No Causes in, No Causes out
This chapter argues that one cannot get knowledge of causes from equations and associations alone, using critical analyses of theoretical examples in physics and of attempts in the philosophy of science and economics (e.g. Granger causality and various probabilistic theories of causality) to reduce causal claims to probabilities. Old causal knowledge must be supplied for new causal knowledge to be had. Analysis of experimental methods and actual experiments (Stanford Gravity Probe) show how this can be done.
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