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Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?Military Procurement and Technology Development$
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Vernon W. Ruttan

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195188042

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0195188047.001.0001

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Inventing the Internet

Inventing the Internet

(p.115) 6 Inventing the Internet
Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?

Vernon W. Ruttan (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The development of the Internet involved the transformation of a computer network that was initially established in the late 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense, to enable defense industry and university contractors to communicate with each other and with ARPA more effectively. Realization of this objective was demonstrated at the First International Conference on Computer Communication in October 1972. Important advances in hardware, software, and application were required not only to enable communication among individual computers, but to facilitate communication between different computer networks. It was not until the early 1980s, however, that cooperation between ARPA and the National Science Foundation opened up access to the Internet to the wider non-profit and university communities. Although the network was transferred to civilian control in 1983, full privatization of the Internet was not achieved until the early 1990s.

Keywords:   Internet, ARPA, contractors, communication, computer networks, civilian control, privatization

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