Starts with the overthrow of the Catholic Church in France in the French Revolution—one of the most momentous events of modern history. It goes on to discuss the Revolution in Italy, the Roman Republic and the Pope and Napoleon Bonaparte, Rome without the Pope after Pope Pius VI was driven from Rome in 1798, the sanfedists (an Italian pro‐papal anti‐liberal association in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries) and the pro‐Catholic peasant armies of Europe who first arose in Italy after the expulsion of Bonaparte's French army, the peasant war in Belgium (1798–9), the peasant war in Switzerland, the Conclave of Venice (1799), the French Concordat (negotiation between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon, 1800–01), the Italian Concordat 1802–3, the coronation of Napoleon, the end of the Holy Roman Empire, the secularization of the monasteries in Württemberg (Germany), Napoleon and Italy and the exile of Pope Pius VII, Imperial Rome and its Te Deums 1809–14, Italian churches in the age of Napoleon, Napoleon and Spain, the afrancesados (collaborators), and the Cortes at Cadiz (Spain).
Keywords: Belgium, Napoleon Bonaparte, Catholic Church, Europe, France, French Revolution, Germany, history, Italian Revolution, Italy, peasant armies, peasants, Pope Pius VI, religious history, sanfedists, Spain, Switzerland
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