Politics made it essential for Reformers to provide justifications for war and resistance in certain circumstances against the rulers of the state. The pacifism of Erasmus and Luther's early condemnation of rebellion during the social unrest of the 1520s gradually gave way to a theory of a right of resistance, not by the people but by responsible magistrates. The War of the Schmalkand League forced both Luther and Melanchthon to rethink their ideas. Luther's death in 1546 and Melanchthon's in 1560 created posthumous images and reputation for the Reformers, and the first biographies of Luther created Protestant and Catholic images of him that were to last for centuries. At the same time, the appeal of both sides to history stimulated historical scholarship, including the collection and publication of ancient documents.
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