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Traditions of WarOccupation, Resistance and The Law$
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Karma Nabulsi

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198294078

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198294077.001.0001

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Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe

Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe

Chapter:
(p.19) 2 Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe
Source:
Traditions of War
Author(s):

Karma Nabulsi (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/0198294077.003.0003

This is the second of three chapters that set out the differing contexts through which the dilemma in the laws of war over the distinction between lawful and unlawful combatants can be viewed: political and diplomatic (Chapter 1), social (this chapter) and intellectual (Chapter 3). It explores the social history of army occupation and resistance to it in nineteenth century Europe – from the Napoleonic period to the Franco-Prussian war– and places these diplomatic failures in their broader social and political context. In particular it examines the range of army practices under occupation, and the effect that they had on civilian life. The different sections of the chapter discuss: pillaging, looting, requisitions and billeting; reprisals; hostage-taking; types of civilian behaviour –obedience to the occupier, political and armed acts of resistance, organized acts of resistance –guerrillas and franc-tireurs; levee en masse and other assorted insurrections; ideologies of resistance; religion as a source of resistance; and the influence of nationalism and patriotism.

Keywords:   army occupation, army practices, billeting, civilian behaviour, civilian life, Europe, history, hostage-taking, insurrections, lawful combatants, laws of war, looting, military occupation, nationalism, patriotism, pillaging, political history, religion, reprisals, requisitioning, resistance, social history, unlawful combatants

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