‘Bildungssystem und Beschäftigungsstruktur in Deutschland und Frankreich: zum Einfluß des Bildungssystems auf die Gestaltung betrieblicher Arbeitskräftestrukturen’. In Mendius H‐G., Sengenberger W. et al. (eds), Betrieb‐Arbeitsmarkt‐Qualifikation 1. Aspekte Verlag, Frankfurt.

Lynch, L. (1992) ‘Private sector training and the earnings of young workers’. American Economic Review, 82, Mar., pp. 299–312.

Lynch, L. (ed.) (1994) Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons. National Bureau of Economic Research, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

MacKay, D. I., Boddy, D., Brack, J., Diack, J. A. and Jones, N. (1971) Labour Markets under Different Employment Conditions. George Allen and Unwin, London.

McKersie, R. B and Hunter, L. C. (1973) Pay, Productivity and Collective Bargaining. Macmillan, London.

Makaronidis, A. (1995) ‘Main Features of the European Employment Cost Index (EECI)’. (E3/95/Sal.07 EN). Eurostat, Luxembourg.

Malcomson, J. (1997) ‘Contracts, hold‐up, and labor markets’. Journal of Economic Literature, 35 (4), Dec., pp. 1916–57.

Manning, A. (1996) ‘The Equal Pay Act as an experiment to test theories of the labour market’. Economica, 63, pp. 191–212.

Manning, A. (1998) ‘Mighty Good Thing: the Returns to Tenure’. Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper, No. 383. London School of Economics, London. Mar.

Marsden, D. W. (1978) Industrial Democracy and Industrial Control in West Germany, France and Great Britain. Research Paper No. 4, Department of Employment, London.

Marsden, D. W. (1982) ‘Career structures and training in internal labour markets in Britain and West Germany’. Manpower Studies, No. 4, Spring, pp. 10–17.

Marsden, D. W. (1986) The End of Economic Man? Custom and Competition in Labour Markets. Wheatsheaf, Brighton.

Marsden, D. W. (1990) ‘Institutions and labour mobility: occupational and internal labour markets in Britain, France, Italy and West Germany’. In Brunetta, R. and Dell'Aringa, C. (eds), Labour Relations and Economic Performance. Macmillan, London.

Marsden, D. W. (1995) ‘A phoenix from the ashes of apprenticeship? Vocational training in Britain’. International Contributions to Labour Studies (Supplement to the Cambrige Journal of Economics), 5, pp. 87–114. (p.284)

Marsden, D. W. (1996) ‘The European Employment Cost Index: Methodology and Diffusion’. Report for Eurostat, Luxembourg.

Marsden, D. W. and French, S. (1998) What a Performance: Performance Related Pay in the Public Services. Centre for Economic Performance Special Report, London School of Economics, London.

Marsden, D. W. and Momigliano, S. (1996) ‘L'utilizzo di sistemi di incentivazione nel pubblico impiego: problemi e possibili soluzioni’. Lavoro et Relazioni Industriale, No. 4. Oct.–Dec., pp. 35–69.

Marsden, D. W. and Richardson, R. (1992) ‘Motivation and Performance Related Pay in the Public Sector: a Case Study of the Inland Revenue’. Centre for Economic Performance Discussion, Paper No. 75. London School of Economics, London.

Marsden, D. W. and Richardson, R. (1994) ‘Performing for pay? The effects of “merit pay” on motivation in a public service’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 32 (2), June, pp. 243–62.

Marsden, D. W. and Ryan P. (1990a) ‘Institutional aspects of youth employment and training policy in Britain’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 28 (3), Nov., pp. 351–70.

Marsden D. W. and Ryan P. (1990b) ‘Intermediate level vocational training and the structure of labour markets in Western Europe in the 1980s’. In Ferman, L. A., Hoyman M., Cutcher‐Gershenfeld, J. and Savoie, E. J. (eds) New Developments in Worker Training: a Legacy for the 1990s. Industrial Relations Research Association, Wisconsin, Madison.

Marsden, D. W. and Ryan, P. (1991) ‘Institutional aspects of youth employment and training policy: reply’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29 (3), Sept., pp. 497–505.

Marsden, D. W., Morris, T., Willman, P. and Wood, S. (1985) The Car Industry: Labour Relations and Industrial Adjustment. Tavistock, London.

Marshall, A. (1920) Principles of Economics. Macmillan, London.

Maurice, M., Sellier, F. and Silvestre, J. J. (1982) Politique d'Éducation et Organisation Industrielle en France et en Allemagne. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Maurice, M., Sellier, F. and Silvestre, J. J. (1986) The Social Foundations of Industrial Power: a Comparison of France and Germany. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (Translated from Politique d'Éducation et Organisation Industrielle en France et en Allemagne. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1982.)

Maurice, M., Mannari, H., Takeoka, Y. and Inoki, T. (1988) Des Entreprises Françaises et Japonaises face à la Mécatronique: Acteurs et Organisation de la Dynamique Industrielle. Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail (CNRS), Aix‐en‐Provence.

Maynard Smith, J. (1982) Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Medoff, J. and Abraham, K. (1980) ‘Experience, performance and earnings’. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 95, pp. 703–36.

Megaw, J. (Chair) (1982) Inquiry into Civil Service Pay: Report. Cmnd 8590. HMSO, London.

Meil, P. (1992) ‘A stranger in paradise—an American's perspective on German industrial sociology’. In Altmann, N., Köhler, C. and Meil, P. (eds), Technology and Work in German Industry. Routledge, London.

Mendius, H‐G., Sengenberger, W. et al. (1976) Betrieb‐Arbeitsmarkt‐ Qualifikation 1. Aspekte Verlag, Frankfurt. (p.285)

Merit Systems Protection Board (1988) Towards Effective Performance Management in the Federal Government. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

Metcalf, D. (1993) ‘Industrial relations and economic performance’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 31 (2), June, pp. 255–84.

Milgrom, P. and Roberts, J. (1992) Economics, Organization and Management. Prentice‐Hall, New Jersey.

Milkovitch, G. T. and Wigdor, A. K. (eds) (1991) Pay for Performance: Evaluating Performance Appraisal and Merit Pay. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

Ministère du Travail (1992) L'Individualisation des Salaires en 1991. Premières Informations, No. 291, 11 August, Service des études et de la statistique, Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle, Paris.

Mitani, N. (1998) ‘France: internal labour markets and wage structure’. In Tachibanaki, T. (ed.), Wage Differentials: an International Comparison. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Morel, C. (1979) ‘Le droit coutumier social dans l'entreprise’. Droit Social, No. 7–8, July–Aug., pp. 279–86.

Mottez, B. (1966) Systèmes de Salaire et Politiques Patronales: Essai sur l'Évolution des Pratiques et des Idéologies Patronales. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

Nakamura, K. (1997) ‘Worker participation, collective bargaining and joint consultation’. In Sako, M. and Sato, H. (eds). Japanese Labour and Management in Transition: Diversity, Flexibility and Participation. Routledge, London.

National Audit Office (1989) Manpower Planning in the Civil Service. Cm 398. HMSO, London.

Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (1982) An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Nickell, S. and Bell, B. (1995) ‘The collapse in demand for the unskilled and unemployment across the OECD’. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 11 (1), pp. 40–62.

Nihon Keieisha Dantai Renmei (1975) Shin‐jidai no Nihonteki‐keieichôsen subeki hôkô to sono shutaisaki, Nihon Keieisha Dantai Renmei, 17 May. Cited in Yamanouchi and Okazaki‐Ward (1997: 205).

Nohara, H. (1995) ‘Les Salaires en France et au Japon: comparaison des structures de salaires dans l'industrie manufacturière des deux pays de 1978 à 1986’. Travail et Emploi, No. 62, 1/95, pp. 59–71.

North, D. C. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

O'Connell, J. (1994) ‘What do franchisers do? Control and commercialisation in milk distribution’. Work, Employment and Society, 8 (1), Mar., pp. 23–44.

O'Reilly, J. (1992) ‘Where do you draw the line? Functional flexibility, training and skill in Britain and France’. Work, Employment and Society, 6 (3), pp. 369–96.

Odagiri, H. (1984) ‘The firm as a collection of human resources’. In Wiles, P. and Routh, G. (eds), Economics in Disarray. Blackwell, Oxford.

OECD (1992) Employment Outlook 1992. OECD, Paris.

OECD (1993) Employment Outlook 1993. OECD, Paris.

OECD (1994) Employment Outlook 1994. OECD, Paris.

OECD (1997) Employment Outlook 1997. OECD, Paris.

Ohkusha, Y., Brunello, G. and Ariga, K. (1997) ‘Occupational and internal labor markets in Japan’. Industrial Relations, 36 (4), Oct., pp. 446–73.

Ohta, S. and Tachibanaki, T. (1998) ‘Job tenure versus age: effects on wages and the (p.286) implication of consumption for wages’. In Ohashi, I. and Tachibanaki, T. (eds), Internal Labour Markets, Incentives and Employment. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Ohtake, F. (1998) ‘The United States’. In Tachibanaki, T. (ed.) Wage Differentials: an International Comparison. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Osterman, P. (1982) ‘Employment structures within firms’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 20 (3), Nov., pp. 34961.

Osterman, P. (1988) Employment Futures: Reorganization, Dislocation, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press, New York.

Osterman, P. (1994) ‘How common is workplace transformation and who adopts it?’ Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47 (2), Jan., pp. 173–88.

Osterman, P. (ed.) (1996) Broken Ladders: Managerial Careers in the New Economy. Oxford University Press, New York.

Parkinson, J. (1996) ‘The Stakeholder Business’. Employment Policy Institute, Economic Report, 10 (2), Feb.

Paul, A. and Kleingartner, A. (1994) ‘Flexible production and the transformation of industrial relations in the motion picture and television industry’. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47 (4), July, pp. 663–78.

Penrose, E. (1959) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Blackwell, Oxford.

Perlman, S. (1928) A Theory of the Labor Movement. Augustus Kelley, New York.

Pfeffer, J. and Cohen, Y. (1984) ‘Determinants of internal labor markets in organizations’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, pp. 550–72.

Piore, M. J. (1968) ‘The impact of the labor market on the design and selection of productive techniques within the manufacturing plant’. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 82 (4), pp. 602–20, Nov.

Piore, M. (1994) ‘European labour market integration: an American perspective’. Social Europe, Supplement 1/94, European Commission, Brussels, pp. 129–36.

Piore, M. J. and Sabel, C. F. (1984) The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. Basic Books, New York.

Podevin, G. and Viney, X. (1991) ‘Sortir de la catégorie des ouvriers non qualifiés pour les jeunes de niveau V: promotion et/ou reclassement?’ Formation Emploi, 35, July–Sept., pp. 47–58.

Pohl, R. and Soleilhavoup, J. (1981) ‘L'entrée des jeunes et mobilité des moins jeunes’. Economie et Statistique, No. 134, June.

Polanyi, M. (1967) The Tacit Dimension. Doubleday Anchor, New York.

Pollard, S. (1965) The Genesis of Modern Management: a Study of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Edward Arnold, London.

Powell, W. and DiMaggio, P. (eds) (1991) The New Institutionalism in Organisational Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

PMRS Review Committee (1991) Advancing Managerial Excellence. Performance Management and Recognition System Review Committee, US Office of Personnel Management, Washington DC.

Prais, S. J. (1981) ‘Vocational Qualifications of the Labour Force in Britain and Germany’. National Institute Economic Review, No. 98, pp. 47–59.

Prowse, S. (1994) Corporate Governance in an International Perspective. BIS Economic Papers, No. 41. Bank for International Settlements, Basel.

Rees, A. and Shultz, G. (1970) Workers and Wages in an Urban Labor Market. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Reynaud, B. (1992) Le Salaire, la Règle et le Marché. Christian Bourgeois, Paris.

Reynaud, J‐D. (1975) Les Syndicats en France. Seuil, Paris. (p.287)

Ribeill, G. (1984) Les Cheminots. La Découverte, Paris.

Rivero, J. and Savatier, J. (1970) Droit du Travail. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Roethlisberger, F. J. and Dickson, W. J. (1939) Management and the Worker. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Rômugyôsei Kenkyûgo (ed.) (1994), cited in Yamanouchi and Okazaki‐Ward (1997: 206). Nihonteki keiei no kenshô to sono mirai‐ge (Examination of Japanese style management and its future, Part 3), Rôseijihô, No. 3158, 15 Apr.

Rotbart, G. (1991) La structure des salaires en France: la dernière enquête de 1986. Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, Emplois Revenus, No. 23, Résultats No. 157, INSEE, Paris.

Rowe, J. W. F. (1928) Wages in Practice and Theory. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Roy, D. (1952) ‘Quota restriction and goldbricking in a machine shop’. American Journal of Sociology, 67 (2), pp. 427–44.

Roy, D. (1955) ‘ “Efficiency” and “the fix”: informal intergroup relations in a piecework machine shop’. American Journal of Sociology, 60, pp. 255–66.

Rubery, J. (1994) ‘Internal and external labour markets: towards an integrated analysis’. In Rubery, J. and Wilkinson, F. (eds), Employer Strategy and the Labour Market. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Ch. 1.

Rubery, J. and Wilkinson, F. (1981) ‘Outwork and segmented labour markets’. In Wilkinson, F. (ed.), The Dynamics of Labour Market Segmentation. Academic Press, London.

Ryan, P. (1980) ‘The costs of job training for a transferable skill’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 18 (3), pp. 334–52.

Ryan, P. (1986) ‘Apprentices, employment and industrial disputes in engineering in the 1920s’. Paper presented to the Workshop on Child Labour and Apprenticeship, University of Essex, May.

Ryan, P. (1987) Trade Unionism and the Pay of Young Workers. Junankar, P. N. (ed.). pp. 119–42. (See Ref.)

Ryan, P. (1994) ‘Training quality and trainee exploitation’. In Layard, R., Mayhew, K. and Owen, G. (eds). (See Ref.)

Sainsaulieu, R. (1988) L'Identité au Travail: les Effets Culturels de l'Organisation. Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, Paris.

Sako, M. (1991) ‘Institutional aspects of youth employment and training policy: a comment on Marsden and Ryan’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29 (3), Sept., pp. 485–90.

Sako, M. (1997) ‘Shunto: the role of employer and union coordination at the industry and inter‐sectoral levels’. In Sako, M. and Sato, H. (eds), Japanese Labour and Management in Transition: Diversity, Flexibility, and Participation. Routledge, London.

Saunders, C. T. and Marsden, D. W. (1981) Pay Inequalities in the European Community. Butterworths, London.

Saxenian, A. (1996) ‘Beyond boundaries: open labor markets and learning in Silicon Valley’. In Arthur, M. and Rousseau, D. (eds), The Boundaryless Career. Oxford University Press, New York.

Schasse, U. and Vatthauer, M. (1990) ‘Betriebszugehörigkeitsdauer und Einkommenshöhe: Senioritätsentlohnung oder “Job‐Matching”?’. In Gerlach, K. and Hübler, O. (eds), Betriebszugehörigkeitsdauer und Mobilität‐theoretische und empirische (p.288) Analysen, SAMF working paper, 1990–4. Arbeitskreis Sozialwissenschaftliche Arbeitsmarktforschung (SAMF), Paderborn, pp. 95–120.

Schmiede, R. and Schudlich, E. (1976) Die Entwicklung der Leistungsentlohnung in Deutschland: eine historisch‐theoretische Untersuchung zum Verhältnis von Lohn und Leistung unter kapitalistischen Produktionsbedingungen. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt.

Schudlich, E. (1991) ‘Traditionelle Leistungslohnpolitik in der Sackgasse: neue Asätze der tariflichen Leistungspolitik’. WSI Mitteilungen, 44 (3), pp. 181–8.

Schudlich, E. (1994) Von der externen zur internen Arbeitsmarktpolitik: zur arbeitsmarktpolitischen Rationalisierung des Produktionsprozesses um die Jahrhundertwende. Arbeitspapiere 1994–2. Arbeitskreis Sozialwissenschaftliche Arbeitsmarktforschung (SAMF), Gelsenkirchen.

Scoville, J. G. (1969) ‘A theory of jobs and training’. Industrial Relations, 9 (1), Oct., pp. 36–53.

Scullion, H. and Edwards, P. (1988) ‘Craft unionism, job controls and management strategy: “Premier Metals”, 1955–1980’. In Terry, M. and Edwards, P. (eds), Shopfloor Politics and Job Controls: the Post‐war Engineering Industry. Blackwell, Oxford.

Sellier, F. (1961) Stratégie de la Lutte Sociale: France 1936–1960. Les Éditions Ouvrières, Paris.

Sellier, F. (1984) La Confrontation Sociale en France 1936–1981. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Sengenberger, W. (1987) Strucktur und Funktionsweise von Arbeitsmärkten: die Bundesrepublik Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt.

Sengenberger, W. (1992) ‘Vocational training, job structures and the labour market: an international perspective’. In Altmann, N., Köhler, C. and Meil, P. (eds), Technology and Work in German Industry. Routledge, London.

Sheifer, V. (1975) ‘Employment cost index: a measure of change in the “price of labor” ’. Monthly Labor Review, July, pp. 3–12.

Shirai, T. and Shimada, H. (1978) ‘Japan’. In Dunlop, J. and Galenson, W. (eds), Labor in the Twentieth Century, Academic Press, New York, pp. 241–322.

Simon, H. A. (1951) ‘A formal theory of the employment relationship’. Econometrica, 19 (3), July, pp. 293–305.

Simon, H. A. (1991) ‘Organizations and Markets’. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5 (2), Spring, pp. 25–44.

Slichter, S. (1919) The Turnover of Factory Labor. Appleton, New York.

Slichter, S., Healy, J. and Livernash, E. (1960) The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Management. Brookings Institution, Washington DC.

Sly, F. and Stillwell, D. (1997) ‘Temporary workers in Great Britain’. Labour Market Trends, Sept., pp. 347–54.

Sorge, A. and Warner, M. (1986) Comparative Factory Organization: an Anglo‐German Comparison of Management and Manpower in Manufacturing. Gower, Aldershot.

Soskice, D. (1994) ‘Reconciling markets and institutions: the German apprenticeship system’. In Lynch, L. (ed.), Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons. National Bureau of Economic Research, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Statistisches Bundesamt (1993–4) Gehalts‐ und Lohnstrukturerhebung 1990. Heft 1–3, Löhne und Gehälter, Fachserie 16, Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden.

Steedman, H. (1998) A decade of skill formation in Britain and Germany. Journal of Education and Work, 11 (1), pp. 77–94. (p.289)

Steedman, H. and Wagner, K. (1987) ‘A second look at productivity, machinery and skills in Britain and Germany’. National Institute Economic Review, No. 122, Nov., pp. 84–95.

Steedman, H. and Wagner, K. (1989) ‘Productivity, machinery and skills: clothing manufacture in Britain and Germany’. National Institute Economic Review, No. 128, May, pp. 40–57.

Stewart, M. (1990) ‘Union wage differentials, product market influences and the division of rents’. Economic Journal, 100 (403), Dec., pp. 1122–37.

Stewart, R., Barsoux, J‐L., Kieser, A. and Ganter, H‐D. (1994) Managing in Britain and Germany. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Stevens, M. (1994) ‘An investment model for the supply of training by employers’. Economic Journal, 104 (424), May, pp. 556–70.

Stinchcombe, A. (1959) ‘Bureaucratic and craft administration of production: a comparative study’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4 (2), Sept., pp. 168–87.

Stone, K. (1973) ‘The origins of job structures in the steel industry’. Edwards, R., Reich, M. and Gordon, D. (eds), Labor Market Segmentation. Heath, Lexington, Mass.

Streeck, W. (1985) Die Reform der beruflichen Bildung in der west‐deutschen Bauwirtschaft 1969–82. Internationales Institut für Management und Verwaltung, Berlin.

Streeck, W. (1992) ‘Productive constraints: on the institutional conditions of diversified quality production’. In Streeck, W. (ed.), Social Institutions and Economic Performance: Studies of Industrial Relations in Advanced Capitalist Countries. Sage, London.

Supiot, A. (1995) ‘Temps de travail: pour une concordance des temps’. Droit Social, 12, pp. 947–54.

Taira, K. (1970) Economic Development and the Labor Market in Japan. Columbia University Press, New York.

Taylor, J. C. (1979) ‘Job design criteria twenty years later’. In Davis, L. and Taylor, J. (eds), Design of Jobs. 2nd edn. Goodyear, Santa Monica, California.

Thévenot, L. (1985) ‘Les investissements de forme’. In Conventions Économiques, Cahiers du Centre d'Études de l'Emploi, No. 29. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, pp. 21–71.

Tolbert, P. (1996) ‘Occupations, organizations, and boundaryless careers’. In Arthur, M. and Rousseau, D. (eds), The Boundaryless Career: a New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 331–49.

Tomita, Y. (1998) ‘Germany’. In Tachibanaki, T. (ed.), Wage Differentials: an International Comparison. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Tondorf, K. (1997) ‘Leistungspolitik und Leistungsbezahlungen im öffentlichen Dienst’. WSI Mitteilungen, 50 (4), pp. 241–7.

Topel, R. (1991) ‘Specific capital, mobility and wages: wages rise with seniority’. Journal of Political Economy, 99, pp. 145–76.

Touraine, A. (1955) L'Évolution du Travail Ouvrier aux Usines Renault. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

Touraine, A. (1966) La Conscience Ouvrière. Seuil, Paris.

Triplett, J. E. (1983) ‘Introduction: an essay on labor cost’. In Triplett, J. E. (ed.), The Measurement of Labor Cost. NBER, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Turner, H. A. (1952) ‘Trade unions, differentials and the levelling of wages’. The Manchester School, 20, pp. 227–82. (p.290)

Turner, L. (1991) Democracy at Work: Changing World Markets and the Future of Labor Unions. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Turner, L. and Auer, P. (1994) ‘A diversity of new work organisation: human‐centred, lean, and in‐between’. Industrielle Beziehungen, 1 (1), pp. 38–60.

Wachter, M. L. (1995) ‘Labor law reform: one step forward and two steps back’. Industrial Relations, 34 (3), July, pp. 382–401.

Walwei, U. (1997) ‘Flexibility of Employment Relationships: Possibilities and Limits’. IAB Labour Market Research Topics, No. 22. Institut für Arbeitsmarkt‐ und Berufsforschung, Nürnberg.

Webb, S. and Webb, B. (1902) Industrial Democracy. Longman, London.

Weber, M. (1908) Zur Psychophysik der industriellen Arbeit. Max Weber Gesamtausgabe, Band 11, Schriften und Reden 1908–1912 (1995). J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen.

Whittaker, H. (1993) ‘New technology and organisation of work: British and Japanese factories’. In Kogut, B. (ed.), Country Competitiveness: Technology and the Organizing of Work. Oxford University Press, New York.

Williamson, O. E. (1975) Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. Free Press, New York.

Willman, P. (1986) Technological Change, Collective Bargaining and Industrial Efficiency. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wolf, A. (1994) ‘Measuring competence: the experience of the UK’. European Vocational Training Journal, 1 (94), pp. 29–35.

Womack, J., Jones, D. T. and Roos, D. (1990) The Machine that Changed the World. Rawson Associates, New York.

Wyatt (1989) Performance Management Survey 1989. The Wyatt Company, Washington DC.

Yamanouchi, T. and Okazaki‐Ward, L. (1997) ‘Key issues in HRM in Japan’. In Tyson, S. (ed.), The Practice of Human Resource Strategy. Pitman, London.

Zucker, L. (1991) ‘Markets for bureaucratic authority and control: information quality in professions and services’. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 8, pp. 157–90.

Zweig, F. (1951) Productivity and Trade Unions. Blackwell, Oxford.