For Nietzsche's German text I have relied on:
Colli, G., and Montinari, M. 1980. Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Where I provide the German, it reproduces this edition.
Nietzsche's Published Works
Here is a table that gives Nietzsche's published works and any prefaces, separately numbered chapters, and so on that I refer to. I give these works' approximate years of composition—which permits coordination with Nietzsche's Nachlass notes (whose dates I supply when citing them). This table also gives my abbreviations for these prefaces, and notes if they were written and added later.
BT The Birth of Tragedy (1869–1871)
.ASC “Attempt at a Self-Criticism,” a preface written in 1886
UM Untimely Meditations (1873–1876)
.i “David Strauss: The Confessor and the Writer”
.ii “On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life”
.iii “Schopenhauer as Educator”
.iv “Richard Wagner in Bayreuth”
HH Human, All-Too-Human (1876–1879)
.i Volume I
.ii Volume II, part I: “Mixed Opinions and Maxims”
.iii Volume II, part II: “The Wanderer and His Shadow”
.i.P, .ii.P Prefaces to both volumes, written in 1886
D Daybreak (1880–1881)
.P Preface written in 1886
GS The Gay Science (1881–1882)
.JCR “‘Joke, Cunning, and Revenge': Prelude in German Rhymes”
.P Preface written in 1886
Book V (sections 343–83) written in 1886
Z Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1882–1885)
.i–.iv Four parts
.i.P “Zarathustra's Preface” to part I
Nietzsche doesn't number the sections in his parts—we must add them. Some of the sections have numbered subsections, which I cite as, e.g., Z.iii.12.20.
BGE Beyond Good and Evil (1885–1886)
GM On the Genealogy of Morals (1887)
.i–.iii Three essays
CW The Case of Wagner (1888)
TI Twilight of the Idols (1888)
.i–.xi Eleven chapters (not numbered by Nietzsche)
A The Antichrist (1888)
EH Ecce Homo (1888)
.i–.iv Four parts (not numbered by Nietzsche)
.BT, .UM, etc. Subparts of .iii on Nietzsche's earlier works
NCW Nietzsche contra Wagner (1888)
(p.277) Nietzsche's Nachlass
As described in the note on citations, I cite Nietzsche's unpublished essays—all dated 1870–1873—simply by their titles (e.g., “The Greek State”). I cite his notes by their appearance in the Kritische Studienausgabe (volume number, then notebook number, then note number in brackets), unless the note was collected into The Will to Power, in which case I cite it by WP and the note number there. In both cases I append the note's year of composition, to allow it to be placed against the published works. There is also the following useful collection of some of Nietzsche's early notes:
Breazeale, D. (ed. and trans.) 1979. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870s. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press.
For notes included in this volume I append to the Kritische Studienausgabe citation a reference to P&T, followed by page number.
I refer to a few of Nietzsche's letters, identifying them by their addressee, and month and year. These appear in
Colli, G., and Montinari, M. 1986. Sämtliche Briefe: Kritische Studienausgabe in 8 Bänden. Berlin: de Gruyter.
I cite the following in the scientific format, except for the two books by Darwin and one by Spencer, which I abbreviate as Origin, Descent, and Data, respectively. Where I give two years separated by a slash (/), the second is the date of the edition cited; the first is the work's original appearance.
Allen, C., M. Bekoff, and G. Lauder. (eds.) 1998. Nature's Purposes: Analyses of Function and Design in Biology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Anderson, R. L. 1994. “Nietzsche's Will to Power as a Doctrine of the Unity of Science,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 25(5):729–50.
Ansell Pearson, K. 1997. Viroid Life: Reflections on Nietzsche and the Transhuman Condition. London and New York: Routledge.
Appel, F. 1999. Nietzsche contra Democracy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Ayala, F. J. 1970. “Teleological Explanations in Evolutionary Biology,” Philosophy of Science 37:1–15.
Bedau, M. 1991. “Can Biological Teleology be Naturalized?” Journal of Philosophy 88:647–55.
(p.278) ―. 1992. “Where's the Good in Teleology?” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52:781–805.
Bennett, J. 1976/1990. Linguistic Behavior. London: Cambridge University Press. Reprint. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett.
Berlin, I. 1953/1993. The Hedgehog and the Fox. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Rev. ed. Chicago: Dee.
Bigelow, J., and Pargetter, R. 1987. “Functions,” Journal of Philosophy 84(4):181–96.
Bowler, P. J. 1992. “Lamarckism,” in Keller and Lloyd (eds.) 1992.
Braithwaite, R. B. 1953. Scientific Explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brandon, R. N. 1978/1996. “Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 9(3):181–206. Reprinted in Brandon 1996.
―. 1981/1996. “Biological Teleology: Questions and Explanations,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 12(2):91–105. Reprinted in Brandon 1996.
―. 1996. Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Breazeale, D. 1979. Introduction to Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press.
Brobjer, T. (unpublished). “Nietzsche's Knowledge of Philosophy.”
Canfield, J. 1964. “Teleological Explanation in Biology,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14:285–95.
Clark, M. 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
―. 1998. “On Knowledge, Truth, and Value: Nietzsche's Debt to Schopenhauer and the Development of his Empiricism,” in Janaway (ed.) 1998.
Conway, D. W. 2002. “Ecce Caesar: Nietzsche's Imperial Aspirations,” in Golomb and Wistrich (eds.) 2002.
Cummins, R. 1975. “Functional Analysis,” Journal of Philosophy 72:741–64.
Danto, A. C. 1965. Nietzsche as Philosopher. New York: Macmillan.
Darwall, S., A. Gibbard, and P. Railton. 1992. “Toward Fin de siècle Ethics: Some Trends,” Philosophical Review 101(1):115–89.
Darwin, C. 1859/1961. On the Origin of Species. London: Murray. Facsimile ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. (I cite this as Origin, followed by page number.)
―. 1871/1981. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Murray. Facsimile ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (I cite this as Descent, followed by volume and page number.)
―. 1877. “A Biographical Sketch of an Infant,” Mind 2:285–94.
Dawkins, R. 1976/1989. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
―. 1982. The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dennett, D. C. 1995. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.
(p.279) Detwiler, B. 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foucault, M. 1971/2001. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.” Orig. pub. in Hommage à Jean Hyppolite, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Trans. D. F. Bouchard and S. Simon in D. F. Bouchard (ed.) Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel Foucault. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977. Reprinted in Richardson and Leiter (eds.) 2001.
Gibbard, A. 1990. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings: A Theory of Normative Judgment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Godfrey-Smith, P. 1994a. “A Modern History Theory of Functions,” Nous 28(3):344–62.
―. 1994b/1996. “Spencer and Dewey on Life and Mind,” in R. A. Brooks and P. Maes (eds.) Artificial Life IV (Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on the Synthesis of Living Systems), Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Reprinted in M. Boden (ed.) The Philosophy of Artificial Life, New York: Oxford University Press.
Golomb, J., and R. S. Wistrich. (eds.) 2002. Nietzsche, Godfather of Fascism? On the Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Gould, S. J., and E. Vrba. 1982/1998. “Exaptation: A Missing Term in the Science of Form,” Paleobiology 8:4–15. Reprinted in Hull and Ruse (eds.) 1998.
Habermas, J. 1985/1990. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures. Orig. pub. as Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne: Zwölf Vorlesungen, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag. Trans. F. Lawrence, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Hawkins, M. 1997. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heidegger, M. 1961/1979–1982. Nietzsche. Orig. pub. in 2 vols., Pfullingen: Verlag Günther Neske. Trans. F. A. Capuzzi, D. F. Krell, and J. Stambaugh in 4 vols., San Francisco, Calif.: Harper and Row.
Hofstadter, R. 1944/1955. Social Darwinism in American Thought. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Rev. ed. Boston: Beacon.
Hull, D. L. 1978. “A Matter of Individuality,” Philosophy of Science 45:335–60.
―. 1980. “Individuality and Selection,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11:311–32.
Hull, D. L., and M. Ruse. (eds.) 1998. The Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hussain, N. (unpublished). “Honest Illusion: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits.”
James, W. 1878/1992. “Remarks on Spencer's Definition of Mind as Correspondence,” Journal of Speculative Philosophy 12 (Jan.):1–18. Reprinted in William James: Writings 1878–1899, New York: Library of America.
Janaway, C. (ed.) 1998. Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaufmann, W. 1950/1974. Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. 4th ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
(p.280) Keller, E. F. 1992. “Competition: Current Usages,” in Keller and Lloyd (eds.) 1992.
Keller, E. F., and E. A. Lloyd. (eds.) 1992. Keywords in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Kitcher, P. 1993/1998. “Function and Design,” in P. A. French, T. E. Uehling, and H. K. Weltstein (eds.) Midwest Studies in Philosophy xviii, Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press. Reprinted in Hull and Ruse (eds.) 1998.
Kofman, S. 1972/1993. Nietzsche and Metaphor. Orig. pub. as Nietzsche et la métaphore, Paris: Payot. Trans. D. Large. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Lampert, L. 1986. Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Lange, F. A. 1866/1950. The History of Materialism and Criticism of Its Present Importance. Orig. pub. as Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, Leipzig: Baedeker. Trans. E. C. Thomas, 3d ed. New York: Humanities Press.
Leiter, B. 1992. “Nietzsche and Aestheticism,” in Journal of the History of Philosophy 30(2):275–90.
―. 1995. “Morality in the Pejorative Sense: On the Logic of Nietzsche's Critique of Morality,” British Journal for the History of Philosophy 3:113–45.
―. 1998a. “The Paradox of Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in Janaway (ed.) 1998.
―. 1998b. “Nietzsche's Respect for Natural Science,” Times Literary Supplement 4983(2 Oct.):30–31.
―. 2002. Nietzsche on Morality. London: Routledge.
Lennox, J. G. 1992. “Teleology,” in Keller and Lloyd (eds.) 1992.
Lenoir, T. 1982/1989. The Strategy of Life: Teleology and Mechanics in Nineteenth-Century German Biology. Dordrecht: Reidel. Reprint. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lewontin, R. C. 1996. “Evolution as Engineering,” in J. Collado-Vides, B. Magasanik, and T. F. Smith (eds.) Integrative Approaches to Molecular Biology, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Magnus, B., and K. M. Higgins. (eds.) 1996. The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maynard Smith, J. 1974. “The Theory of Games and the Evolution of Animal Conflicts,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 47:209–21.
Megill, A. 1985. Prophets of Extremity: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, Derrida. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Millikan, R. 1989. “In Defense of Proper Functions,” Philosophy of Science 56:288–302.
Mills, S. K., and J. H. Beatty. 1979. “The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness,” Philosophy of Science 46:263–86.
Moore, G. 2002. Nietzsche, Biology and Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morrison, R. G. 1997. Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(p.281) Müller-Lauter, W. 1971/1999. Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy. Orig. pub. as Nietzsche: Seine Philosophie der Gegensätze und die Gegensätze Seiner Philosophie, Berlin: de Gruyter. Trans. D. J. Parent. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Nagel, E. 1977. “Teleology Revisited,” Journal of Philosophy 74(5):261–301.
Nehamas, A. 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
―. 1996. “Nietzsche, Modernity, Aestheticism,” in Magnus and Higgins (eds.) 1996.
Nietzsches Bibliothek. 1942. Vierzehnte Jahresgabe der Gesellschaft der Freunde des Nietzsche-Archivs. Weimar: Wagner Sohn.
Nussbaum, M. C. 1994. “Pity and Mercy: Nietzsche's Stoicism,” in Schacht (ed.) 1994.
―. 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5(1):1–13.
Poellner, P. 1995. Nietzsche and Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Quine, W. V. O. 1969. “Natural Kinds,” in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays. New York: Columbia University Press.
Reginster, B. 2000a. “Nietzsche on Selflessness and the Value of Altruism,” History of Philosophy Quarterly 17(2):177–200.
―. 2000b. “Nietzsche's ‘Revaluation' of Altruism,” Nietzsche-Studien 29:199–219.
Richards, R. J. 1988/1998. “The Moral Foundations of the Idea of Evolutionary Progress: Darwin, Spencer, and the Neo-Darwinians,” in M. H. Nitecki (ed.) Evolutionary Progress, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reprinted in Hull and Ruse (eds.) 1998.
Richardson, J. 1996. Nietzsche's System. New York: Oxford University Press.
Richardson, J., and B. Leiter. (eds.) 2001. Nietzsche. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Russell, B. 1945. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Schacht, R. 1983. Nietzsche. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Schacht, R. (ed.) 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality: Essays on Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schank, G. 2000. “Rasse” und “Züchtung” bei Nietzsche. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Schutte, O. 1984. Beyond Nihilism: Nietzsche without Masks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simmel, G. 1907/1991. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Orig. pub. as Schopenhauer und Nietzsche: Ein Vortragszyklus, Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot. Trans. H. Loiskandl, D. Weinstein, and M. Weinstein. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Sober, E. 1980. “Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism,” Philosophy of Science 47:350–83.
Soll, I. 1998. “Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Redemption of Life through Art,” in Janaway (ed.) 1998.
Spencer, H. 1879/1978. The Data of Ethics. Reprinted as part I of The Principles of Ethics, 1893. The latter was reprinted in 2 vols., Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty (p.282) Fund. (The Data of Ethics appears on pp. 31–335 in volume 1. I cite this as Data followed by page number.)
Stack, G. J. 1983. Lange and Nietzsche. New York and Berlin: de Gruyter.
Stegmaier, W. 1987. “Darwin, Darwinismus, Nietzsche. Zum Problem der Evolution,” Nietzsche-Studien 16:264–87.
Strong, T. B. 1996. “Nietzsche's Political Misappropriation,” in Magnus and Higgins (eds.) 1996.
Warren, M. 1988. Nietzsche and Political Thought. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
West-Eberhard, M. J. 1992. “Adaptation: Current Usages,” in Keller and Lloyd (eds.) 1992.
Williams, G. C. 1966/1996. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Reprinted with new preface.
Woodfield, A. 1976. Teleology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wright, L. 1973. “Functions,” Philosophical Review 82:139–68.
Young, J. 1992. Nietzsche's Philosophy of Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.