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The Papal MonarchyThe Western Church from 1050 to 1250$

Colin Morris

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198269250

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198269250.001.0001

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Part I: The Papal Reform Movement and the Conflict With the Empire

Part I: The Papal Reform Movement and the Conflict With the Empire

Source:
The Papal Monarchy
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Chapter 1: Christian Society in the Middle of the Eleventh Century

i. Introduction. The continuity with the Carolingian period will be evident from a reading of M. Wallace‐Hadrill, The Frankish Church (Oxford, 1983) in this series, and there is a brilliant analysis of unfulfilled possibilities by K. Leyser, The Ascent of Latin Europe (Oxford, 1986). There is also an interesting discussion by B. Bligny, ‘L'église et le siècle de l'an mille au début du XIIe siècle’, CCM 27 (1984) 5–33. See also M. Gibson, ‘The continuity of learning c.850–c.1050’, Viator 6 (1975) 1–13. The significance (p.587) of increasing literacy for religion and government is explored in three important works: B. Stock, The Implications of Literacy (Princeton, 1983); M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record (London, 1979); and H. Grundmann, ‘Litteratus, illiteratus’, AKg 40 (1958) 1–65. The relationship between writing, speech, and symbol is considered in R. Crosby, ‘Oral delivery in the Middle Ages’, Speculum 11 (1936) 88–110 (mainly on the narratives of jongleurs); and J. Le Goff, ‘Les gestes symboliques dans la vie sociale’, CISAM 23 (1976) 679–788. On the extent to which the medieval laity ever became literate, see J. W. Thompson, The Literacy of the Laity in the Middle Ages (repr. New York, 1960); M. Parkes, ‘The Literacy of the Laity’ in D. Daiches and A. Thorlby (eds.), The Medieval World (London, 1973), 555–77; P. Riché, ‘Recherches sur l'instruction des laïcs du IXe au XIIe siècle’, CCM 5 (1962) 175–82; and J. T. Rosenthal, ‘The Education of the Early Capetians’, Traditio 25 (1969) 366–76.

ii. The Pattern of Divine Government. The governmental implications of the medieval reverence for the monarch are analysed in a famous book by F. Kern, Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1939), and are set in a wide context in a collection of studies, Sacral Kingship: Contributions to the Eighth International Congress for the History of Religions (Leiden, 1959). The link between kingship and the cult of the saints is explored over a long period by R. Folz, Les saints rois du Moyen Âge en occident (Brussels, 1984). See also T. Renna, ‘The monastic tradition of kingship 814–1150’, Cistercian Studies 18 (1983) 184–91. The ceremonial foundations of holy kingship may be studied in E. H. Kantorowicz, Laudes Regiae (Berkeley, 1958); G. Tellenbach, ‘Römischer und christlicher Reichsgedanke in der Liturgie des frühen Mittelaltens,’ Sb Akad. Heidelberg, 1934; H. M. Schaller, ‘Der heilige Tag als Termin mittelalterlicher Staatsakte’, DAEM 30 (1974) 1–24; and in the texts edited by R. Elze, Die Ordines für die Weihe und Krönung des Kaisers, MGH Leges IV.9 (1960). The classic work on the royal healing power is M. Bloch, The Royal Touch (London, 1973), but see the comments of F. Barlow, ‘The King's Evil’, EHR 95 (1980) 3–27, where the regular adoption of the practice is placed much later. It is not surprising that there has been a vast amount of publication on the imperial ideal. Among the best works are R. Folz, The Concept of Empire in Western Europe (London, 1969); W. Kölmel, Regimen Christianum (Berlin, 1970); E. Müller‐Mertens, Regnum Teutonicum (Vienna, 1970); G. Koch, Auf dem Wege zum Sacrum Imperium (Vienna, 1972); and H. Löwe, ‘Kaisertum und Abendland in ottonischer und frühsalischer Zeit’, HZ 196 (1963) 529–62. There is an interesting interpretation of the ‘world lordship’ of emperor and pope by O. Hageneder, ‘Weltherrschaft im Ma.’, MIOG 93 (1985) 257–78.

The immense literature on the judicial use of the ordeal may be initially approached through R. Bartlett, Trial by Fire and Water: The Medieval Judicial Ordeal (Oxford, 1986); P. Brown, ‘Society and the Supernatural: a (p.588) Medieval Change’, Daedalus 104 (1975) 133–51; and C. Morris, ‘Judicium Dei: The Social and Political Significance of the Ordeal in the Eleventh Century’, SCH 12 (1975) 95–111. For the development of the cult of the saints and of pilgrimage, see under Ch. 12. vi below. On the Peace of God movement, important studies include H. Hoffmann, Gottesfriede und Treuga Dei, MGH Schriften 20 (1964); G. Duby, ‘Les laïcs et la paix de Dieu’, MCSM 5 (1968) 448–69; H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Peace of God and the Truce of God’, Past and Present 46 (1970) 42–67; and B. H. Rosenwein, ‘Feudal War and Monastic Peace’, Viator 2 (1971) 129–57.

iii. The Church and the Lay powers. On the relations between the emperor and the German churches, there are excellent surveys by T. Reuter, ‘The “Imperial Church System” of the Ottonian and Salian rulers; A Reconsideration’, JEH 33 (1982) 347–74; J. Fleckenstein, ‘Zum Begriff der ottonischsalischen Reichskirche’, Geschichte, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft: Fs für C. Bauer (Berlin, 1974), 61–71; L. Santifaller, ‘Zur Geschichte des ottonisch‐salischen Reichskirchensystems’, Sb Akad. Wien 229/1 (1964); and H. Zielinski, Der Reichsepiskopat in spätottonischer und salischer Zeit, i (Stuttgart, 1984). The classic studies of Eigenkirchentum are those by U. Stutz, Geschichte des kirchlichen Benefizialwesens, vol. i only (Berlin, 1895) (see ‘The Proprietary Church as an Clement of Medieval German Ecclesiastical Law’, tr. G. Barraclough, Medieval Germany 911–1250 (repr. Oxford, 1961), ii. 35–70); and P. Thomas, Le droit de propriété des laïques sur les églises et le patronage laïque (Paris, 1906). See also H. E. Feine, ‘Ursprung, Wesen und Bedeutung des Eigenkirchentums’, MIOG 58 (1950) 195–208. Studies of lay investiture, episcopal election, the personnel of the episcopate, and the work of the local churches are listed under subsequent chapters.

iv. The Beginnings of a Reform Ideology. The circumstances at Rome in the years before 1046 have been studied in detail by K‐J. Herrmann, Das Tuskulanerpapsttum (Stuttgart, 1973); H. M. Klinkenberg, ‘Der römische Primat im X. Jh’, ZSSRGkA 72 (1955) 1–57; G. Tellenbach, ‘Zur Geschichte der Päpste im X. und früheren XI. Jh’ in Institutionen, Kultur und Gesellschaft im Mittelalter: Festschrift für J. Fleckenstein (Sigmaringen, 1984), 165–77; and P. E. Schramm, Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio (repr. Bad Homburg, 1962).

Chapter 2: The Pattern of Social Change

i. The Extension of Economic Activity: The Countryside. There are many studies of the development of the medieval economy as a whole; the obvious starting‐points are the Cambridge Economic History of Europe, ed. M. M. Postan, 2nd edn (Cambridge, 1966), and the Fontana Economic History of Europe, ed. C. Cipolla, vol.i, The Middle Ages (London, 1972). There is also R. Latouche, The Birth of Western Economy, 2nd ed. (London, (p.589) 1967), and R. Fossier, Histoire sociale de l'occident médiéval (Paris, 1970). Everyday life is an increasing interest of modern historians: see D. Herlihy, Medieval Households (London, 1985), and O. Borst, Alltagsleben im Mittelalter (Frankfurt, 1983), which has a good deal of material on ecclesiastical life, primarily in the later Middle Ages. There are two good introductions to the history of the countryside by G. Duby: The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants (London, 1974); and Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West (London, 1968). See also M. Bloch, French Rural History (London, 1966). For a lively interpretation of the mechanisms of change, see L. White, Medieval Technology and Social Change (Oxford, 1962).

ii. The Cities. Good surveys are provided by the collection of essays edited by H. A. Miskimin and others, The Medieval City (New Haven, 1977), and by E. Ennen, The Medieval Town (Amsterdam, 1979). A very influential account was that of H. Pirenne, Medieval Cities (Princeton, 1925), based on developments in Flanders and giving a largely commercial and ‘non‐ecclesiastical’ account of the emergence of the city. His conclusions are now widely challenged: see C. Verlinden, ‘Marchands ou tisserands?’, Annales 27 (1972) 396–406, and R. G. Witt, ‘The Landlord and the Economic Revival of the Middle Ages’, American Historical Review 76 (1971) 965–88; also the important study by J. Lestocquoy, Aux origines de la bourgeoisie: les villes de Flandre et d'Italie (Paris, 1952). There is a masterly survey of the Italian cities by J. K. Hyde, Society and Politics in Medieval Italy (London, 1973), and two significant influences from religious ideas are analysed by H. C. Peyer, ‘Stadt und Stadtpatron im mittelalterlichen Italien’, Zürcher Studien zur allgemeinen Geschichte 13 (1955), and H. Z. Tucci, ‘Il carroccio nella vita communale italiana’, QFIAB 65 (1985) 1–104. The number of studies of individual cities precludes any listing, but mention must be made, because of its special relevance, of Lucca und das Reich bis zum Ende des 11 Jhs (Tübingen, 1972), by H. Schwarzmaier. The broader cultural implications of the city are considered by R. W. Southern, ‘England's First Entry into Europe’, Medieval Humanism and other Studies (Oxford, 1970) 135–57; F.‐J. Schmale, ‘Zu den Anfängen bürgerlichen Kultur im Mittelalter’, Römische Quartalschrift 58 (1963), 149–61; and E. Werner, Stadt und Geistesleben im Hochmittelalter (Weimar, 1980).

iii. The Expansion of Education. The development of schools in the course of the twelfth century has been the subject of some fine works, including G. Paré et al., La renaissance du XIIe siècle: les écoles et l'enseignement (Paris, 1933); vol. v, Les écoles, in E. Lesne, Histoire de la propriété ecclésiastique en France (Lille, 1910–), and P. Delhaye, ‘L'organisation scolaire au XIIe siècle’, Traditio 5 (1947) 211–68. The subject is also covered in several of the histories of universities, which appear under Ch. 20.i below. The (p.590) connection between the schools and society as a whole is particularly examined by J. Le Goff, Les intellectuels au Moyen Âge (Paris, 1957); H. Classen, ‘Die hohen Schulen und die Gesellschaft im 12 Jh’, AKg 48 (1966) 155–80; L. K. Little, ‘Intellectual Training and Attitudes towards Reform’, Pierre Abélard, Pierre le Vénérable: colloques du CNRS (Paris, 1975), 235–54; and A. Murray in his brilliant book, Reason and Society in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1978). In a reconstruction of the history of the twelfth‐century schools, the ‘school of Chartres’ is specially important and specially controversial. Major works on it begin with A. Clerval, Les écoles de Chartres (Paris, 1895), and it is reassessed in R. W. Southern, ‘Humanism and the School of Chartres’, Medieval Humanism and other Studies (Oxford, 1970) 61–85; in the same author's Platonism, Scholastic Method and the School of Chartres (Reading, 1979); and in RR 113–37, with an alternative view by N. M. Häring in Essays in Honour of A. C. Pegis (Toronto, 1974), 268–329. On the development of the syllabus, there is the material edited by D. L. Wagner, The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages (Indiana, 1983); R. W. Hunt's collected papers, The History of Grammar in the Middle Ages (Amsterdam, 1980); and G. Glauche, Schullektüre im Mittelalter (Munich, 1970). The growth of the ars dictaminis is the subject of an excellent article by W. D. Patt, ‘The early ars dictaminis as response to a changing society’, Viator 9 (1978) 133–55. The best contemporary discussion of the syllabus is available in translation in J. Taylor, Hugh of S. Victor, The Didascalion: a Medieval Guide to the Arts (New York, 1961) (more correctly Didascalicon).

iv. The Aristocracy. An enormous amount of study has recently been devoted to the growth of the nobility in this period, and some of the general books mentioned at the beginning of this bibliography have made a major contribution; see the interesting reflections of R. I. Moore, ‘Duby's Eleventh Century’, History 69 (1984) 36–49. Among many books and essays may be mentioned R. Boutruche, Seigneurie et féodalité: vol. ii, L'apogée (Paris, 1970); G. Fourquin, Lordship and Feudalism in the Middle Ages (London, 1976); La noblesse au Moyen Âge: essais à la mémoire de R. Boutruche (Paris, 1976); M. Parisse, La noblesse lorraine, 2 vols. (Lille, 1976); T. Reuter (ed.), The Medieval Nobility (Amsterdam, 1978); and Structures féodales et féodalisme dans l'occident méditerranéan, École française de Rome 44 (1980).

v. The Dissemination of Ideas. There is no systematic study of the way in which ideas and attitudes were exchanged in medieval society. A survey must start with J. Benzinger, ‘Zum Wesen und zu den Formen von Kommunikation und Publizistik im Mittelalter’, Publizistik 15 (1970) 295–318, and particular aspects and examples are discussed by L. C. Mackinney, ‘The People and Public Opinion in the Eleventh‐Century Peace Movement’, Speculum 5 (1930) 181–206; G. Duby, ‘The Diffusion of Cultural Patterns in Feudal Society’, Past and Present 39 (1968) 3–10; C. Morris, (p.591) Medieval Media (Southampton, 1972); E. Sourdel (ed.), Prédication et propagande au Moyen Âge: Islam, Byzance, occident (Paris, 1983). Very relevant to this subject are the works on literacy (ch. 1.i above) and on preaching and pilgrimage (ch. 12 below); these contain references to studies of the road system, and to them should be added the important studies edited by H. C. Peyer, Gastfreund schaft, Taverne und Gashaus im Mittelalter (Munich, 1983).

Chapter 3: Monastic Growth and Change

(For a fuller bibliography, see G. Constable, Medieval Monasticism: a Select Bibliography (Toronto, 1976).)

i. Monastic Growth and Change. There have been several projects designed to list all abbeys and priories, with dates of foundation and affiliations, and a convenient handbook is provided by P‐R. Gaussin, L'Europe des ordres et des congrégations, CERCOM (Centre européen de recherches sur les congrégations et ordres monastiques), n.d. The most useful general work is L. H. Cottineau, Répertoire topo‐bibliographique des abbayes et prieurés, 3 vols. (Mâcon, 1935–7 and 1970). For France the main work is by J. M. Besse et al., Abbayes et prieurés de l'ancienne France, a new edition of Dom Beaunier's work (Paris, 1905–). The Monasticon Belge begun by U. Berlière (Bruges, 1890; Maredsous 1928–9) has been resumed in several additional volumes (Liège 1960–73). For Germany, the Germania Sacra, Neue Folge, Berlin and New York, 1962–), is designed to give very full information about monastic and other bodies. For England, there are D. Knowles and R. N. Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses: England and Wales, 2nd edn. (London 1971), and D. Knowles and others, The Heads of Religious Houses: England and Wales 9401216 (Cambridge, 1972); for Scotland, I. B. Cowan and D. E. Easson, Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland, 2nd edn. (London, 1976); and for Ireland, A. O. Gwynn and R. N. Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses: Ireland (London, 1970). The Monasticon Italiae has begun with vol. i, Roma e Lazio (Cesena, 1981). Some of the most significant collections of customs were edited by B. Albers, Consuetudines Monasticae, 5 vols. (Stuttgart, 1900–12), and new editions are currently being published in the series Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum, ed. K. Hallinger (Siegburg, 1963–). Information about current projects may be obtained from CERCOM at St Étienne. One of the best short introductions to monastic history in this period is by M. Pacaut, Les ordres monastiques et religieux au Moyen Âge (Paris, 1970), and equally useful is C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (London, 1984). There are good illustrated introductions to the main types of monasticism in G. Le Bras (ed.), Les ordres religieux: la vie et l'art, 2 vols. (Paris, 1979–80). C. N. L. Brooke and W. Swaan's handsome volume The Monastic World 10001300 (London, 1974), contains a good discussion of the development of the religious orders as well as a fine treatment of the buildings. For legal and constitutional aspects, see J. (p.592) Hourlier, Histoire du droit et des institutions de l'église en occident 10: L'âge classique: les religieux (Paris, 1974). There is an outstanding survey article by J. Dubois, ‘Les moines dans la société du Moyen Âge’, RHEF 60 (1974) 5–37, and another by G. Constable, ‘The Study of Monastic History Today’, in his collected papers, Religious Life and Thought (London, 1979). There are important regional studies by B. Bligny, L'église et les ordres religieux dans le royaume de Bourgogne (Paris, 1960); D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1963) (a book of wide general interest); and G. Penco, Storia del monachesimo in Italia (Rome, 1961). Articles on the restitution of parish churches are listed under ch. 9.iii below, and there is an important book by J. Lemarignier, Études sur les privilèges d'exemption et de juridiction ecclésiastique des abbayes normands depuis ses origines jusqu'en 1140 (Paris, 1937).

ii. The Golden Age of Cluny. The classic publications of documentary material on Cluny are M. Marrier and A. Duchesne (eds.), Bibliotheca Cluniacensis (Paris, 1614; repr. Macon, 1915); A. Bernard and A. Bruel (eds.), Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny, 5 vols. (Paris, 1876–94); and G. Charvin (ed.), Statuts, chapitres généraux et visites de l'ordre de Cluny, i (Paris, 1965). A major study of eleventh‐century monasticism is K. Hallinger, Gorze‐Kluny, 2 vols. (Rome, 1950–1), although recent work has moved away from the abrupt alignment into two opposite movements: see especially J. Wollasch, Mönchtum des Mittelalters zwischen Kirche und Welt (Munich, 1973), and ‘Neue Methoden der Erforschung des Mönchtums im Mittelalter’, HZ 225 (1977) 529–71, where Wollasch stresses how limited is our knowledge of the self‐awareness of monastic communities. To this end he has championed a new wave of publications of the mortuary rolls and ‘books of life’ which expressed the solidarity of the monks throughout time and space. Life at Cluny has been described by J. Evans, Monastic Life at Cluny 9101157 (Oxford, 1931), and N. Hunt, Cluny under S. Hugh (London, 1967); and daily routine and administration by G. de Valous, Le monachisme clunisien des origines au XVe siècle, 2 vols., 2nd edn. (Paris 1970). The economic system is admirably surveyed in G. Duby, ‘Économie domaniale et économie monétaire: le budget de l'abbaye de Cluny’, Annales 7 (1952) 155–71. Collected studies are published in À Cluny; congrès scientifique (Dijon, 1950); G. Tellenbach (ed.), Neue Forschungen iiber Cluny und die Cluniacenser (Freiburg, 1959); H. Richter (ed.), Cluny: Beiträge zu Gestalt und Wirkung der cluniazensischen Reform, Wege der Forschung 241 (1975); N. Hunt, Cluniac Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages (London, 1971); and G. Constable, Cluniac Studies (London, 1980). On the long‐standing discussion about the impact of Cluny on the general reform of the church, see H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford, 1970); and M. Pacaut, ‘Ordre et liberté dans l'église: l'influence de Cluny’, D. Loades (ed.), The End of Strife (Edinburgh, 1984), 155–79. There (p.593) is a brief description of the Hirsau movement with good illustrations by W. Irtenkauf, Hirsau: Geschichte und Kultur (Lindau, 1959), and its constitutional and political significance has been carefully examined by H. Jakobs, Die Hirsauer (Cologne, 1961); while the same author's book Der Adel in der Klosterreform von S. Blasien (Cologne, 1968), is of much wider interest than the title may suggest.

iii. Hermits. The hermit‐ideal is surveyed in MCSM 4 (1965), L'eremitismo in occidente nei secoli XI e XII. The nature of the eremitical life in general is discussed by L. Gougaud, ‘La vie érémitique au Moyen Âge’, Revue d'ascétique et de mystique 1 (1920) 209–40 and 313–28; J. Leclercq, ‘Eremus et eremita’, Collectanea Ordinis Cisterciensium Reformatorum 25 (1963) 8–30; and G. Constable, ‘Eremitical Forms of Monastic Life’, MCSM 9 (1980) 239–64. Earlier discussions of the monastic crisis are surveyed in an important article by J. van Engen, ‘The “Crisis of Cenobitism” Reconsidered: Benedictine Monasticism in the Years 1050–1150’, Speculum 61 (1986) 269–304. See the valuable collection of studies in MCSM 6 (1971), Monachesimo e la riforma ecclesiastica, and H. Leyser's book, Hermits and the New Monasticism (London, 1984). The greatest of the Italian hermits was Peter Damian, whose letters are being edited by K. Reindel, MGH Briefe (1983–). For many of his works it is still necessary to use the old edition in PL 144–5. The best studies are in P. Dressler, Petrus Damiani: Leben und Werk (Rome, 1954); J. Leclercq, S. Pierre Damien, ermite et homme d'église (Rome, 1960); Studi su S. Pier Damiano in onore del cardinale A. G. Cicognani, 2nd edn. (Faenza, 1970); and S. Pier Damiano nel IX centenario della morte, 4 vols. (Cesena, 1972). L. G. Little re‐examines the evidence for the early life in ‘The Personal Development of Peter Damian’, Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages; Essays in Honour of J. R. Strayer (Princeton 1976), 317–41; and Peter's knowledge of canon law is clarified by J. J. Ryan, S. Peter Damiani and his Canonical Sources (Toronto, 1956). For France there is a fine basic study by J. von Walter, Die ersten Wanderprediger Frankreichs, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1903–6), and good studies of early hermits by G. Morin, ‘Renauld l’érémite et Ives de Chartres', Revue Bénédictine 40 (1928) 99–115; H. Grundmann, ‘Deutsche Eremiten’, AKg 45 (1963) 60–90; and G. M. Oury, ‘L’érémitisme dans l'ancien diocèse de Tours', Revue Mabillon 58 (1971) 43–92. Works on the organization of the religious orders which emerged from these hermits are to be found under ch. 10 below.

Fundamental to the programmes of the eremitical reformers was the ideal of poverty. This has been discussed in a Marxist framework by E. Werner, Pauperes Christi: Studien zu social‐religiösen Bewegungen im Zeitalter des Reformpapsttums (Leipzig, 1956); and in a series of articles edited by M. Mollat, Études sur l'histoire de la pauvreté, 2 vols. (Paris, 1974). This project led to Mollat's own magisterial survey, Les pauvres au Moyen Âge (Paris, 1978). These three works are of major importance for the whole history of (p.594) the church in this period. Also valuable are the studies in CSSSM 8 (1969), Povertà e ricchezza nella spiritualità dei secoli XI e XII. The question of poverty was closely connected with the desire to recover the life of the apostolic church, which is discussed by M‐D. Chenu in the collected essays Nature, Man and Society in the Twelfth Century (Chicago, 1968); M‐H. Vicaire, L'imitation des apôtres: moines, chanoines et mendiants (Paris, 1963); and G. Miccoli, ‘Ecclesiae primitivae forma’ in his Chiesa gregoriana (Florence, 1966), 225–99. For the twelfth century, see ch. 10. i below.

iv. Canons. See the bibliography under ch. 10 below.

Chapter 4: The Papal Reform 1046–73

i. The Papal Reform: General. There are sound accounts of this period by J. P. Whitney in CMH. vol. v, ch. 1 and in his Hildebrandine Essays (Cambridge, 1932); but the two books which have most profoundly influenced the modern conception of the papal reform movement are those by A. Fliche, La réforme grégorienne, 3 vols. (Paris, 1924–37, repr. Geneva, 1978); and G. Tellenbach, Church, State and Christian Society at the Time of the Investiture Contest (Oxford, 1940). Both are impressive works of scholarship; of the two, the theses of Tellenbach have better stood the test of time, for later discussion has tended to dismantle some of Fliche's central contentions. On the question of the appropriateness of his concept of ‘Gregorian reform’, there is O. Capitani, ‘Esiste un “Età Gregoriana”?’, Rivista di Storia e Litteratura Religiosa 1 (1965) 454–81; J. Gilchrist, ‘Was there a Gregorian reform movement?’, Canadian Catholic Hist. Assoc. Study Sessions 37 (1970) 1–10; and G. Tellenbach, ‘Gregorianische Reform: kritische Besinnungen’, K. Schmid (ed.) Reich und Kirche vor dem Investiturstreit. Vorträge beim wissenschaftlichen Kolloquium aus Anlass des 80 Geburtstags von G. Tellenbach (Sigmaringen, 1985), 99–113. Further light is thrown on the question by G. Ladner's articles ‘Die mittelalterliche Reform‐Idee’, MIOG 60 (1952) 31–59, and ‘Gregory the Great and Gregory VII’, Viator 4 (1973) 1–26. Local studies have also raised questions about the character of church reform in general and ‘Gregorianism’ in particular: the important work of E. Magnou‐Nortier, La société laïque et l'église dans la province ecclésiastique de Narbonne (Toulouse, 1974), leads us to think more of a Gregorian crisis than of a Gregorian reform, and there are important contributions by J.‐M. Bienvenu, ‘Les caractères originaux de la réforme grégorienne dans le diocèse d'Angers’, Bulletin Philologique et Historique (1968 [1971]) ii. 545–60; Y. Milo, ‘Dissonance between Papal and Local Reform Interests in pre‐Gregorian Tuscany’, Studi Medievali 20 (1979) 69–86; and W. Goez, ‘Reformpapsttum, Adel, und monastische Erneuerung in der Toscana’, VuF 17 (1973) 205–39. The discussion of the movement was continued in particular in Studi Gregoriani (Rome, 1947–), which is not so much a periodical as a series of collected publications; and a new synthesis is (p.595) offered in the impressive work of J. Laudage, Priesterbild und Reformpapsttum im 11 Jh., AKg Beiheft 22 (Cologne, 1984/5). G. Ladner, Theologie und Politik vor dem Investiturstreit (repr. Darmstadt, 1968), is an interesting study, and good recent surveys are provided in vol. xi of M. Greschat, Gestalten der Kirchengeschichte (Stuttgart, 1985). The influence of Cluniac reform on the policy of the popes has already been mentioned in ch. 3. ii above. On Monte Cassino, the other great Benedictine abbey whose history was closely linked with the papal reformers, there is H.‐W. Klewitz, ‘Monte Cassino in Rom’, QFIAB 28 (1938) 36–47; R. Grégoire, ‘Le Mont‐Cassin dans la réforme de l'église’, MCSM 6 (1971) 21–53; H. Dormeier, Montecassino und die Laien im 11 und 12 Jh., MGH Schriften 27 (1979); G. A. Loud, ‘Abbot Desiderius of Montecassino and the Gregorian papacy’, JEH 30 (1979) 305–26; and H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Age of Abbot Desiderius (Oxford, 1983). See also the edition of the Monte Cassino chronicle by H. Hoffmann in MGH Scriptores 1980.

ii. The Beginnings of Papal Reform (1046–57). The policy of Henry III in general is described by C. M. Ryley in CMH iii, ch. 12, and there is an important analysis of his ecclesiastical policy in P. Kehr, ‘Vier Kapitel aus der Geschichte Kaiser Heinrichs III’, Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie (1930). Contemporary views of his rule are investigated by P. G. Schmidt, ‘Heinrich III: das Bild des Herrschers in der Literatur seiner Zeit’, DAEM 39 (1983), 582–90 and E. Boshof, ‘Der Reich in der Krise’, HZ 228 (1979) 265–87. The reasons for the deposition of Gregory VI have been much disputed, for example by G. B. Borino, ‘L'elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI’, Archivio della società Romana, 39 (1916) 141–252, 295–410; R. L. Poole, ‘Benedict IX and Gregory VI’, PBA 8 (1917) 199–228; and F.‐J. Schmale, ‘Die “Absetzung” Gregors VI in Sutri’, AHC 11 (1979) 55–103. Also important in this context are H. H. Anton, Der sogenannte Traktat De ordinando pontefice (Bonn, 1982); and H. Vollrath, ‘Kaisertum und Patriziat’, ZKg 85 (1974) 11–44. There is no modern synthesis of views on Leo IX, in spite of his crucial importance in papal history, although there are valuable detailed studies in S. Greg. and important work on Leo's councils, for example by U.‐R. Blumenthal, ‘The Beginnings of the Gregorian Reform’, in G. F. Lytle Reformation and Authority in the Medieval and Reformation Church (Washington, 1981), 1–13; and a good study by E. Petrucci, Ecclesiologia e politica di Leone IX (Rome, 1977). Cardinal Humbert was perhaps Leo's most influential adviser. The attempts by A. Michel to claim for him authorship of a great number of important tracts can now be regarded as superseded: see, for example, H. Hoesch, Die kanonischen Quellen im Werk Humberts von Moyenmoutier (Cologne, 1970); the introduction to the edition of Libri tres adversus simoniacos by E. G. Robison (unpublished University of Princeton dissertation, 1971); J. Gilchrist, ‘Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida’, ZSSRGkA 89 (1972) 338–49; and H.‐G. (p.596) Krause, ‘Über den Verfasser der Vita Leonis IX papae’, DAEM 32 (1976) 49–85. Two articles by J. T. Gilchrist in Journal of Religious History 2 (1962) 13–28, and Annuale Medievale 3 (1962) 29–42, give a balanced view of his significance. On another of Leo's sympathizers there is the study by B. de Vrégille, Hugues de Salins, archevêque de Besançon (Besançon, 1981). For Peter Damian, see ch. 3. iii.

iii. The Reformers Come of Age (1057–73). On the policy of the reformers under Nicholas II, there are articles by G. B. Borino, ‘L'arcidiaconato di Ildebrando’, S. Greg. 3 (1948) 463–516; A. Michel, ‘Humbert und Hildebrand bei Nikolaus II’, HJb 72 (1952/3) 133–61; D. Hägermann, ‘Zur Vorgeschichte des Pontifikates Nikolaus' II’, ZKg 81 (1970) 352–61; and J. Wollasch, ‘Die Wahl des Papstes Nikolaus II’, MCSM 6 (1971) 54–78. The interpretation of the election decree of 1059 has been much disputed. The modern argument begins with H.‐G. Krause's influential study, ‘Das Papstwahldekret von 1059 und seine Rolle im Investiturstreit’, S. Greg. 7 (1960), and continues with articles by F. Kempf in AHP 2 (1964) 73–89; W. Stürner in ZSSRGkA 85 (1968) 1–56 and S. Greg. 9 (1972) 37–52; K. M. Woody in Viator 1 (1970) 33–54; and H. Hägermann in ZSSRGkA 87 (1970) 157–93. The best general study on Alexander II is undoubtedly T. Schmidt, Alexander II und die römische Reformgruppe seiner Zeit (Stuttgart, 1977), and there is a study of his synods by F.‐J. Schmale in AHC 11 (1979) 307–38. The normative study of the crisis at Milan is by C. Violante, La pataria milanese e la riforma ecclesiastica (Rome, 1955), together with G. Miccoli, ‘Per la storia della pataria milanese’ in Chiesa Gregoriana (Florence, 1966), 101–68; H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Papacy, the Patarenes and the Church of Milan’, TRHS V.18 (1968) 25–48; H. Keller, ‘Pataria und Stadtverfassung, Stadtgemeinde und Reform’, VuF 17 (1973) 321–50; and E. Cattaneo, ‘La vita comune del clero a Milano’, Aevum 48 (1974) 246–69. On the conflicts at Florence there is a good discussion in G. Miccoli, Pietro Igneo (Rome, 1960), and R. Schieffer's article ‘Die Romreise deutscher Bischöfe im Frühjahr 1070’, Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 35 (1971) 152–74, throws light on the obscure negotiations with the German church.

iv. The Principles of Papal Reform. See ch. 4. i above.

v. The Reform of the Clergy. As a basis for understanding the attack on simony the article of E. Hirsch, ‘Der Symoniebegriff und eine angebliche Erweiterung desselben im 11 Jh.’, Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht 86 (1906) 3–19, is still important, and other valuable general surveys are by N. M. Häring, ‘The Augustinian Maxim: nulli sacramento iniuria facienda est’, MS 16 (1954) 87–117, and J. Gilchrist, ‘Simoniaca heresis and the Problem of Orders’, MIC C.subsid. 1 (1965) 209–36. Gilchrist has also (p.597) analysed the important anti‐simoniacal text, the epistola Widonis, in DAEM 37 (1981) 576–604 and Authority and Power. Studies presented to Walter Ullmann (Cambridge, 1980), 49–58. The policy of Leo IX and Nicholas II has been the subject of a series of studies, including J. Drehmann, Papst Leo IX und die Symonie (Tübingen, 1908); G. Miccoli, ‘II problema delle ordinazioni simoniache e le sinodi lateranensi del 1060 e 1061’, S. Greg. 5 (1956) 33–81; and F. Pelster, ‘Die römische Synode von 1060’, Gregorianum 23 (1942) 66–90. There are two excellent modern discussions of the general history of clerical celibacy by M. Boelens, Die Klerikerehe in der Gesetzgebung der Kirche (Paderborn, 1968), and G. Denzler, Das Papsttum und der Amtszölibat, i (Stuttgart, 1973). On our period in particular there are C. N. L. Brooke, ‘Gregorian Reform in Action: Clerical Marriage in England 1050–1200’, in his Medieval Church and Society (Cambridge, 1971), 69–99; J. Gaudemet, ‘Le célibat ecclésiastique: le droit et la pratique du XIe au XIIIe siècle’, ZZSSRGkA 99 (1982) 1–31; A. L. Barstow, Married Priests and the Reforming Papacy (New York, 1982); and B. Schimmelpfennig, ‘Zölibat und Lage der Priestersöhne vom 11 bis 14 Jh.’, HZ 227 (1978) 1–44.

One of the most disputed questions has been about the stages by which the Roman Church moved to the prohibition of royal investiture of bishops. The issue is examined by J. Laudage (ch. 4.i above) and by R. Schieffer, Die Entstehung des päpstlichen Investiturverbots für den deutschen König, MGH Schriften 28 (1981). The article by G. B. Borino, ‘L'investitura laica dal decreto di Nicolo II al decreto di Gregorio VII’, S. Greg. 5 (1956) 345–59, is still of value, and so are the much older works of A. Scharnagl, Der Begriff der Investitur in den Quellen und der Literatur des Investiturstreites (Stuttgart, 1908), and P. Schmid, Der Begriff der kanonischen Wahl in den Anfängen des Investiturstreits (Stuttgart, 1926). A surviving fragment of a treatise on papal authority is assessed by W. Ullmann, ‘Cardinal Humbert and the ecclesia Romana’, S. Greg. 4 (1952) 111–27, and by J. J. Ryan, ‘Cardinal Humbert, de Sancta Romana Ecclesia; Relics of Romano‐Byzantine Relations’, MS 20 (1958) 206–38, and the broader evolution of papalist theory is carefully charted by M. Maccarrone, ‘La teologia del primato romano del secolo XI’, MCSM 7 (1974) 21–122.

Chapter 5: The Discord of Empire and Papacy 1073–1099

i. Gregory VII. The amount of publication is enormous, and a most valuable introductory guide is provided by I. S. Robinson, ‘Pope Gregory VII: Bibliographical Survey’, JEH 36 (1985) 439–83. There is no single study of the pontificate which can now be regarded as normative, but R. Morghen, Gregorio VII e la riforma della chiesa nel secolo XI, new edn. (Palermo, 1975), provides a series of studies on Gregory's life. One line of recent research has clarified Gregory's personal spirituality, as in A. Nitschke, ‘Die Wirksamkeit Gottes in der Welt Gregors VII’, S. Greg. 5 (1956) 115–219; R. Schieffer, ‘Gregor VII: ein Versuch über die historische Grösse’, HJb 97 (p.598) (1978) 87–107; W. Goez, ‘Zur Persönlichkeit Gregors VII’, Römische Quartalschift 73 (1978) 193–216; and K. J. Benz, ‘Eschatologisches Gedankengut bei Gregor VII’, ZKg 97 (1986) 1–35. Important episodes in Gregory's early career are studied by G. B. Borino, ‘Invitus ultra montes cum domno papa Gregorio abii’, S. Greg. 1 (1947) 3–46 and T. Schmidt, ‘Zu Hildebrands Eid vor Kaiser Heinrich III’, AHP 11 (1973) 374–86, and his last year by J. Vogel, ‘Gregors VII Abzug aus Rom und sein letztes Pontifikatsjahr in Salerno’ in N. Kamp and J. Wollasch (eds.), Tradition als historischer Kraft (Berlin, 1982), 341–9, and by P. E. Hübinger in his fine book, Die letzten Worte Papst Gregors VII (Opladen, 1973).

The classic edition of the register is the one by E. Caspar, Das Register Gregors VII, MGH Epist 4.2, and the unregistered letters are edited and translated by H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Epistolae Vagantes of Pope Gregory VII (Oxford, 1972). Historians have long discussed the purpose and nature of the register, which are considered by A. Murray, ‘Pope Gregory VII and his Letters’, Traditio 22 (1966), 149–202; R. Morghen, ‘Ricerche sulla formazione del Registro di Gregorio VII’, Bullettino dell'Istituto Storico Italiano 73 (1961) 1–40; R. Schieffer, ‘Tomus Gregorii papae’, Archiv für Diplomatik 17 (1971) 169–84; H. Hoffmann, ‘Zum Register und zu den Briefen Papst Gregors VII’, DAEM 32 (1976) 86–130; and H. E. Hilpert, ‘Zu den Rubriken im Register Gregors VII’, DAEM 40 (1984) 606–11. The basic study, still important, of the Dictatus Papae is by K. Hofmann, Der Dictatus Papae Gregors VII (Paderborn, 1933). The discovery of collections of canons similar to the D.P. has posed the question of their relationship, which is discussed by B. Jacqueline in RHDFE iv.34 (1956) 569–74; H. Mordek in DAEM 28 (1972) 105–32; F. Kempf in AHP 13 (1975) 119–39; and M. Wojtowytsch in DAEM 40 (1984) 612–21. The question how far Gregory's reform implied the overturning of the old episcopal constitution of the church is discussed by L. F. J. Meulenberg, Der Primat der römischen Kirche im Denken und Handeln Gregors VII (The Hague, 1965) (see also his article in Concilium 8/1 (1972) 65–78); J. Gilchrist, ‘Gregory VII and the Primacy of the Roman Church’, Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiednis 36 (1968) 123–35; and I. S. Robinson, ‘Periculosus homo: Pope Gregory VII and Episcopal Authority’, Viator 9 (1978) 103–31.

ii. The Breach with the Empire. Many aspects of the Investiture Contest are examined in the excellent volume edited by J. Fleckenstein, Investiturstreit und Reichsverfassung, VuF 17 (1973), and there are interesting surveys of the period by E. Werner, Zwischen Canossa und Worms: Staat und Kirche 1077–1122 (Berlin, 1973) (concentrating on the social condition of Germany) and U.‐R. Blumenthal, Der Investiturstreit (Stuttgart, 1982). There are useful brief extracts assembled by K. F. Morrison, The Investiture Controversy: Issues, Ideals and Results (New York, 1971). For a balanced outline of events chapters 2–3 of CMH, v, by Z. N. Brooke, are still reliable. On the (p.599) underlying conflict of policies, there is G. Tabacco, ‘Autorità pontificia e impero’, MCSM 7 (1974) 123–52. The early stages of the dispute are clarified by J. Fleckenstein, ‘Heinrich IV und der deutsche Episkopat in den Anfängen des Investiturstreites’, Adel und Kirche: Festschrift G. Tellenbach, eds. J. Fleckenstein and K. Schmid (Freiburg‐im‐Breisgan, 1968), 221–36; and R. Schieffer, ‘Spirituales latrones: zu den Hintergründen der Simonieprozesse in Deutschland zwischen 1069 und 1975’, HJb 92 (1972), 19–60. The aims of Henry's religious policy are considered in H. L. Mikoletzky, ‘Der “fromme” Kaiser Heinrich IV’, MIOG 68 (1960), 250–65; A. Nitschke, ‘Die Ziele Heinrichs IV’ in Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Technik: W. Treue zum 60 Geburtstag (Munich, 1969), 38–63; and E. Boshof, Heinrich IV Herrscher an einer Zeitenwende (Göttingen, 1979).

An exploration of the abundant literature on the crisis of 1076–7 must now begin with the two books of H. Zimmermann, Der Canossagang von 1077, Sb Akad. Mainz (1975), and J. Vogel, Gregor VII und Heinrich IV nach Canossa (Berlin, 1983). The imperialist Pope Clement III is now the subject of two excellent studies of different kinds by J. Ziese, Wibert von Ravenna: der Gegenpapst Clemens III (Stuttgart, 1982), and I. Heidrich, Ravenna unter Erzbischof Wibert (1073–1100), VuF Sounderband 32 (1985), which supersede the earlier studies, good as these were. Also valuable is the edition of materials by M. E. Stoller, ‘Schism in the Reform Papacy: the Documents and Councils of the Antipopes 1061–1121’ (University of Columbia dissertation, 1985). A particularly good survey of political and ecclesiastical conflicts under Henry IV is by K. Leyser, ‘The Crisis of Medieval Germany’, PBA 69 (1983) 409–43. Among the many local studies may be mentioned those in Investiturstreit und Reichsverfassung (see preceding paragraph); the classic by A. H. J. Cauchie, La querelle des investitures dans les diocèses de Liège et de Cambrai (Louvain, 1890); and the recent Adelsopposition und kirchliche Reformbewegung im östlichen Sachsen by L. Fenske (Göttingen, 1977).

iii. The Revival of the Gregorian Papacy 108599. The standard work on Urban II is now A. Becker, Papst Urban II, MGH Schriften 19/1 (1964). On his councils see especially R. Somerville, The Councils of Urban II: 1, Decreta Claromontensia (Amsterdam, 1972), and ‘The Council of Clermont and Latin Christian Society’, AHP 12 (1974) 55–90. On a crucial question of Urban's idea of his authority there is a valuable article by S. Kuttner, ‘Urban II and the Doctrine of Interpretation; a Turning Point?’, S. Grat. 15 (1972) 55–85. We need a new book on the total contribution of Countess Matilda to the Gregorian papacy, but there are articles on aspects of her policy in Studi Matildici, and an interesting book by R. H. Rough, The Reformist Illuminations in the Gospels of Matilda (The Hague, 1973), which raises wider issues than the title may suggest.

(p.600) iv. The War of Ideas 107699. The methods by which the controversy was conducted have been splendidly surveyed in two works: the ancient classic of C. Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII (Leipzig, 1894), and its modern successor, I. S. Robinson's Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest (Manchester, 1978). The same author has also provided two articles on the circulation of papal propaganda, ‘The Friendship Network of Gregory VII’, History 63 (1978) 1–22, and ‘The Dissemination of the Letters of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Contest’, JEH 34 (1983) 175–93. The issues on which the controversy focussed are examined by K. Leyser, ‘The Polemics of the Papal Revolution’ in B. Smalley (ed.), Trends in Medieval Political Thought (Oxford, 1965), 42–64, and J. Ziese, Historische Beweisführung in Streitschriften des Investiturstreites (Munich, 1972). The propagandist letters of Henry IV were edited by C. Erdmann, Die Briefe Heinrichs IV, MGH Studientexte 1 (1937) and analysed in his ‘Die Anfänge der staatlichen Propaganda im Investiturstreit’, HZ 154 (1936) 491–512. They are translated by T. E. Mommsen and K. F. Morrison, Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century (New York, 1962). Among the studies of individual episodes and writers there are particularly useful ones by H. Fuhrmann, ‘Pseudoisidor, Otto von Ostia und der Zitatenkampf von Gerstungen (1085)’, ZSSRGkA 99 (1982) 52–69; I. S. Robinson, ‘Zur Arbeitsweise Bernolds von Konstanz und seines Kreises’, DAEM 34.1 Sonderdruck (1978) 51–122; W. Berschin, Bonizo von Sutri, Leben und Werk (Berlin, 1972); and W. Hartmann, ‘Manegold von Lautenbach und die Anfänge der Frühscholastik’, DAEM 26 (1970) 47–149.

The wider history of canon law is covered in ch. 16. v below. On the contributions made by Gregory VII and his followers, H. J. Berman, Law and Revolution: the Formation of the Western Legal Tradition (Cambridge, Mass., 1983), combines old‐fashioned history with interesting ideas. There are very good surveys of the canonical aspects of Gregorianism by J. Gilchrist, ‘Canon Law Aspects of the Gregorian Reform Programme’, JEH 13 (1962) 21–38; H. Fuhrmann, ‘Das Reformpapsttum und die Rechtswissenschaft’, VuF 17 (1973), 175–203; and H. Mordek, ‘Kanonistik und gregorianische Reform’, K. Schmid (ed.), Reich und Kirche vor dem Investiturstreit: Vorträge beim wissenschaftlichen Kolloquium aus Anlass des 80 Geburtstags von G. Tellenbach (Sigmaringen, 1985) 65–82. On Gregory VII's direct impact on the canons, there are articles by J. Gilchrist in S. Grat. 12 (1967) 1–37 and ZSSRGkA 97 (1980) 192–229. There is now a good deal of work on the important Constance school: the key study is J. Autenrieth, Die Domschule von Konstanz zur Zeit des Investiturstreits (Munich, 1956). J. Gilchrist has edited and translated the important contemporary Collection in 74 Titles (Vatican, 1973; and Toronto, 1980), and it has been discussed by J. Autenrieth, ‘Bernold von Konstanz und die erweiterte 74‐Titelsammlung’, DAEM 14 (1958) 375–94, and H. Fuhrmann, ‘Über den Reformgeist der 74‐Titelsammlung’, Festschrift H. Heimpel ii (Göttingen, 1972) 1101–20. The (p.601) collection of Anselm of Lucca has been insufficiently studied; indeed, there is not even a full edition, because that of F. Thaner (Innsbrück, 1906–15), provides a rather unsatisfactory text and was incomplete at the time of the editor's death. A good introduction is by A. Amanieu in Dic. DC i. 567–78. The collection of Deusdedit was edited by W. von Glanvell (Paderborn, 1905); that of Atto exists in an old edition by A. Mai (Rome, 1832), which is now our only source as the manuscript is lost.

Chapter 6: Greeks and Saracens

i. The Situation in the Mediterranean World. Many aspects of this are covered in works listed in the following sections, and Spain is the subject of a separate volume. The movement of the Greek and Latin churches to their final divorce is the subject of one of Sir Steven Runciman's best books, The Eastern Schism (Oxford, 1955), and there are interesting discussions of eleventh‐century developments by D. M. Nicol, ‘Byzantium and the Papacy in the Eleventh Century’, JEH 13 (1962) 1–20 and J. Gauss, Ost und West in der Kirchen‐ und Papstgeschichte des 11 Jhs (Zurich, 1967). The crisis of 1054 is discussed by R. Mayne, ‘East and West in 1054’, Cambridge Historical Journal 11 (1954) 133–48; E. Petrucci, ‘Rapporti di Leone IX con Costantinopoli’, Studi Medievali iii. 14–15 (1973–4); and in a particularly perceptive article by W. M. Plöchl, ‘Zur Aufhebung der Bannbullen von 1054’, ZSSRGkA 88 (1971) 1–21.

ii. The Conquest of Sicily and Apulia. The classic work is by F. Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile, 2 vols. (Paris 1907); see also his ch. 4 in CMH v; R. S. Lopez in K. M. Setton vol. i (section iv below), i. 54–67; and the articles edited by C. N. L. Brooke, The Normans in Sicily and S. Italy (Oxford, 1977). On the Moslems there is M. Amari, Storia dei musulmani di Sicilia, 2nd edn. (Catania, 1933–8), and A. Ahmad, A History of Islamic Sicily (Edinburgh, 1975). In ch. 6 of The Arabs and Medieval Europe (London, 1975), N. Daniel fires a powerful broadside against the picture of Norman Sicily as a tolerant land of three cultures. The policy of the Norman conquerors is surveyed by J. Décarreaux, Normands, papes et moines (Paris, 1974); and in the collection, Roberto il Guiscard e il suo tempo (Rome, 1975). The best source, the Ystoire de li Normant of Aimé of Monte Cassino, is edited by V. de Bartholomaeis, Fonti per la Storia d'Italia 76 (Rome, 1935). The balance which the conquerors pursued between Latinization and the protection of Greek churches is examined by H.‐W. Klewitz, ‘Studien über die Wiederherstellung der Römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum’, QFIAB 25 (1934/5) 105–57; Lynn White, Latin Monasticism in Norman Sicily (Cambridge, Mass., 1938, repr. 1968); L.‐R. Ménager, ‘Les fondations monastiques de Robert Guiscard’, QFIAB 39 (1959) 1–116; and E. Caspar, Die Gründungsurkunden der sicilischen Bistümer und die Kirchenpolitik Graf Rogers I (Innsbruck, 1902). On the (p.602) character of the Greek church there is an important collection of studies in La chiesa greca in Italia, Atti del Convegno storico interecclesiale (Bari), 3 vols. (Padua, 1973), and interesting discussions by F. Giunta, Bizantini e bizantismo nella Sicilia normanna, new edn. (Palermo, 1974) (mainly political in its stress), and A. Guillou, ‘Italie méridionale byzantine ou Byzantins en Italie méridionale?’, Byzantion 44 (1974) 152–90. Works on the political relationship of the new Norman state with the papacy, and the position of the ruler as apostolic legate, are listed under ch. 9 iv below.

iii. The Rise of Christian Militarism. The classic study by C. Erdmann is now available in English translation as The Origin of the Idea of Crusade (Princeton, 1977), and is still of great importance in spite of some amendments to its argument, for example by J. Gilchrist, ‘The Erdmann Thesis and the Canon Law’, Crusade and Settlement (see iv below) 37–45. There are some interesting studies in Murphy, The Holy War (Ohio, 1976). The disputed contribution of Cluny to the new militarism is considered by H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Cluny and the First Crusade’, Revue Bénédictine 83 (1973) 285–311, and E. Delaruelle, ‘The Crusading Idea in Cluniac Literature’ in N. Hunt (ed.), Cluniac Monasticism in the Central Middle Ages (London, 1971), 191–216. Episodes which mark the emergence of a new form of militarism are discussed by H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘Pope Gregory VII's “Crusading” Plan of 1074’ in Prawer, Outremer (see iv below) 27–40; I. S. Robinson, ‘Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ’, History 58 (1973) 169–92; and H. E. J. Cowdrey, ‘The Mahdia Campaign of 1087’, EHR 92 (1977) 1–29.

iv. The First Crusade. For the bibliography of the crusades as a whole, see H. E. Mayer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Kreuzzüge (Hanover, 1960). The best general histories are by Mayer, The Crusades (Oxford, 1972), and J. Riley‐Smith, The Crusades (London, 1987). There is a full narrative account by S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1951–4), and a long series of studies edited by K. M. Setton, A History of the Crusades, 5 vols. (Wisconsin, 1962–85). There are valuable studies in P. M. Holt (ed.), The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades (Warminster, 1977); J. Prawer, Crusader Institutions (Oxford, 1980); Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer (Jerusalem, 1982); and Crusade and Settlement, First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, ed. P. W. Edbury (Cardiff, 1985). The impact of the experience of the First Crusade on western thinking has been examined in a crucial article by E. O. Blake, ‘The Formation of the “Crusade Idea” ’, JEH 21 (1970) 11–31, and now by J. Riley‐Smith in The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London, 1986). He has also provided an interesting introduction to the ideas underlying the crusades in What were the Crusades? (London, 1977), (p.603) and (jointly with L. Riley‐Smith) an excellent collection of translated documents in The Crusades: Ideas and Reality (London, 1981). See also the essays by E. Delaruelle in the collection L'idée de croisade au Moyen Âge (Turin, 1980). For the evolution of the western understanding of Islam, one should begin with R. W. Southern, Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, Mass., 1962), and M. T. d'Alverny, ‘La connaissance de l'Islam en occident du IXe au milieu du XIIe siècle’, SSCISAM 12 (1965) 577–602, 791–803. The tradition of lives of Mahomet in the west is lucidly traced in Y. G. Lepage (ed.), Le roman de Mahomet de Alexandre du Pont (Paris, 1977), and there are further studies by N. Daniel, Heroes and Saracens: a Reinterpretation of the chansons de geste (Edinburgh, 1982); J. Bray, ‘The Mohammetan and Idolatry’, SCH 21 (1984) 89–98; and M. Bennett, ‘First Crusaders' images of Muslims: the influence of vernacular poetry?’, Forum for Modern Language Studies 22/2 (1986) 101–22.

Chapter 7: The Conflict Renewed 1099–1122

i. Paschal II. The most basic recent work is that by C. Servatius, Paschalis II: Studien zu seiner Person und seiner Politik (Stuttgart, 1979). For a good bibliographical review, see G. M. Cantarella, ‘Le vicende di Pasquale II nella recente storiografia’, RSCI 35 (1981) 486–504. There is a valuable work on the second phase of the Investiture Contest by M. Minninger, Von Clermont zum Wormser Konkordat (Cologne, 1978); and (in spite of a slightly misleading title) F.‐J. Schmale's article ‘Papsttum und Kurie zwischen Gregor VII und Innocenz II’, HZ 193 (1961) 265–85, is very perceptive on relations with the empire. Paschal's attitude to papal authority is examined in important studies by U‐R. Blumenthal, ‘Paschal II and the Roman Primacy’, AHP 16 (1978) 67–92, and G. M. Cantarella, Ecclesiologia e politica nel papato di Pasquale II (Rome, 1982). The policy of the early years is illuminated by U.‐R. Blumenthal, The Early Councils of Pope Paschal II, 110010 (Toronto, 1978), and its further development by M. J. Wilks, ‘Ecclesiastica and regalia: Papal Investiture Policy 1006–23’, SCH 8 (1971) 69–85. There are perceptive examinations of imperialist policy by A. Waas, Heinrich V: Gestalt und Verhängnis des letzten salischen Kaisers (Munich, 1967), and K. Leyser, ‘England and the Empire in the Early Twelfth Century’, TRHS V. 10 (1960) 61–83. The crisis of 1111–12 has naturally attracted a great deal of attention from historians. Important among the analyses are P. R. McKeon, ‘The Lateran Council of 1112, the “Heresy” of Lay Investiture and the excommunication of Henry V’, Medievalia et Humanistica 17 (1966) 3–12; P. Zerbi, Pasquale II e l'ideale della povertà della chiesa (Milan, 1966); S. Chodorow, ‘Ideology and Canon Law in the Crisis of 1111’, ICMCL 4 (1976) 55–80; U‐R. Blumenthal, ‘Patrimonia and Regalia in 1111’ in Law, Church and Society: Essays in Honour of Stephan Kuttner, ed. K. Pennington and R. Sommerville (Pennsylvania, 1977) 9–20, and ‘Opposition to Paschal II’, AHC 10 (1978) 82–98; and M. Stroll, ‘New (p.604) Perspectives on the Struggle between Guy of Vienne and Henry V’, AHP 18 (1980) 97–115.

The background of church–state relations in England before the conflict over investitures is best approached through M. Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978) and also The Letters of Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, ed. and tr. by V. H. Clover and M. Gibson (Oxford, 1979). On the conflict itself there is N. F. Cantor, Church, Kingship and Lay Investiture in England 10891135 (Princeton, 1958), and a judicious study of Henry l's government of the church by M. Brett, The English Church under Henry I (Oxford, 1975). R. W. Southern's Saint Anselm and his Biographer (Cambridge, 1963), is a really outstanding book; some of its views have been challenged by S. Vaughn in ‘S. Anselm of Canterbury: the Philosopher‐saint as Politician’, JMH 1 (1975) 279–305, and ‘S. Anselm and the English Investiture Controversy Reconsidered’, JMH 6 (1980) 61–86. On France there is M. Pacaut, ‘L'investiture en France au début du XIIe siècle’, Le Bras i. 665–72 and A. Becker, Studien zum Investiturstreit in Frankreich 10491119 (Saarbrücken, 1955). H. Hoffmann, ‘Ivo von Chartres und die Lösung des Investiturproblems’, DAEM 15 (1959) 393–440, is important for the settlement in both countries.

ii. The Concordat of Worms. The classic history of Pope Calixtus II is still U. Robert, Histoire du pape Calixte II (Paris, 1891), but there are important revisions by S. A. Chodorow, ‘Ecclesiastical Politics and the Ending of the Investiture Contest’, Speculum 46 (1971) 613–40; R. Somerville, ‘The Councils of Pope Calixtus II: Reims 1119’, ICMCL 5 (1976) 35–50; and M. Stroll, ‘Calixtus II: a Reinterpretation of his Election and the End of the Investiture Contest’, Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 3 (1980) 1–53. P. Classen, ‘Das Wormser Konkordat in der deutschen Verfassungsgeschichte’, VuF 17 (1973) 411–60, is a truly magisterial survey, and H. Büttner, ‘Erzbischof Adalbert von Mainz, die Kurie und das Reich’ in the same volume 395–410 is also important. W. Fritz provides a useful collection of the relevant texts, taken from the MGH editions, in Die Quellen zum Wormser Konkordat (Berlin, 1955).

iii. Papal Administration. Karl Jordan began a new period in the study of its development under the reforming popes in ‘Die Entstehung der römischen Kurie’, ZSSRGkA 59 (1939) 97–152, and ‘Die päpstliche Verwaltung im Zeitalter Gregors VII’, S. Greg. 1 (1947) 111–35. J. Sydow, ‘Untersuchungen zur kurialen Verwaltungsgeschichte im Zeitalter des Reformpapsttums’, DAEM 11 (1954/5) 18–73, and R. Elze, ‘Das sacrum palatium lateranense im 10. und 11. Jh’, S. Greg. 4 (1952) 27–54, extended his findings, while E. Pasztor reviewed the development of the papal curia in interesting articles in MCSM 7 (1974) 490–504 and S. Greg. 10 (1975) 317–39, where she (perhaps questionably) traces the beginnings of a curia‐type structure as (p.605) early as Alexander II. R. L. Poole's book, Lectures on the History of the Papal Chancery (Cambridge, 1915), remains a model of the exposition of complex material, and P. Rasbiskaus, ‘Die römische Kuriale in der päpstlichen Kanzlei’, Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiae 20 (1958) goes far beyond the script into the broader history of the chancery. On the papal chapel, the study by R. Elze, ‘Die päpstliche Kapelle im 12 und 13 Jh.’, ZSSRGkA 67 (1950) 145–204, has now been expanded by S. Haider, ‘Zu den Anfängen der päpstlichen Kapelle’, MIOG 87 (1979) 38–70. On finance under the reforming popes, there are two studies of particular importance: K. Jordan, ‘Zur päpstlichen Finanzgeschichte im 11 und 12 Jh’, QFIAB 25 (1933–4) 61–104, and J. Sydow, ‘Cluny und die Anfänge der apostolischen Kammer’, Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Benedikter‐Ordens 63 (1951) 45–66. D. B. Zema probably gives too much credit to Gregory VII as a financial reformer in his articles, ‘Reform Legislation in the Eleventh Century and its Economic Import’, Catholic Historical Review 27 (1941) 16–38, and ‘Economic Reorganization of the Roman See during the Gregorian Reform’, S. Greg. 1 (1947) 137–68.

The growth of the college of cardinals was worked out by H. W. Klewitz in his essential article, ‘Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums’, ZSSRGkA 25 (1936) 115–221 and in his Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg (Darmstadt, 1957); to which should be added S. Kuttner, ‘Cardinalis: the History of a Canonical Concept’, Traditio 3 (1945) 121–214. The series of studies by C. G. Fürst, Cardinalis: Prolegomena zu einer Rechtsgeschichte des römischen Kardinalskollegiums (Munich, 1967), does not go far into our period, but provides valuable background; and biographical information is provided in the excellent book by R. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms 10491130 (Tübingen, 1977). A broad discussion of the nature of the office is provided by G. Alberigo, Cardinalato e collegialità: studi sull'ecclesiologia tra l'XI e il XIV secolo (Florence, 1969); to which M. Fois puts forward an alternative interpretation in articles in AHP 10 (1972) 25–105 and 14 (1976) 383–416.

iv. The Achievement of the Papal Reform Movement. The assessment of this has to be based on works already mentioned, and others listed in the next section.