The main concepts for empirical modelling of economic time series are explained: parameter and parameter space; constancy; structure; distributional shape; identification and observational equivalence; interdependence; stochastic process; conditioning; white noise; autocorrelation; stationarity; integratedness; trend; heteroscedasticity; dimensionality; aggregation; sequential factorization; and marginalization. A formal data‐generation process (DGP) for economics is the joint data density with an innovation error. Empirical models derive from reduction operations applied to the DGP.
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