The Making of Italy
As the movement for Italian unification under the monarchy of Piedmont came to express the aspirations of nationalists and liberals throughout the peninsula, Pius IX showed that he wanted to part of it. Count Cavour's policies, including a partial dissolution of the Piedmontese monasteries, and his treatment of the Catholic party after the elections of 1857, widened the rift between nationalists and the papacy, with the Catholic faithful divided. The events of 1859‐60 leading to the creation of the kingdom of Italy left the pope as ruler only of Rome and a small area surrounding it. The pope saw himself as the sovereign ruler of a sovereign state, and he and his supporters among Catholics everywhere saw the independence of the papal state outside the new Italy as essential for guaranteeing the freedom of the Church.
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