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Guests of GodPilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World$

Robert R. Bianchi

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195171075

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2005

DOI: 10.1093/0195171071.001.0001

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(p.273) Appendix

(p.273) Appendix

Source:
Guests of God
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Tables

  • A4.1 Pilgrimage growth and changing means of transportation, 1946–1987 275

  • A4.2 Leading sources of pilgrims, 1947–1987 275

  • A4.3 Pilgrimage rates by country, 1947–1987 277

  • A4.4 Regional distribution of the world's Muslims and pilgrims, 1947–1987 280

  • A4.5 Economic, geographic, and religious predictors of pilgrimage rates, 1961–1987 280

  • A5.1 Female pilgrims from Pakistan by region, 1974–1988 281

  • A5.2 Age distribution of Pakistani pilgrims by gender and region, 1985–1988 281

  • A5.3 Pilgrimage, development, and party vote by region in Pakistan 282

  • A5.4 Major correlates of pilgrimage in Pakistan, 1974–1990 282

  • A5.5 Pilgrimage and party vote in Pakistan, 1970–1993 283

  • A5.6 The relative influence of development, ethnicity, and party vote in predicting Pakistani pilgrimage rates 283

  • A5.7 Hajj rates in Pakistani districts, 1974–1990 283

  • A6.1 Female pilgrims in Malaysia, 1968–1995 285

  • A6.2 Malaysian pilgrims by age groups, 1987–1995 285

  • A6.3 Occupations of Malaysian pilgrims, 1979–1995 285

  • A6.4 Pilgrimage and socioeconomic characteristics in Malaysia, 1969–1995 286

  • A6.5 Pilgrimage and party vote in Malaysia, 1969–1999 286

  • (p.274)
  • A6.6 Party vote in the 1999 elections and hajj participation, 1969–1995 287

  • A7.1 The shrinking gender gap in religious education in Turkey, 1973–1995 287

  • A7.2 Turkish pilgrimage rates by province, 1979–1993 287

  • A7.3 The social and economic correlates of pilgrimage in Turkey, 1979–1993 289

  • A7.4 Pilgrimage and party vote in Turkey, 1979–1993 290

  • A7.5 The combined effects of politics, culture, and economics on Turkey's pilgrimage, 1979–1993 290

  • A8.1 Pilgrimage, income, and party vote in Java 291

  • A8.2 Female pilgrims and repeating pilgrims in Indonesia, 1985–1989 291

  • A8.3 Ages of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 291

  • A8.4 Educational backgrounds of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 292

  • A8.5 Occupational backgrounds of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 292

  • A8.6 Indonesian pilgrimage rates by province, 1974–1996 292

  • A8.7 The strongest correlates of hajj participation in Indonesia, 1974–1996 293

  • A8.8 Pilgrimage and party vote in Indonesia, 1971–1999 294

  • A9.1 Hajj rates in the states of Nigeria, 1977–1982 and 1997–1999 295

  • A9.2 Correlates of hajj participation in Nigeria, 1977–1982 and 1997–1999 295

  • A9.3 The hajj in the local governments of Kaduna State, 1999 296

  • A9.4 The hajj in the local governments of Lagos State, 1999 297

  • A9.5 Nigerian pilgrims to Jerusalem (1995–1998) and Mecca (1997–1999) by state 298

Figures

  • A4.1 The growth of the overseas pilgrimage to Mecca, 1945–2003 300

  • A4.2 The global expansion of the hajj, 1951–1987 300

  • A4.3 The regional distribution of pilgrims 301

  • A4.4 The Gulf States, Southern Arabia, and the Fertile Crescent 301

  • A4.5 The Red Sea and North Africa 302

  • A4.6 West Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia 302

  • A4.7 West Africa and East Africa 303

  • A4.8 Europe, the Americas and Australia, and the socialist countries 303

  • A4.9 Climatic and astronomical correlates of the hajj, 1928–1987 304

  • A4.10 Pilgrimage and per capita income in Asia 304

  • A4.11 Pilgrimage and distance from Mecca in West Africa 305

  • A4.12 Global trends in female hajj participation, 1968–1975 305

  • A5.1 Pilgrimage and ethnicity in Pakistan 306

  • A6.1 UMNO's share of the Malay vote and Malay share of the voting population, 1999 306

  • (p.275)
  • A6.2 Pilgrimage rates in the West Coast States of Malaysia, 1969–1995 307

  • A6.3 Pilgrimage rates in the Northern and Eastern states of Malaysia, 1969–1995 307

  • A7.1 The growth of state-supported religious activities in Turkey, 1947–1996 308

  • A8.1 Pilgrimage rates in Java and Sumatra, 1950–1996 308

  • A8.2 Pilgrimage, income, and Golkar vote in Sumatra (map) 309

  • A8.3 Pilgrimage rates in the Outer Islands, 1950–1996 309

  • A9.1 Rates of pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Mecca in the religiously mixed states of Nigeria, 1995–1999 310

Table A4.1 Pilgrimage growth and changing means of transportation, 1946–1987

Years

Average number of pilgrims

Average rate of increase (percent)

Percent arriving by air

Percent arriving by land

Percent arriving by sea

1946–1950

79,773

113.6

7.2

9.7

83.1

1951–1955

159,195

99.5

14.7

18.1

67.2

1956–1960

221,207

39.0

17.3

27.4

55.2

1961–1965

250,263

13.1

26.9

28.2

44.9

1966–1970

341,986

37.6

34.6

37.1

28.3

1971–1974

616,465

80.3

51.6

27.7

20.3

1975–1979

809,138

31.2

58.1

32.2

9.7

1980–1984

894,109

10.5

73.1

20.7

6.2

1985–1987

889,622

0.5

74.8

20.3

4.9

Table A4.2 Leading sources of pilgrims, 1947–1987 (annual average number of pilgrims)

1947–1950

1951–1955

1956–1960

1. India & Pakistan

26,765

1. Egypt

28,382

1. N. Yemen

44,968

2. Egypt

18,568

2. Pakistan

23,943

2. Egypt

33,175

3. Indonesia

9,289

3. N Yemen

23,297

3. W. Africa

18,127

4. Turkey

5,154

4. India

10,938

4. India

17,109

5. Iran

5,022

5. W. Africa

9,939

5. Pakistan

16,651

6. W. Africa

4,245

6. Indonesia

7,634

6. Iran

13,498

7. Malaysia

3,612

7. Sudan

7,431

7. Indonesia

10,755

8. Sudan

2,946

8. N. Africa

6,812

8. Gulf States

10,238

9. N. Yemen

2,858

9. Syria

5,486

9. S. Yemen

8,284

10. N. Africa

2,406

10. Iran

5,071

10. Syria

7,911

11. Philippines

1,739

11. Malaysia

4,359

11. Sudan

5,831

12. Syria

1,513

12. Turkey

3,885

12. Palestine

5,389

13. S. Yemen

1,158

13. Iraq

3,116

13. Malaysia

4,498

14. USSR

859

14. Thailand

3,034

14. Iraq

4,077

15. Lebanon

676

15. Palestine

3,007

15. Jordan

3,479

16. Iraq

672

16. S. Yemen

2,739

16. Afghanistan

2,385

17. Senegal

420

17. Gulf States

2,384

17. Morocco

2,202

18. Afghanistan

298

18. Jordan

2,298

18. Libya

1,995

19. S. Africa

296

19. Afghanistan

1,371

19. Thailand

1,778

20. China

160

20. Lebanon

1,354

20. Senegal

1,761

1961–1965

1966–1970

1971–1974

1. Pakistan

22,149

1. Turkey

42,985

1. Pakistan

56,958

2. India

19,476

2. N. Yemen

33,737

2. Iran

49,702

3. Egypt

17,774

3. Pakistan

22,727

3. N. Yemen

49,239

4. Turkey

16,355

4. Iran

22,389

4. Nigeria

43,772

5. Iran

16,192

5. Iraq

19,480

5. Turkey

41,346

6. N. Yemen

14,351

6. Syria

17,405

6. Egypt

41,267

7. Syria

12,303

7. Sudan

17,360

7. Indonesia

33,917

8. Indonesia

12,010

8. India

15,981

8. Iraq

31,268

9. Iraq

10,890

9. Indonesia

15,333

9. Sudan

29,736

10. Sudan

10,624

10. Libya

14,734

10. Syria

28,638

11. Nigeria

9,089

11. Nigeria

13,462

11. Libya

22,778

12. Libya

6,722

12. Egypt

11,984

12. Algeria

22,133

13. Jordan

6,530

13. Morocco

9,621

13. India

18,637

14. Malaysia

5,540

14. Algeria

7,661

14. Morocco

18,017

15. Algeria

5,157

15. Kuwait

6,948

15. Jordan

16,981

16. Palestine

4,744

16. Malaysia

6,907

16. Malaysia

11,951

17. Morocco

4,576

17. Jordan

6,763

17. Afghanistan

10,874

18. Kuwait

3,729

18. Afghanistan

6,528

18. Tunisia

8,157

19. Afghanistan

2,968

19. S. Yemen

5,080

19. Kuwait

7,264

20. Niger

2,859

20. Lebanon

4,441

20. Lebanon

6,942

1975–1979

1980–1984

1985–1987

1. N. Yemen

93,610

1. Egypt

100,534

1. Iran

153,924

2. Turkey

82,010

2. Iran

86,687

2. Egypt

108,898

3. Nigeria

75,631

3. Pakistan

79,481

3. Pakistan

91,069

4. Pakistan

57,631

4. N. Yemen

72,726

4. Turkey

64,343

5. Iran

54,306

5. Nigeria

71,856

5. Indonesia

52,885

6. Iraq

53,026

6. Indonesia

59,411

6. N. Yemen

48,683

7. Indonesia

46,639

7. Turkey

38,557

7. India

37,963

8. Egypt

40,070

8. Algeria

33,541

8. Algeria

28,553

9. Algeria

40,021

9. Iraq

33,346

9. Sudan

27,613

10. Syria

39,718

10. Syria

33,118

10. Iraq

25,976

11. Libya

31,961

11. Sudan

32,519

11. Nigeria

25,527

12. Sudan

27,084

12. India

27,568

12. Malaysia

25,312

13. Jordan

23,743

13. Libya

27,047

13. Morocco

25,060

14. Morocco

21,035

14. Malaysia

22,518

14. Libya

18,938

15. India

20,516

15. Jordan

22,352

15. Jordan

17,815

16. Tunisia

8,031

16. Morocco

21,849

16. Bangladesh

15,444

17. Malaysia

7,931

17. Bangladesh

16,098

17. Syria

13,973

18. S. Yemen

7,664

18. Tunisia

9,900

18. Oman

11,960

19. Somalia

6,752

19. S. Yemen

9,706

19. Tunisia

8,814

20. Afghanistan

5,986

20. Oman

8,709

20. Kuwait

7,719

1. Iran

57,076

8. Iraq

29,213

15. Jordan

15,546

2. N. Yemen

52,299

9. Syria

24,922

16. Malaysia

12,506

3. Pakistan

51,723

10. Sudan

23,909

17. Bangladesh

7,083

4. Egypt

49,458

11. Algeria

22,436

18. Kuwait

6,314

5. Turkey

46,403

12. India

22,313

19. Afghanistan

6,127

6. Nigeria

40,915

13. Libya

20,464

20. S. Yemen

6,088

7. Indonesia

35,543

14. Morocco

16,095

(p.276)

(p.277)

Table A4.3 Pilgrimage rates by country, 1947–1987 (annual pilgrims per million Muslims)

Arabian Peninsula

1961–1987

1947–1950

1951–1955

1956–1960

1961–1965

1966–1970

1971–1974

1975–1979

1980–1984

1985–1987

Kuwait

9,916

150

5,700

18,568

15,541

15,026

10,484

6,100

5,592

4,644

Bahrain

11,713

590

5,254

16,401

18,848

11,968

10,359

8,473

9,111

11,395

Qatar

17,386

625

10,411

19,775

28,923

24,542

15,088

11,325

11,846

9,405

UAE

12,986

3,223

11,137

18,941

9,117

9,600

14,452

13,484

11,886

Oman

5,250

442

1,350

2,428

3,116

4,270

4,456

8,994

10,229

S. Yemen

4,075

1,645

3,260

8,540

3,059

4,061

3,888

4,876

4,978

3,271

N. Yemen

10,624

866

6,656

11,604

5,390

6,815

12,142

17,901

12,628

7,700

Fertile Crescent

Jordan

9,445

123

4,178

5,384

6,906

5,269

11,171

12,719

10,959

7,495

Syria

4,275

587

1,985

2,372

3,294

3,909

5,260

6,137

4,373

1,616

Lebanon

3,960

1,275

2,342

2,367

3,327

3,620

5,305

3,193

5,012

2,865

Iraq

2,992

150

657

664

1,743

2,813

3,486

5,017

2,623

1,785

Palestine

3,945

667

4,519

7,750

8,169

1,029

1,801

3,812

6,746

3,584

Red Sea

Egypt

1,414

1,052

1,475

1,540

746

440

1,360

1,189

2,612

2,621

Sudan

2,028

531

1,180

792

1,262

1,780

2,631

2,171

2,417

1,831

Djibouti

2,278

2,737

2,223

1,587

Somalia

989

200

482

592

692

2,181

1,112

799

North Africa

Libya

9,788

2,100

6,741

10,719

11,668

13,421

9,067

5,332

Algeria

1,412

69

537

693

1,592

2,459

1,815

1,355

Tunisia

1,099

230

271

278

1,729

1,555

1,564

1,264

Morocco

982

273

470

768

1,221

1,279

1,100

1,107

Mauritania

704

8

43

774

642

448

77

850

777

748

Turkey

1,250

273

184

43

606

1,450

1,210

2,090

876

1,346

Iran

1,720

301

290

727

820

975

1,698

1,660

2,306

3,617

Afghanistan

395

37

156

256

218

438

642

430

321

274

South Asia

Pakistan

698

351

22

271

245

956

842

992

1,006

Bangladesh

139

84

84

218

192

India

369

270

306

441

457

330

314

310

377

462

Sri Lanka

499

53

177

207

313

703

83

412

643

1,068

Maldive Is.

565

259

510

1,564

Southeast Asia

Malaysia

2,428

1,505

1,666

1,460

1,822

1,952

2,614

1,511

3,529

3,619

Thailand

1,571

4,029

2,150

2,025

2,199

2,152

406

1,345

1,118

Singapore

3,635

957

2,312

3,158

6,381

6,519

Brunei

5,063

1,000

2,000

2,098

7,738

15,756

Philippines

759

1,783

1,175

1,140

446

1,896

218

472

897

539

Indonesia

300

146

110

142

144

163

318

381

451

367

Burma

65

53

182

63

7

95

112

Cambodia

100

25

141

188

12

West Africa

Nigeria

1,306

247

500

787

326

498

1,691

2,450

1,982

616

Chad

1,140

576

1,466

1,738

1,179

965

768

Niger

594

361

735

1,081

583

439

215

Mali

444

400

342

420

609

511

343

Senegal

839

285

605

954

989

771

855

980

825

468

Gambia

1,007

1,025

975

1,032

Guinea

761

558

891

895

527

1,085

511

Burk. Faso

953

506

711

884

1,481

1,407

581

Ivory Coast

627

371

573

894

773

663

399

Ghana

507

228

240

578

1,150

427

364

Togo

621

195

377

624

1,120

833

554

Benin

854

299

686

1,009

935

1,442

683

Cameroon

767

425

885

1,155

690

790

589

Central Afr.

1,034

850

1,019

1,485

1,006

662

G. Bissau

343

310

310

453

Liberia

216

129

257

222

282

203

200

S. Leone

282

127

305

469

278

328

118

Ethiopia

198

16

80

71

200

313

279

109

164

70

Uganda

1,565

671

849

2,831

4,066

208

237

Kenya

540

80

503

646

548

835

687

Tanzania

165

30

35

199

204

205

192

146

Zambia

628

845

883

578

325

434

Rwanda

29

18

36

37

Burundi

111

79

170

66

Zaire

133

77

60

55

424

116

26

Malawi

16

15

17

16

Mozambique

35

83

6

3

Madagascar

55

15

104

65

26

65

51

Zimbabwe

136

111

78

277

South Afr.

3,983

670

502

478

1,397

4,506

7,514

2,865

3,491

4,224

Comoros Is.

650

440

904

578

Mauritius

1,224

273

419

1,463

1,754

1,733

2,024

Europe

UK

1,790

121

833

1,385

1,706

3,292

4,482

France

199

11

168

232

285

261

262

Germany

12

1

1

1

5

31

46

Switzerland

50

54

15

101

Netherlands

300

179

277

540

Belgium

52

50

50

60

Denmark

170

100

117

375

Sweden

299

128

205

743

Spain

126

320

48

72

23

Portugal

343

482

775

170

91

138

Greece

1,082

174

96

964

1,609

1,591

1,342

767

Cyprus

71

17

164

8

Yugoslavia

269

15

44

359

454

260

262

212

Americas and Australia

Trinidad

1,118

584

1,156

1,945

Surinam

173

752

Guyana

52

225

USA

73

6

15

31

72

150

222

Canada

110

3

3

40

75

214

471

Australia

377

14

40

96

164

598

2,006

(p.278) (p.279)

(p.280)

Table A4.4 Regional distribution of the world's Muslims and pilgrims, 1947–1987

Region

Percent Muslims

1947–1950

1951–1955

1956–1960

1961–1965

1966–1970

1971–1974

1975–1979

1980–1984

1985–1987

Arabian Peninsula

1.4

4.6

17.8

28.6

11.5

15.4

11.2

14.5

12.1

9.8

Fertile Crescent

3.3

3.3

9.5

10.1

16.4

14.4

13.8

15.3

11.3

7.3

Red Sea

7.3

24.1

22.4

17.8

13.0

9.1

11.8

9.2

15.5

15.9

North Africa

6.4

2.7

4.3

2.7

7.7

9.9

11.7

12.6

10.5

9.3

Arab world total

18.4

34.8

54.0

59.6

48.6

48.8

49.2

51.2

49.4

42.3

West Asia

12.1

12.7

6.6

7.7

14.8

21.2

16.2

17.5

14.6

25.1

South Asia

30.9

30.0

21.9

15.3

18.6

11.6

13.1

10.4

13.9

16.4

Southeast Asia

17.5

16.6

10.2

8.4

9.0

8.4

8.1

7.1

10.2

4.6

West Africa

8.8

5.2

6.9

9.0

7.8

7.8

10.2

12.0

10.6

4.6

East Africa

3.0

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.9

1.5

1.4

0.9

0.7

0.7

Europe

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.5

Americas and Australia

0.5

0.1

0.2

Socialist bloc

8.1

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

Table A4.5 Economic, geographic, and religious predictors of pilgrimage rates, 1961–1987 (multiple regression)

Total Sample

Years

N

Per capita Income

Distance from Mecca

Percent Muslim

p.1

p.2

p.3

R

R 2

1961–1987

92

.483

−.292

.397

.000

.000

.000

.719

.501

1961–1965

57

.569

−.391

.182

.000

.003

.135

.693

.451

1966–1970

62

.567

−.433

.216

.000

.000

.051

.717

.490

1971–1974

65

.467

−.467

.279

.000

.000

.010

.713

.484

1975–1979

85

.286

−.281

.387

.002

.006

.000

.619

.361

1980–1984

90

.361

−.161

.426

.000

.090

.000

.624

.368

1985–1987

92

.419

−.051

.405

.000

.605

.000

.582

.316

Asia and Africa

Years

N

Per capita Income

Distance from Mecca

Percent Muslim

p.1

p.2

p.3

R

R 2

1961–1987

69

.621

−.256

.157

.000

.003

.065

.801

.624

1961–1965

53

.552

−.210

.160

.000

.083

.183

.703

.464

1966–1970

55

.610

−.205

.133

.000

.060

.218

.756

.546

1971–1974

57

.483

−.283

.182

.000

.012

.099

.733

.511

1975–1979

69

.318

−.310

.235

.003

.005

.033

.636

.377

1980–1984

69

.461

−.170

.237

.000

.105

.029

.647

.392

1985–1987

69

.600

.065

.197

.000

.520

.062

.670

.423

1961–1987

62

.666

−.276

.134

.000

.004

.161

.746

.533

1961–1965

47

.411

−.241

.161

.002

.085

.246

.568

.276

1966–1970

48

.550

−.132

.051

.000

.317

.698

.596

.311

1971–1974

50

.489

−.218

.158

.000

.085

.211

.633

.362

1975–1979

62

.510

−.328

.172

.000

.003

.113

.664

.412

1980–1984

62

.748

−.187

.129

.000

.038

.149

.781

.590

1985–1987

62

.876

.045

.051

.000

.490

.441

.885

.772

(p.281)

Table A5.1 Female pilgrims from Pakistan by region, 1974–1988 (percent)

Region

1974–1977

1985–1988

Punjab

43.1

46.4

Sindh

39.5

43.4

Frontier

22.6

28.3

Baluchistan

12.5

17.7

Tribal Areas

6.4

19.6

Pakistan total

36.6

41.2

Table A5.2 Age distribution of Pakistani pilgrims by gender and region, 1985–1988 (percent)

Male

Female

Total

18–35

36–60

>60

18–35

36–60

>60

18–35

36–60

>60

Punjab

12.3

52.8

34.9

11.2

65.6

23.1

11.8

58.8

29.5

Sindh

21.5

58.1

20.4

22.7

63.0

14.3

22.0

60.2

17.7

Frontier

14.8

61.3

23.9

11.3

72.2

16.4

13.8

64.4

21.8

Baluchistan

16.4

67.3

16.3

10.4

72.7

16.9

15.3

68.2

16.4

Tribal Areas

19.2

69.3

11.4

6.8

82.4

10.9

16.8

71.9

11.3

Pakistan

14.8

56.7

28.5

13.2

66.2

20.5

14.2

60.7

25.3

(p.282)

Table A5.3 Pilgrimage, development, and party vote by region in Pakistan

Punjab

Urban Sindh

Rural Sindh

Frontier

Baluchistan

Pakistan

Population (%)

56.6

9.8

12.8

15.7

5.1

100.0

Pilgrims (%)

58.5

14.4

4.3

17.8

5.0

100.0

Pilgrims (per million)

645

895

256

727

696

641

Agricultural workers (%)

49.1

17.1

72.6

62.1

71.4

52.1

Industrial workers (%)

11.8

16.3

3.0

3.0

1.4

9.2

Vehicles (per million)

10,026

48,919

7,003

12,997

16,445

13,875

Televisions (per million)

18,744

60,399

6,511

4,393

17,857

Literacy (%)

27.4

46.2

25.1

16.7

10.3

26.2

Qur'anic Literacy (%)

40.6

47.0

29.6

41.0

22.3

38.4

Muslim League vote, 1993 (%)

45.3

34.9

28.3

27.5

7.5

39.9

People's Party vote, 1993 (%)

38.8

43.6

56.4

15.8

18.7

37.9

Table A5.4 Major correlates of pilgrimage in Pakistan, 1974–1990 (Pearson's r, N = 50)

1974–1977

1978–1983

1984–1988

1989–1990

1974–1990

Service workers

.479

.691

.810

.836

.758

Industrial workers

−.068

.108

.381

.443

.201

Agricultural workers

−.358

−.584

−.768

−.809

−.668

Tractors

.217

.359

.516

.529

.428

Tube wells

.547

.509

.298

.309

.482

Qur'anic literacy

.112

.434

.701

.710

.509

High school enrollment

.208

.298

.521

.653

.422

Literacy

.016

.224

.531

.598

.336

Televisions

.376

.217

.303

.484

.327

Urbanization

.228

.280

.449

.524

.380

Hospital beds

.476

.581

.592

.626

.620

Vehicles

.423

.509

.575

.606

.571

Pashto

.414

.473

.334

.194

.423

Punjabi

−.141

.051

.312

.383

.129

Urdu

.131

.077

.177

.244

.155

Siraiki

−.067

.027

.011

.030

−.002

Baluchi-Brahvi

−.020

−.211

−.352

−.338

−.241

Sindhi

−.275

−.479

−.513

−.503

−.484

(p.283)

Table A5.5 Pilgrimage and party vote in Pakistan, 1970–1993 (Pearson's r, N = 50)

Pakistan People's Party

Pakistan Muslim League

Jamiat Ulama-i-Islam

Jamiat Ulama-i-Pakistan

Pakistan Islamic Front

Other parties

1970

−.317

−.171

.368

−.147

(c)

.142

1988

−.276

.345

.213

.146

(c)

−.177

1990

−.124

.279

.193

(b)

(c)

−.220 (d)

1993

−.138

.292 (a)

.142

(b)

.039

−.158 (d)

((a)) Nawaz Sharif faction.

((b)) Joined multiparty coalitions in 1990 and 1993.

((c)) Jamaat-i-Islami party that previously joined coalitions led by the Pakistan Muslim League.

((d)) Primarily Pakhtun and Baluchi ethnic parties.

(p.284)

Table A5.6 The relative influence of development, ethnicity, and party vote in predicting Pakistani pilgrimage rates (multiple regression, N = 50)

1988 Elections

1990 Elections

1993 Elections

beta

p.

beta

p.

beta

p.

Urbanization

.302

.010

.286

.021

.365

.002

Punjabi-Pashto-Urdu

.394

.001

.425

.001

.453

.000

PPP vote

−.357

.002

−.228

.056

−.320

.005

R

.679

.623

.721

R squared

.461

.388

.520

Table A5.7 Hajj rates in Pakistani districts, 1974–1990 (average annual number of pilgrims per million Muslims)

District/REGION

1974–1977

1978–1983

1984–1988

1989–1990

1974–1990

Attock

477

850

945

843

789

Rawalpindi

731

996

1,269

1,360

1,057

Jhelum

406

816

1,447

1,671

1,006

Gujrat

371

640

926

911

693

Gujranwala

681

737

768

840

745

Sialkot

363

549

836

857

626

Sheikhupura

309

322

432

529

375

Lahore

832

844

1,049

1,276

952

Sargodha

552

474

665

734

579

Jhang

294

277

305

422

306

Faisalabad

539

497

666

809

593

Sahiwal

452

341

452

507

419

Multan

603

489

783

845

644

Bahawalnagar

614

504

486

591

535

Bahawalpur

777

905

817

978

858

Mianwali

365

425

444

583

435

Muzaffargarh

318

314

385

530

361

Dera Ghazi Khan

349

366

424

332

375

Rahimyar Khan

351

392

399

479

395

PUNJAB

527

586

736

835

645

Jacobabad

403

153

66

69

176

Sukkur

369

267

258

314

294

Larkana

302

166

168

114

192

Dadu

267

191

202

117

203

Thatta

279

121

112

220

167

Nawabshah

377

219

173

161

236

Khairpur

557

360

172

120

323

Sanghar

351

197

151

168

216

Tharpakar

612

167

108

150

252

Hyderabad

456

290

376

529

382

Karachi

1,154

1,004

1,235

1,384

1,152

SINDH

576

454

545

663

534

Chitral

324

299

307

537

335

Dir

234

543

583

366

461

Swat

665

813

681

547

708

Hazara

269

459

452

362

401

Malakand

441

577

512

434

509

Mardan

480

528

630

531

547

Peshawar

862

873

911

845

878

Kohat

1,188

1,645

1,651

1,281

1,496

Bannu

835

854

1,009

915

902

Dera Ismail Khan

1,049

1,402

1,172

1,173

1,224

FRONTIER

593

767

800

696

727

Zhob

2.320

1,271

477

480

1,191

Quetta

2,245

1,786

1,816

2,147

1,945

Chagai

2,050

1,419

572

715

1,235

Loralai

1,047

537

364

472

598

Sibi

278

179

166

253

207

Kacchi

140

78

53

25

79

Kalat

398

262

128

104

236

Lasbela

88

61

62

93

72

Makran

198

130

134

89

143

Kharan

694

235

111

143

296

BALUCHISTAN

914

651

558

737

696

Mohmand

212

328

477

182

328

Bajaur

206

537

414

488

417

Khyber

686

952

1,553

1,129

1,087

Kurram

899

1,286

1,576

851

1,229

North Waziristan

841

1,676

2,112

2,079

1,655

South Waziristan

167

226

579

451

342

TRIBAL AREAS

356

585

869

705

629

PAKISTAN

563

592

706

780

641

Table A6.1 Female pilgrims in Malaysia, 1968–1995 (percent of total pilgrims)

Years

Percent

1968–1975

53.3

1979–1980

54.8

1981–1985

55.3

1986–1990

55.5

1991–1995

55.6

1979–1995

55.4

(p.285)

Table A6.2 Malaysian pilgrims by age groups, 1987–1995 (percent of total pilgrims)

Age

1987–1990

1991–1992

1993–1995

1987–1995

90+

0.1

0.0

0.5

0.2

80–89

0.7

0.5

0.7

0.6

70–79

6.2

6.1

6.4

6.0

60–69

22.2

23.7

21.0

22.0

50–59

35.2

36.6

37.6

34.8

40–49

20.3

19.1

21.2

19.5

30–39

11.2

10.6

10.2

10.3

20–29

2.9

2.5

1.8

2.4

10–19

0.8

0.5

0.6

0.6

<10

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

Table A6.3 Occupations of Malaysian pilgrims, 1979–1995 (percent of total pilgrims)

1979–1980

1981–1985

1986–1990

1991–1995

1979–1995

Housewife

31.6

37.6

40.0

30.4

35.6

Self-employed

5.1

14.1

11.2

16.9

13.6

Civil servant

12.9

13.5

13.9

11.8

13.0

Farmer

16.7

16.1

10.1

7.5

11.2

Pensioner

5.9

5.9

8.4

9.7

8.0

Trader

4.9

4.7

4.4

4.1

4.4

Private sector

4.7

0.8

2.2

3.0

2.3

Teacher

0.0

0.1

2.5

3.8

2.2

Student

9.5

0.7

0.9

3.2

2.1

Worker

2.5

1.5

1.5

2.2

1.8

Child

0.4

0.4

1.4

0.1

0.6

Fisherman

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.6

0.4

Other

1.3

0.7

1.5

1.3

1.2

Unknown

4.0

3.5

1.7

5.3

3.6

(p.286)

Table A6.4 Pilgrimage and socioeconomic characteristics in Malaysia, 1969–1995 (Pearson's r, N = 13)

1969–1970

1971–1975

1976–1980

1981–1985

1986–1990

1991–1995

1969–1995

Muslims

.488

.222

.375

.456

−.039

−.406

.123

Buddhists

−.323

.016

.212

−.051

.519

.803

.379

Confucians

−.412

−.259

−.173

−.359

.163

.552

.007

Hindus

−.214

.087

.218

.001

.504

.697

.381

Christians

−.259

−.253

−.655

−.479

−.492

−.365

−.536

Tribals

−.191

−.267

−.484

−.320

−.330

−.194

−.368

Malays

.520

.303

.599

.634

.254

−.063

.407

Chinese

−.430

−.104

−.030

−.248

.325

.688

.171

Indians

−.228

.135

.249

.001

.489

.684

.383

Others

−.388

−.259

−.454

−.540

−.425

−.336

−.514

Rural water

−.298

.007

.372

.157

.732

.868

.546

Urban water

−.824

−.572

−.343

−.420

.166

.482

−.131

Average age

−.409

.003

.159

−.105

.482

.759

.325

Age dependency

.511

.014

.001

.274

−.265

−.605

−.133

Literacy

−.209

.110

.542

.250

.644

.751

.553

Primary edu.

−.189

−.563

−.103

−.062

.274

.301

.034

Secondary edu.

.114

.327

.581

.290

.626

.771

.614

Higher edu.

−.045

.605

.537

.218

.183

.185

.331

No school

.171

−.124

−.568

−.281

−.664

−.767

−.583

Urbanization

−.235

.308

.244

−.016

.137

.395

.210

GDP per cap.

−.495

.111

.103

−.169

.125

.362

.101

Manufacturing

−.294

.371

.222

−.104

.183

.463

.201

GDP agric.*

.222

−.231

−.136

.086

−.061

−.307

−.128

GDP industry*

−.539

−.110

−.263

−.468

−.265

.055

−.330

GDP services*

.188

.413

.423

.307

.323

.366

.473

(*) Excluding Sabah and Sarawak.

Table A6.5 Pilgrimage and party vote in Malaysia, 1969–1999 (Pearson's r, N = 13)

Election

Barisan Nasional

Parti Islam SeMalaysia

Democratic Action Party

Parti Melayu Semangat '46

Parti Keadilan

1959*

−.502**

.741**

1964*

−.513**

.707**

−.177**

1969

−.149

.620

−.297**

1974

.180

***

−.228**

1978

−.245

.473

.071**

1982

−.130

.552

−.140

1986

−.092

−.001

.434

1990

.598

−.441

.521

.289

1995

.654

−.276

.577

−.354

1999

.268

−.390

.629

.383

(*) Voting in 1959 and 1964 was correlated with the 1969–1970 pilgrimages.

(**) Excluding Sabah and Sarawak.

(***) PAS was part of the Barisan Nasional in the 1974 elections.

(p.287)

Table A6.6 Party vote in the 1999 elections and hajj participation, 1969–1995 (Pearson's r, N = 13)

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Alternatif

UMNO

Parti Islam SeMalaysia

Democratic Action Party

Parti Keadilan

−.285

.590

.045

.206

.371

.221

Table A7.1 The shrinking gender gap in religious education in Turkey, 1973–1995

Year

Junior high schools (percent female)

Senior high schools (percent female)

İmam-Hatip/general (percent)

İmam-Hatip

General

İmam-Hatip

General

Junior high

Senior high

1973

2.4

28.4

1.4

31.7

1.8

6.6

1980

12.0

33.4

9.3

35.7

11.3

8.9

1986

15.4

35.2

15.4

43.0

8.5

13.0

1990

28.6

36.8

23.7

42.9

9.9

12.5

1995

41.0

38.4

38.2

42.3

13.4

15.7

Table A7.2 Turkish pilgrimage rates by province, 1979–1993

Province/REGION

1979–1984

1985–1989

1990–1993

1979–1993

Edirne

232

578

319

371

Kırklareli

343

720

397

483

Tekirda;akg

400

1,139

684

722

İstanbul

701

1,363

731

930

THRACE

635

1,245

697

855

Çanakkale

744

1,440

547

923

Balıkesir

804

1,748

544

1,049

Manisa

656

1,384

253

791

İzmir

345

681

373

464

Aydın

392

690

342

478

Mu;akgla

184

410

310

293

AEGEAN

497

998

379

633

Bursa

1,252

2,477

1,118

1,625

Bilecik

1,150

1,720

597

1,193

Eskişehir

1,197

1,586

599

1,167

Kütahya

2,138

2,414

1,064

1,944

Afyon

1,083

1,609

743

1,168

Uşak

829

1,855

841

1,174

Denizli

699

1,348

711

919

Burdur

698

1,384

957

996

Isparta

821

1,630

983

1,134

WESTERN

1,155

1,883

895

1,328

Ankara

838

1,480

1,022

1,101

Çankırı

603

1,110

935

861

Çorum

733

1,407

805

977

Amasya

629

1,201

841

876

Tokat

568

1,186

794

834

Yozgat

778

1,895

869

1,175

Sivas

480

984

690

704

Kayseri

1,167

2,390

1,066

1,548

Nevşehir

1,232

3,022

1,401

1,874

Kırsehir

890

1,822

940

1,214

Ni;akgde

696

1,540

1,044

1,070

Konya

1,324

2,453

930

1,595

CENTRAL

881

1,773

984

1,206

Kocaeli

896

1,438

262

908

Sakarya

1,203

2,520

493

1,453

Bolu

958

2,001

744

1,249

Zonguldak

525

740

529

598

Kastamonu

481

992

742

721

Sinop

320

639

344

433

Samsun

580

1,354

833

905

Ordu

306

530

425

412

Giresun

353

803

566

560

Gümüşhane

771

1,274

791

944

Trabzon

861

1,778

785

1,146

Rize

659

1,522

962

1,027

Artvin

219

446

319

321

BLACK SEA

642

1,286

597

845

Antalya

333

831

580

565

İçel

354

640

412

465

Adana

275

620

445

435

Hatay

231

687

308

404

MEDITERRANEAN

294

674

437

459

Kars

168

410

281

279

Ağrı

110

329

194

205

Erzurum

474

961

615

674

Erzincan

669

1,144

734

845

Tunceli

4

47

41

28

Bingöl

214

639

360

395

Muş

131

261

120

171

NORTH EAST

287

633

383

428

Malatya

344

728

481

506

Elazığ

401

818

700

620

Maraş

407

886

316

542

Gaziantep

517

1,180

390

704

Adıyaman

158

509

311

316

Urfa

484

1,087

197

608

Diyarbakır

336

786

343

488

Mardin

438

688

129

439

Siirt

217

535

671

440

Bitlis

182

326

126

215

Van

176

671

294

372

Hakkâri

239

435

228

301

SOUTH EAST

360

808

350

507

(p.288)

(p.289)

Table A7.3 The social and economic correlates of pilgrimage in Turkey, 1979–1993 (Pearson's r, N = 67)

Total pilgrims

Male pilgrims

Female pilgrims

Percent female

Urban income

.467

.397

.502

.622

Rural income

.404

.294

.485

.688

Literacy

.481

.400

.526

.634

Junior high school students

.280

.183

.358

.561

Newspapers

.116

.035

.190

.395

Vehicles

.394

.280

.481

.644

Telephones

.472

.388

.522

.627

Hospital beds

.316

.307

.301

.288

Electricity consumption

.322

.246

.375

.580

Industrial workers

.350

.276

.398

.482

Service workers

.147

.062

.224

.419

Agricultural workers

−.248

−.161

−.318

−.481

Landowners

−.104

.027

−.229

−.537

Landowners and renters

.119

−.008

.239

.529

Land renters

−.064

−.170

.049

.346

Turkish

.496

.454

.501

.558

Kurdish

−.489

−.442

−.499

−.592

Arabic

−.219

−.233

−.187

−.014

Slavic languages

−.031

−.070

.011

.201

Urban mosques

.552

.508

.554

.388

Rural mosques

.133

.279

−.027

−.331

Qur'an course students

.681

.667

.643

.418

İmam-Hatip students

.415

.479

.317

.068

Islamic associations

.588

.581

.550

.338

(p.290)

Table A7.4 Pilgrimage and party vote in Turkey, 1979–1993 (Pearson's r, N = 67)

Party

Total pilgrims

Male pilgrims

Female pilgrims

Percent female

Democratic Party (DP) 1950

.282

.221

.320

.424

Justice Party (AP) 1969

.512

.433

.554

.565

Motherland Party (ANAP) 1983

.633

.606

.612

.463

Rightist parties 1995

.445

.517

.336

.098

National Action Party (MHP) 1995

.285

.263

.286

.264

Welfare Party (RP) 1995

.181

.276

.071

−.235

Motherland Party (ANAP) 1995

.156

.280

.018

−.121

True Path Party (DYP) 1995

.078

−.044

.197

.412

Leftist parties 1995

.048

−.069

.163

.478

Democratic Left Party (DSP) 1995

.125

.027

.215

.428

Republican Peoples Party (CHP) 1995

−.091

−.176

.003

.327

[Kurdish] People's Democratic Party (HADEP) 1995

−.419

−.384

−.423

−.484

Table A7.5 The combined effects of politics, culture, and economics on Turkey's pilgrimage, 1979–1993 (multiple regression, N = 67)

Beta

Probability

Qur'an course students

.408

.000

Urban mosques

.372

.000

RPP vote, 1995

−.215

.027

Turkish

.194

.140

Rural income

.144

.152

(p.291)

Table A8.1 Pilgrimage, income, and party vote in Java

Pilgrimage rates

GDP per capita (dollars)

Party vote, 1955 (percent)

1950–1970

1974–1996

1971

1990

Masjumi

NU

PNI

PKI

Jakarta

242

1,415

248

1,668

26.0

15.7

19.6

12.0

West Java

145

571

88

445

26.4

9.6

22.1

10.8

East Java

98

408

89

516

11.2

34.1

22.8

23.2

Central Java

67

198

74

388

9.3

20.3

34.1

25.3

Yogyakarta

24

167

76

373

17.6

13.0

27.2

31.1

Table A8.2 Female pilgrims and repeating pilgrims in Indonesia, 1985–1989 (percent)

Region

Female

Made at least one previous pilgrimage

Sumatra

56.6

6.4

Java

49.5

5.9

Nusa Tenggara

35.0

3.0

Kalimantan

56.0

6.9

Sulawesi

63.8

2.7

Maluku-Irian Jaya

51.0

1.9

Government-military

52.0

14.4

Indonesia

52.3

5.5

Table A8.3 Ages of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 (percent)

Region

<29

30–39

40–49

50–59

60+

Sumatra

3.1

13.9

26.8

30.9

25.3

Java

7.5

21.0

27.9

26.7

16.9

Nusa Tenggara

5.3

31.7

31.0

20.9

11.1

Kalimantan

13.9

30.5

27.1

17.9

10.6

Sulawesi

14.6

30.0

28.6

18.4

8.4

Maluku-Irian Jaya

14.0

27.4

23.7

19.9

15.0

Government-military

6.3

14.3

26.5

29.7

23.2

Indonesia

8.2

21.9

27.8

25.5

16.6

(p.292)

Table A8.4 Educational backgrounds of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 (percent)

Region

Less than elementary

Elementary

Junior high

Senior high

University

Sumatra

13.6

42.0

17.7

20.4

6.3

Java

17.1

48.2

13.4

15.5

5.8

Nusa Tenggara

27.2

46.0

13.3

9.3

4.2

Kalimantan

13.3

52.7

14.0

16.2

3.8

Sulawesi

22.0

48.2

13.7

12.1

4.0

Maluku-Irian Jaya

24.9

51.7

11.3

8.8

3.3

Government-Military

7.3

29.9

25.3

26.9

10.6

Indonesia

16.1

45.9

15.3

16.8

5.9

Table A8.5 Occupational backgrounds of Indonesian pilgrims, 1985–1989 (percent)

Region

Farmer

Merchant

Civil servant

Pensioner

Housewife

Sumatra

27.3

21.0

12.2

5.4

34.1

Java

38.5

21.5

10.7

4.1

25.2

Nusa Tenggara

11.4

50.2

8.4

2.0

28.0

Kalimantan

18.3

24.4

12.8

3.9

40.6

Sulawesi

23.1

23.7

13.4

2.5

37.3

Maluku-Irian Jaya

25.8

30.0

7.2

1.8

35.2

Government-military

12.7

16.4

17.2

10.0

43.7

Indonesia

30.5

21.7

12.0

4.6

31.2

Table A8.6 Indonesian pilgrimage rates by province, 1974–1996 (average annual number of pilgrims per million Muslims)

Region

1974–1979

1980–1989

1990–1996

1974–1996

Aceh

389

445

732

512

North Sumatra

370

383

643

455

West Sumatra

318

378

631

434

Riau

380

400

814

515

Jambi

825

497

567

613

South Sumatra

425

319

363

363

Bengkulu

267

246

307

270

Lampung

290

112

184

185

SUMATRA

352

326

513

388

Jakarta

1,495

710

2,489

1,458

West Java

521

336

987

580

Central Java

136

144

373

208

Yogyakarta

59

101

386

172

East Java

313

308

680

418

JAVA

363

284

806

459

Bali

384

585

1,634

832

W. Nusa Tenggara

662

592

1,027

739

E. Nusa Tenggara

281

477

717

490

East Timor

609

964

NUSA TENGGARA

586

561

995

694

West Kalimantan

370

266

426

342

Central Kalimantan

619

669

1,163

798

South Kalimantan

1,325

1,161

1,767

1,386

East Kalimantan

1,426

1,299

1,961

1,529

KALIMANTAN

902

837

1,328

999

North Sulawesi

116

120

229

151

Central Sulawesi

442

391

577

460

South Sulawesi

609

1,132

2,048

1,246

Southeast Sulawesi

180

336

779

420

SULAWESI

459

808

1,428

887

Maluku

699

445

448

520

Irian Jaya

711

1,291

1,891

1,297

EASTERN INDONESIA

618

570

743

640

INDONESIA

413

396

901

548

(p.293)

Table A8.7 The strongest correlates of hajj participation in Indonesia, 1974–1996 (Pearson's r)

All Indonesia (27 provinces)

Minus Jakarta, East Timor, and Irian Jaya (24 provinces)

1974–1979

1980–1989

1990–1996

1974–1996

1974–1979

1980–1989

1990–1996

1974–1996

GDP per capita

.703

.420

.631

.636

.609

.547

.486

.568

Urbanization

.704

.314

.563

.559

.602

.495

.325

.481

Air passengers

.771

.573

.726

.736

.657

.656

.589

.667

Port revenues

.527

.478

.398

.489

.557

.511

.416

.513

Buses and trucks

.540

.343

.540

.524

.283

.344

.303

.331

Non-energy exports

.578

.556

.338

.503

.662

.510

.315

.498

Cash crops

−.417

−.538

−.675

−.617

−.316

−.493

−.628

−.533

Forestry, fish, & livestock

.650

.580

.470

.596

.694

.668

.517

.650

Agric. workers

−.614

−.260

−.596

−.545

−.419

−.425

−.524

−.491

Service workers

.656

.252

.586

.546

.514

.471

.525

.534

TV viewers

.656

.263

.563

.523

.502

.393

.311

.414

Cinema viewers

.726

.375

.536

.568

.605

.478

.349

.486

Telephones

.604

.231

.584

.512

.448

.460

.454

.482

(p.294)

Table A8.8 Pilgrimage and party vote in Indonesia, 1971–1999 (Pearson's r)

All Indonesia (27 provinces)

Minus Jakarta, East Timor, and Irian Jaya (24 Provinces)

Golkar

PPP

PDI

Golkar

PPP

PDI

1971

−.226

.302

−.023

−.059

.195

−.155

1977

−.354

.354

−.065

−.193

.331

−.343

1982

.160

−.083

−.237

.087

.038

−.334

1987

.076

.016

−.074

.017

.149

−.146

1992

−.103

.083

.149

.023

.024

−.021

1999

.022

.025

.096

.158

.002

.019

Air passengers

.620

.000

.570

.000

Cash crops

−.500

.001

−.502

.002

Golkar 1992

.401

.008

.393

.018

PPP 1977

.232

.083

.295

.052

Multiple R

.873

.835

Multiple R squared

.762

.698

(p.295)

Table A9.1 Hajj rates in the states of Nigeria, 1977–1982 and 1997–1999

State/REGION

Average number of hajjis per year

Hajjis per million Muslims

Percent Muslim

1977–1982

1997–1999

1977–1982

1997–1999

1980

Sokoto-Kebbi

5,423

3,796

843

611

95

Kaduna-Katsina

10,658

4,077

2,324

707

75

Kano-Jigawa

14,211

3,187

1,753

390

94

Borno-Yobe

5,236

1,434

1,259

392

93

Bauchi

2,936

1,218

975

337

83

NORTH

38,464

13,712

1,463

500

89

Niger

2,256

1,007

1,507

495

84

Kwara

3,366

463

2,001

272

65

Plateau

2,945

680

2,565

540

38

Adamawa-Taraba

2,057

683

945

337

56

Benue

748

202

421

108

49

Abuja

1,239

606

54

MIDDLE BELT

11,372

4,273

1,390

480

56

Oyo-Osun

3,365

632

699

182

62

Ondo-Ekiti

524

96

378

75

34

Ogun

1,365

421

861

291

62

Lagos

3,719

1,195

2,527

360

58

Bendel

917

102

862

74

29

SOUTHWEST

9,890

2,444

958

224

50

Anambra-Enugu

196

69

1,221

386

3

Imo-Abia

578

33

5,257

341

2

Cross River-Akwa Ibom

273

65

2,628

750

2

Rivers

193

141

3,866

1,624

2

SOUTHEAST

1,240

308

2,906

686

2

Nigeria

60,966

20,737

1,345

435

54

Table A9.2 Correlates of hajj participation in Nigeria, 1977–1982 and 1997–1999

North, Middle Belt, and West (N = 15)

North & Middle Belt (N = 10)

1977–1982

1997–1999

1977–1982

1997–1999

Agricultural workers

−.464

−.180

−.435

−.279

Manufac. workers

.622

.383

.775

.476

Service workers

−.081

.029

−.514

.163

Construction workers

.449

.012

.502

.687

Civil servants

.603

.033

.629

−.011

Development index

.318

−.256

.295

−.199

Urbanization

−.462

−.697

−.220

−.519

Farm size

−.015

.609

−.344

.426

Potable water

.522

.088

.618

.671

Hospital size

.280

−.300

.702

.160

Pharmacies

.443

−.042

.744

.104

Newspapers

.374

−.197

.198

−.257

Fuel consumption

.448

−.021

.614

.287

Roads

−.016

−.382

.408

−.143

Govt. budget

.440

.002

.238

−.159

Primary students

−.054

−.627

−.070

−.657

Secondary students

−.138

−.589

.325

−.213

University students

−.429

−.639

−.176

−.586

Polytechnic students

.265

.099

.715

.531

Qur'an school studs.

.517

.721

Islamic sec. students

.103

.564

Hausa-Fulani

.205

.677

.067

.573

Yoruba

−.147

−.453

.274

−.296

Muslim 1980

.169

.579

−.184

.297

Muslim 1952

.072

.510

Christian 1952

.468

−.221

Traditional 1952

−.159

−.530

Shagari 1979

−.074

−.508

Awolowo 1979

−.217

.210

Shagari 1983

−.107

−.404

Awolowo 1983

−.154

.122

Abiola 1993

−596

−.454

Obasanjo 1999

.333

.015

(p.296)

Table A9.3 The hajj in the local governments of Kaduna State, 1999

Local government/REGION

Hajjis per million population

Percent female hajjis

Average age, males

Average age, females

Average age, total

BIRNIN GWARI

313

11.36

41.90

38.20

41.47

Zaria

909

33.33

37.95

37.75

37.72

Sabon Gari

465

43.43

37.09

34.67

36.04

Makarfi

36.51

36.74

34.96

36.09

Kudan (Hunkuyi)

}397

8.33

39.60

40.00

39.62

Giwa

552

26.60

39.26

41.56

39.87

Igabi

278

30.12

36.84

38.36

37.30

Soba

400

24.00

40.46

39.22

40.16

ZARIA

506

31.88

38.17

37.30

37.90

Ikara

284

39.22

39.97

38.00

39.20

Kubau (Anchau)

516

23.53

41.60

38.95

40.98

IKARA

395

29.41

41.07

38.47

40.31

Kaduna North (Doka)

775

51.02

38.81

37.91

38.35

Kaduna South (Makera)

679

39.13

38.04

33.25

36.16

HQ 1 (Tudun Wada)

1,634

53.98

39.28

36.91

38.00

HQ 2 (Kawo)

2,887

46.60

39.91

35.22

37.72

HQ 3 (Gabasawa)

906

18.18

41.09

39.08

40.73

KADUNA CITY

1,576

47.46

39.51

36.22

37.95

Lere

570

30.95

41.01

37.08

39.79

Kauru

172

31.81

37.33

30.86

35.27

LERE

424

31.08

40.47

36.13

39.12

Chikun (Kujama)

187

32.26

40.14

32.50

37.68

Kajuru

75

30.00

41.71

39.00

40.90

Kachia

158

30.00

37.78

36.00

37.25

Kagarko

44

50.00

35.00

32.50

33.75

Zangon Kataf (Zonkwa)

94

28.57

44.20

38.00

42.43

KACHIA

119

31.64

40.30

35.00

38.62

Jema'a (Kafanchan)

69

40.00

39.22

35.50

37.56

Sanga (Gwantu)

23

33.33

47.00

34.00

42.67

Jaba (Kwoi)

15

Kaura (Kagoro)

0

JEMA'A

47

42.10

40.64

34.87

38.21

TOTAL STATE

563

38.93

39.34

36.55

38.25

Excluding Kaduna City

342

30.77

39.22

37.04

38.54

(p.297)

Table A9.4 The hajj in the local governments of Lagos State, 1999

Local government/REGION

Hajjis per million population

Percent female hajjis

Average age, males

Average age, females

Average age, total

Lagos Island

1,004

58.18

44.18

43.73

43.86

Eti-Osa

35.55

48.71

48.41

48.57

Apapa

}339

38.46

45.14

45.16

45.15

Lagos Mainland

75.00

Surulere

}133

56.52

40.19

46.78

43.67

LAGOS CITY

281

55.16

44.97

44.48

44.70

Ikeja

53.57

43.04

48.50

47.53

Alimosho

}283

49.48

43.58

42.66

43.14

Agege

51.32

43.71

37.19

40.66

Ifako-Ijaye

}157

46.15

47.00

48.50

47.53

Shomolu

54.90

40.19

46.78

43.67

Kasofe

}115

35.13

42.84

43.92

43.26

Mushin

46.03

41.18

48.74

44.59

Oshodi-Isolo

}112

50.00

42.95

44.73

43.69

IKEJA

158

49.58

42.91

43.08

43.00

IKORODU

160

48.27

43.70

51.64

47.86

Epe

120

50.00

40.50

45.50

43.50

Ibeju-Lekki

161

25.00

EPE

129

43.75

40.50

45.50

43.50

Badagry

25

33.33

49.66

49.66

Ojo

55.55

33.33

44.66

39.00

Amuwo-Odofin

} 85

39.58

44.96

43.25

44.27

Ajeromi-Ilfeladun

40.00

38.37

41.00

39.60

BADAGRY

79

42.70

42.04

43.16

42.17

TOTAL STATE

168

50.73

43.26

44.11

43.67

Excluding Lagos Island

143

49.18

43.23

44.15

43.66

(p.298)

Table A9.5 Nigerian pilgrims to Jerusalem (1995–1998) and Mecca (1997–1999) by state

State/REGION

Average number of pilgrims to Jerusalem

Average number of pilgrims to Mecca

Jerusalem pilgrims per million non-Muslims

Mecca pilgrims per million Muslims

Sokoto-Zamfara

12

2,698

55

635

Kebbi

28

1,098

273

559

Kaduna

94

2,312

54

1,049

Katsina

12

1,764

54

500

Kano

44

2,588

126

474

Jigawa

19

599

167

217

Borno

73

893

410

379

Yobe

35

541

360

415

Bauchi-Gombe

99

1,218

134

337

NORTH

416

13,712

110

500

Niger

21

1,007

54

495

Kwara

48

377

89

375

Kogi

64

171

66

145

Plateau-Nassarawa

165

680

80

540

Adamawa

73

417

79

354

Taraba

59

266

89

314

Benue

74

116

53

86

Abuja

153

1,239

91

606

MIDDLE BELT

657

4,273

90

480

Oyo

96

428

73

200

Osun

89

203

103

157

Ondo-Ekiti

172

96

69

75

Ogun

88

421

99

291

Lagos

374

1,195

155

360

Delta

45

30

24

40

Edo

52

71

34

113

SOUTHWEST

916

2,444

81

224

Anambra-Ebonyi

47

25

17

298

Enugu

75

44

24

468

Imo

44

6

18

127

Abia

51

27

22

570

Cross River

65

38

35

1,003

Akwa Ibom

79

27

33

553

Rivers-Bayelsa

107

141

25

1,624

SOUTHEAST

468

308

25

686

NIGERIA

2,457

20,737

59

435

(p.299)

(p.300)

Appendix

Figure A4.1 The growth of the overseas pilgrimage to Mecca, 1945–2003

Appendix

Figure A4.2 The global expansion of the hajj, 1951–1987 (pilgrims per million Muslims)

(p.301)

Appendix

Figure A4.3 The regional distribution of pilgrims

Appendix

Figure A4.4 The Gulf States, Southern Arabia, and the Fertile Crescent

(p.302)

Appendix

Figure A4.5 The Red Sea and North Africa

Appendix

Figure A4.6 West Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia

(p.303)

Appendix

Figure A4.7 West Africa and East Africa

Appendix

Figure A4.8 Europe, the Americas and Australia, and the socialist countries

(p.304)

Appendix

Figure A4.9 Climatic and astronomical correlates of the hajj, 1928–1987

Appendix

Figure A4.10 Pilgrimage and per capita income in Asia

(p.305)

Appendix

Figure A4.11 Pilgrimage and distance from Mecca in West Africa

Appendix

Figure A4.12 Global trends in female hajj participation, 1968–1975

(p.306)

Appendix

Figure A5.1 Pilgrimage and ethnicity in Pakistan (origins of Pakistani pilgrims according to the dominant languages spoken in their home districts)

Appendix

Figure A6.1 UMNO's share of the Malay vote and Malay share of the voting population, 1999

(p.307)

Appendix

Figure A6.2 Pilgrimage rates in the West Coast States of Malaysia, 1969–1995

Appendix

Figure A6.3 Pilgrimage rates in the Northern and Eastern states of Malaysia, 1969–1995

(p.308)

Appendix

Figure A7.1 The growth of state-supported religious activities in Turkey, 1947–1996

Appendix

Figure A8.1 Pilgrimage rates in Java and Sumatra, 1950–1996

(p.309)

Appendix

Figure A8.2 Pilgrimage, income, and Golkar vote in Sumatra

Appendix

Figure A8.3 Pilgrimage rates in the Outer Islands, 1950–1996

(p.310)

Appendix

Figure A9.1 Rates of pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Mecca in the religiously mixed states of Nigeria, 1995–1999 (states where Muslims comprise between 10 and 90 percent of the population)