(p.231) Works Cited
(p.231) Works Cited
Abel, David. 1999. “Aids Linked to Infidelity in Dominican Republic.” Boston Globe, December 28, pp. A2, A4.
Actor, J., M. Shirai, M. Kullberg, et al. 1993. “Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:948–952.
Adams, E., L. Stephenson, M. Latham, and S. Kinoti. 1994. “Physical Activity and Growth of Kenyan School Children with Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides Infections Are Improved after Treatment with Albendazole,” Journal of Nutrition 124:1199–1206.
Adeyi, O., G. Chellaraj, E. Goldstein, et al. 1997, “Health status during the transition in Central and Eastern Europe: development in reverse?” Health Policy and Planning 12(2):132–145.
AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights (South Africa). 1997. HIV/AIDS and the Law: A Resource Manual. Johannesburg: AIDS Law Project.
Altschuler, E. L. 2000. “Plague as HIV Vaccine Adjuvant,” Medical Hypotheses 54(6):1003–1004.
Anand, S., and K. Hanson. 1997. “Disability-Adjusted Life Years: A Critical Review,” Journal of Health Economics 16:685–702.
Arole, Mabelle, and Raj Arole. 1994. Jamkhed: A Comprehensive Rural Health Project. London: Macmillan.
Ashforth, Adam. 2002. “An Epidemic of Witchcraft? The Implications of AIDS for the Post-Apartheid State,” African Studies 61(1):121–143.
(p.232) Attili, V. R., S. Hira, and M. K. Dube. 1983. “Schistosomal Genital Granulomas: A Report of 10 Cases,” British Journal of Venereal Disease 59:269–72.
Aylward, B., K. A. Hennessey, N. Zagaria, et al. 2000. “When Is a Disease Eradicable? 100 Years of Lessons Learned,” American Journal of Public Health 90(10):1515–1520.
Bachrach, J. 2002. “Tricks for Treats: Shocking Confessions of Shameless Women: Free Clothes, Free Jewels, Free Lipo,” Allure July:144–147, 152, 154.
Badhwar, Inderjit. 1994. “The Emperors of Garbage,” New York Times, November 5, p. 23.
Barker, Carol, and Andrew Green. 1996. “Opening the Debate on DALYs,” Health Policy and Planning 11(2):179–183.
Barnett, Tony, and Alan Whiteside. 2002. AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Barraclough, Solon. 1997. “Food and Poverty in the Americas: Institutional and Policy Obstacles to Efficiency in Food Aid.” Development in Practice 7(2):117–129.
Barreto, M. L., L. Rodrigues, R. Silva, et al. 2000. “Lower Hookworm Incidence, Prevalence, and Intensity of Infection in Children with a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination Scar,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 182:1800–1803.
Barry, Michele, M. Cullen, J. Thomas, and R. Loewenson. 1990. “Health Care Changes after Independence and Transition to Majority Rule,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263(5):638–640.
Baruch, Y., and P. Clancy. 2000. “Managing AIDS in Africa: HRM Challenges in Tanzania,” International Journal of Human Resource Management 11(4):789–806.
Baum, Marianna, and Gail Shor-Posner. 1998. “Micronutrient Status in Relationship to Mortality in HIV-1 Disease,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2):S135–139.
Baum, M. K., G. Shor-Posner, S. Lai, et al. 1997. “High Risk of HIV-Related Mortality Is Associated with Selenium Deficiency,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 15(5):370–374.
Bean, R. B. 1906. “Some Racial Peculiarities of the Negro Brain,” American Journal of Anatomy 5:324–342.
Beck, Melinda. 1997. “Increased Virulence of Coxsackievirus B3 in Mice Due to Vitamin E or Selenium Deficiency,” Journal of Nutrition 127:966S–970S.
Beck, Melinda. 1998, “The Influence of Antioxidant Nutrients on Viral Infection,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2):S140–146.
Beck, Melinda. 2000. “Nutritionally Induced Oxidative Stress: Effect on Viral Disease,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl):1676S–1679S.
Beisel, William. 1996. “Nutrition and Immune Function: Overview,” Journal of Nutrition 126:2611S–2615S.
Bentwich, Z., A. Kalinkovicj, and Z. Weisman. 1995. “Immune Activation Is a Dominant Factor in the Pathogenesis of African AIDS,” Immunology Today 16:187–191.
Bentwich, Zvi, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Weisman, et al. 1999. “Can Eradication of Helminthic Infections Change the Face of AIDS and Tuberculosis?” Immunology Today 20(11):485–487.
Bernier, R., B. Barbeau, M. Tremblay, and M. Olivier. 1998. “The Lipophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani up-regulates HIV-1 transcription in T cells through nuclear factor-kappa B elements,” Journal of Immunology 160:2881–2888.
(p.233) Billy, John O. G., Koray Tanfer, William R. Grady, and Daniel H. Klepinger. 1993. “The Sexual Behavior of Men in the United States,” Family Planning Perspectives 25(2):52–60.
Black, M. 1979. “More about Metaphor,” in A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought, pp. 19–43. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blanc, Ann K., and Ann A. Way. 1998. “Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Knowledge and Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries,” Studies in Family Planning 29(2):106–116.
Bloland, Peter, J. Wirima, R. Steketee, et al. 1995. “Maternal HIV Infection and Infant Mortality in Malawi: Evidence for Increased Mortality Due to Placental Malaria Infection,” AIDS 9(7):721–726.
Bongaarts, J., P. Reining, P. Way, and F. Conant. 1989. “The Relationship between Male Circumcision and HIV Infection in African Populations,” AIDS 3(6):373–377.
Bonnell, V., and L. Hunt. 1999. “Introduction,” in V. Bonnell and L. Hunt (eds.), Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture, pp. 1–32. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Borkow, Gadi, and Zvi Bentwich. 2002. “Host Background Immunity and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protective Vaccines: A Major Consideration for Vaccine Efficacy in Africa and in Developing Countries,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology May:505–507.
Borkow, G., Q. Leng, Z. Weisman, et al. 2000. “Chronic Immune Activation Associated with Intestinal Helminth Infections Results in Impaired Signal Transduction and Anergy,” Journal of Clinical Investigation 106(8):1053–1060.
Borkow, G., Z. Weisman, Q. Leng, et al. 2001. “Helminths, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 33:568–571.
Bouey, Paul, T. Seidel, and T. Rehle. 1998. AVERT, Version 1.0: A Tool for Estimating Intervention Effects on the Reduction of HIV Transmission. Washington, D.C.: Family Health International. Available at: http://www.fhi.org.
Boulton, Ian, and Scott Gray-Owen. 2002. “Neisserial Binding to CEACAM1 Arrests the Activation and Proliferation of CD4+ T Lymphocytes,” Nature Immunology 3:229–236.
Breman, J., A. Egan, and G. Keusch. 2001. “The Intolerable Burden of Malaria: A New Look at the Numbers,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64(1–2 Suppl):iv–vii.
Breslin, M. 1998. “Abortion Rate among Young Romanians Declines: Those Not in Union Report Rise in Contraceptive Use,” International Family Planning Perspectives 24(3):150–152.
Brewer, D., S. Brody, E. Drucker, et al. 2003. “Mounting Anomalies in the Epidemiology of HIV in Africa: Cry the Beloved Paradigm,” International Journal of STD and AIDS 14:144–147.
Briggs, A., M. Sculpher, and M. Buxton. 1994. “Uncertainty in the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Technologies: The Role of Sensitivity Analysis,” Health Economics 3:95–104.
Brooker, S., E. A. Miguel, S. Moulin, et al. 2000. “Epidemiology of Single and Multiple Species of Helminth Infections among School Children in Busia District, Kenya,” East African Medical Journal 77(3):157–161.
Brown, T., B. Franklin, J. MacNeil, and S. Mills. 2001. Effective Prevention Strategies (p.234) in Low HIV Prevalence Settings. Washington, D.C.: Family Health International.
Brundtland, Gro Harlem. 2000. “Nutrition and Infection: Malnutrition and Mortality in Public Health,” Nutrition Reviews 58(2, Part 2):S1–S4.
Bullough, C. 1976. “Infertility and Bilharziasis of the Female Genital Tract,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 83:819–822.
Burkhalter, Holly. 2003. “Unsafe Health Care and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Testimony of Holly Burkhalter,” 31 July. Available at: http://www.phrusa.org/campaigns/aids/release080103.html.
Caldwell, J. 2000. “Rethinking the African AIDS Epidemic,” Population and Development Review 26(1):117–135.
Caldwell, J., and P. Caldwell. 1985. Cultural Forces Tending to Sustain High Fertility in Tropical Africa. PHN Technical Note 85–16. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Caldwell, J., and P. Caldwell. 1987. “The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Population and Development Review 13(3):409–437.
Caldwell, J., and P. Caldwell. 1993. “The Nature and Limits of the sub-Saharan African AIDS Epidemic: Evidence from Geographic and Other Patterns,” Population and Development Review 19(4):817–48.
Caldwell, J., and P. Caldwell. 2002. “Africa: The New Family Planning Frontier,” Studies in Family Planning 33(1):76–86.
Caldwell, J., P. Caldwell, and P. Quiggin. 1989. “The Social Context of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Population and Development Review 15(2):185–234.
Caldwell, J., P. Caldwell, and P. Quiggin. 1991. “The African Sexual System: Reply to Le Blanc et al.,” Population and Development Review 17(3):506–515.
Caldwell, J., I. Orubuloye, and P. Caldwell. 1992. “Underreaction to AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Social Science and Medicine 34(11):1169–1182.
Campa, A., G. Shor-Posner, F. Indacochea, et al. 1999. “Mortality Risk in Selenium-Deficient HIV-Positive Children,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 20(5):508–513.
Caraël, Michel. 1995. “Sexual Behaviour,” in J. Cleland and B. Ferry (eds.), Sexual Behaviour and AIDS in the Developing World, pp. 75–123. London: Taylor and Francis for the World Health Organization.
Cassel, J. 1976. “The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance,” American Journal of Epidemiology 104:107–123.
Castro-Leal, Florencia, J. Dayton, L. Demery, and K. Mehra. 1999. “Public Social Spending in Africa: Do the Poor Benefit?” World Bank Research Observer 14(1):49–72.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1992. “Famine-Affected, Refugee, and Displaced Populations: Recommendations for Public Health Issues,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly 41(RR-13).
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1997. “Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections—United States. 1995,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly 46(9):193–198.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1998. “Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases as an HIV Prevention Strategy.” Atlanta: CDC. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/hiv aids/pubs/facts/hivstd.htm.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1999. “STD Morbidity Count.” Atlanta: CDC. Available at: http://wonder.cdc.gov/DataSets.shtml.
CEE-HRN (Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network). 2002. Injecting Drug Users, HIV/AIDS Treatment and Primary Care. Vilnius, Lithuania: CEE-HRN.
Centro Cultural “La Pájara Pinta.” 1996. El amor en el maíz: migración, sexualidad y VIH-SIDA en comunidades rurales de Azuay y Cañar. Cuenca, Ecuador: La Pájara Pinta.
Cetron, M., L. Chitsulo, J. Sullivan, et al. 1996. “Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi,” Lancet 348:1274.
Chandiwana, Stephen, and Paul Taylor. 1990. “The Rational Use of Antischistosomal Drugs in Schistosomiasis Control,” Social Science and Medicine 30(10):1131–1138.
Chandra, R. K. 1997. “Nutrition and the Immune System: An Introduction,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66:460S–463S.
Cleland, J., and B. Ferry (eds.). 1995. Sexual Behaviour and AIDS in the Developing World. London: Taylor and Francis for the World Health Organization.
Cleland, J, B. Ferry, and M. Caraël. 1995. “Summary and Conclusions,” in J. Cleland and B. Ferry (eds.), Sexual Behaviour and AIDS in the Developing World, pp. 208–228. London: Taylor and Francis for the World Health Organization.
Cockerham, W. C. 1997. “The Social Determinants of the Decline of Life Expectancy in Russia and Eastern Europe: A Lifestyle Explanation,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38:117–130.
Coetzee, J. M. 1988. White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cohen, Bernard. 1994. “Invited Commentary: In Defense of Ecologic Studies for Testing a Linear No-Threshold Theory,” American Journal of Epidemiology 139(8):765–768.
Cohen, M., I. Hoffman, R. Royce, et al. 1997. “Reduction of Concentration of HIV-1 in Semen after Treatment of Urethritis: Implications for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV-1,” Lancet 349(9069):1868–1873.
Cookson, S., R. Waldman, B. Gushulak, et al. 1998. “Immigrant and Refugee Health,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(3):427–428. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/v014n03/cookson.htm.
Corbett, E., R. Steketee, F. ter Kuile, et al. 2002. “HIV-1/AIDS and the Control of Other Infectious Diseases in Africa,” Lancet 359:2177–2187.
Corbett, E., C. Watt, N. Walker, et al. 2003. “The Growing Burden of Tuberculosis: Global Trends and Interactions with the HIV Epidemic,” Archives of Internal Medicine 163:1009–1021.
Coutsoudis, A., R. Bobat, H. Coovadia, et al. 1995. “The Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on the Morbidity of Children Born to HIV-Infected Women,” American Journal of Public Health 85(8):1076–1081.
Creese, Andrew, and David Parker. 1994. Cost Analysis in Primary Health Care: A Training Manual for Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna. 1998. “Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Immune Response in Nutrient Intervention,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2):S27–37.
Davies, Rob, and David Sanders. 1988. “Adjustment Policies and the Welfare of (p.236) Children: Zimbabwe, 1980–1985,” in Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Richard Jolly, and Frances Stewart (eds.), Adjustment with a Human Face. Volume 2: Country Case Studies, pp. 272–299. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
de Castro, Carlos. 1993. Trade and Transport Logistics Facilitation Guidelines. SSATP Working Paper No. 4. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
de Castro, Carlos. 1996. Trade and Transport Facilitation. SSATP Working Paper No. 27. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Delius, P., and C. Glaser. 2002. “Sexual Socialisation in South Africa: A Historical Perspective,” African Studies 61(1):27–54.
Demery, Lionel, and Lyn Squire. 1996. “Macroeconomic Adjustment and Poverty in Africa: An Emerging Picture,” World Bank Research Observer 11(1):39–59.
Deng, Francis. 1999. “Don't Overlook Colombia's Humanitarian Crisis,” Christian Science Monitor, October 6.
Domingo, Esteban. 1997. “Rapid Evolution of Viral RNA Genomes,” Journal of Nutrition 127:958S–961S.
Dow, W., T. Philipson, X. Sala-i-Martin, and J. Holmes. 1997. Health Investment Complementarities under Competing Risks. Economics Working Papers 192. Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
Drucker, E., P. Alcabes, and P. Marx. 2001. “The Injection Century: Massive Unsterile Injections and the Emergence of Human Pathogens,” Lancet 358:1989–1992.
Dubow, S. 1995. Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dumont, L. 1966/1980. Homo Hierarchichus: The Caste System and Its Implications. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Eidukiene, Virginija, 2002. “Poverty and Welfare Trends over the 1990s in Lithuania.” Background Paper for Social Monitor (2002), UNICEF.
Elliott, A., J. Nakiyingi, M. Quigley, et al. 1999. “Inverse Association between BCG Immunisation and Intestinal Nematode Infestation among HIV-1-Positive Individuals in Uganda,” Lancet 354(9183):1000–1001.
El-Mahgoub, S. 1998. “Pelvic Schistosomiasis and Infertility,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 20:201–206.
Escudé, Carlos Andrés. 1989. “Health in Buenos Aires in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century,” in D.C.M. Platt (ed.), Social Welfare, 1850–1950: Australia, Argentina and Canada Compared, pp. 60–70. London: Macmillan.
Esrey, Steven. 2001. “Environmental Sanitation and Its Relation to Child Health,” in Ernest Bartell and Alejandro O'Donnell (eds.), The Child in Latin America: Health, Development, and Rights, pp. 121–137. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Faiola, Anthony. 1999. “Drug War on the Home Front: Latin America, Long an Exporter, Fights Growing Addiction,” Washington Post, September 15, p. A18.
Fairchild, Amy, and G. Oppenheimer. 1998. “Public Health Nihilism vs. Pragmatism: History, Politics, and the Control of Tuberculosis,” American Journal of Public Health 88(7):1105–1117.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2003a. FAO/GIEWS: Africa Report. Washington, D.C.: FAO. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao J1119e/J1119e00.pdf.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2003b. Food Balance Sheets. FAOSTAT: Nutrition Data. Washington, D.C.: FAO. Available at: http://apps.fao.org/page/collections?subset–utrition.
(p.237) Fawzi, W. W., and D. J. Hunter. 1998. “Vitamins in HIV Disease Progression and Vertical Transmission,” Epidemiology 9(4):457–466.
Fawzi, W. W., and G. I. Msamanga. 2000. “Randomized Trial of Vitamin Supplements in Relation to Vertical Transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 23(3):246–254.
Fawzi, W. W., M. G. Herrera, P. Nestel, et al. 1997, “Risk Factors of Low Dietary Vitamin A Intake among Children in the Sudan,” East African Medical Journal 74(4):227–232.
Fawzi, W. W., G. I. Msamanga, D. Spiegelman, et al. 1998. “Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania,” Lancet 351(9114):1477–1482.
Feldmeier, H., G. Poggensee, I. Krantz, and G. Helling-Giese. 1995. “Female Genital Schistosomiasis,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine 47(2, Suppl.):2–15.
Feldmeier, H., P. Leutscher, G. Poggensee, and G. Harms. 1999. “Male Genital Schistosomiasis and Haemospermia,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 4(12):791–793.
Feldmeier, H., G. Helling-Giese, and G. Poggensee. 2001. “Unreliability of PAP Smears to Diagnose Female Genital Schistosomiasis,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 6(1):31–33.
FHI (Family Health International). 2003. Findings: Chirundu, Zimbabwe. Available at: http://www.FHI.org/en/HIV/AIDS/Publications/manualsguidebooks/corrhope/corrfin3.htm.
Fiore, J., B. Suligoi, L. Monno, et al. 2002. “HIV-1 Shedding in Genital Tract of Infected Women,” Lancet 359:1525–1526.
Fischer, David. 1996. The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fischhoff, B., I. Fischhoff, E. Casman, and H. Dowlatabadi. 2002. “Integrated Assessment of Malaria Risk,” in Elizabeth Casman and Hadi Dowlatabadi (eds.), The Contextual Determinants of Malaria, pp. 331–348. Washington, D.C.:Resources for the Future.
Fish, S. 1983. “Working on the Chain Gang: Interpretation in the Law and Literary Criticism,” in W.J.T. Mitchell (ed.), The Politics of Interpretation, pp. 271–286. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fleming, D. T., G. M. McQuillan, R. E. Johnson, et al. 1997. “Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994,” New England Journal of Medicine 337(16):1105–1111.
Fleming, Douglas, and Judith Wasserheit. 1999. “From Epidemiological Synergy to Public Health Policy and Practice: The Contribution of Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Sexual Transmission of HIV Infection,” Sexually Transmitted Infections 75:3–17.
Ford, N. 1994. “Cultural and Developmental Factors Underlying the Global Pattern of the Transmission of HIV/AIDS,” in D. Phillips and Y. Verhasselt (eds.), Health and Development, pp. 83–96. London: Routledge.
Forster, Peter. 2001. “AIDS in Malawi: Contemporary Discourse and Cultural Continuities,” African Studies 60(2):245–261.
Fortes, M. 1959. Oedipus and Job in West African Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, Mary, and Martha Rogers. 1996. “Overview of Perinatal HIV Infection,” Journal of Nutrition 126:2602S–2607S.
(p.238) Fragoso, G., M. Lastra, A. Aguilar, et al. 2001. “Effect of Oral Zinc Supplementation upon Taenia Crassiceps Murine Cysticercosis,” Journal of Parasitology 87(5):1034–1039.
Franco Agudelo, Saúl. 1988. “Crisis y salud en América Latina,” in II jornadas de atención primaria de la salud, pp. 177–192. Buenos Aires: n.p.
Friedman, J., J. Kurtis, R. Mtalib, et al. 2003. “Malaria Is Related to Decreased Nutritional Status among Male Adolescents and Adults in the Setting of Intense Perennial Transmission,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 188:449–457.
Friis, H., and K. F. Michaelsen. 1998. “Micronutrients and HIV Infection: A Review,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52:157–163.
Furedi, F. 1997. Population and Development: A Critical Introduction. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Gallup, J. L., and J. Sachs. 1999. Malaria, Climate, and Poverty. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Institute for International Development. Available at: http://www.cid.harvard.edu/caer2/htm/content/papers/paper48/paper48.htm.
Gallup, J. L., and J. Sachs. 2000. The Economic Burden of Malaria. CID Working Paper No. 52. Cambridge, Mass.: Center for International Development, Harvard University.
Gasyuk, Galina. 2002. “Poverty and Welfare Trends in the Republic of Belarus (1990–2000),” Background Paper for Social Monitor (2002), UNICEF. Available at: http://www.unicef-icdc.org.
Giannini, A., R. Saravanan, and P. Chang. 2003. “Oceanic Forcing of Sahel Rainfall on Interannual to Interdecadal Time Scales,” Science 302(5647):1027–1030.
Gilman, S. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race, and Madness. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Gilman, S. 1990. “`I'm Down on Whores': Race and Gender in Victorian London,” in D. Goldberg (ed.), Anatomy of Racism, pp. 146–170. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Gilman, S. 1992. “Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine and Literature,” in J. Donald and A. Rattansi (eds.), “Race,” Culture and Difference, pp. 171–197. London: Sage.
Gisselquist, D., J. Potterat, S. Brody, and F. Vachon. 2003. “Let It Be Sexual: How Health Care Transmission of AIDS in Africa Was Ignored,” International Journal of STD and AIDS 14:148–161.
Good, Kenneth. 1999. “The State and Extreme Poverty in Botswana: The San and Destitutes,” Journal of Modern African Studies 37(2):185–205.
Gopinath, R., M. Ostrowski, S. Justement, et al. 2000. “Filarial Infections Increase Susceptibility to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells In Vitro,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 182(6):1804–1808.
Gould, S. J. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton.
Green, Andrew, and Carol Barker. 1988. “Priority Setting and Economic Appraisal: Whose Priorities—The Community or the Economist?” Social Science and Medicine 26(9):919–929.
Greenland, Sander, and James Robins. 1994. “Invited Commentary: Ecologic Studies—Biases, Misconceptions, and Counterexamples,” American Journal of Epidemiology 139(8):747–760.
Griffin, Keith, and Terry McKinley. 1994. Implementing a Human Development Strategy. New York: St. Martin's Press.
(p.239) Grinstead, O., B. Faigeles, D. Binson, and R. Eversley. 1993. “Sexual Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Women in High-Risk Cities,” Family Planning Perspectives 25(6):252–256, 277.
Grosskurth, H., F. Mosha, J. Todd, et al. 1995. “Impact of Improved Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on HIV Infection in rural Tanzania: Randomised Controlled Trial,” Lancet 346(8974):530–536.
Grosskurth, H., R. Gray, R. Hayes, et al. 2000. “Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases for HIV-1 Prevention: Understanding the Implications of the Mwanza and Rakai Trials,” Lancet 355:1981–1987.
Guttman, Nurit, and Charles Salmon. 1998. “Credibility of Information from Official Sources on HIV/AIDS Transmission,” Public Health Reports 113:465–471.
Hahn, Beatrice, G. Shaw, K. De Cock, and P. Sharp. 2000. “AIDS as a Zoonosis: Scientific and Public Health Implications,” Science 287(5453, January 28):607–614.
Harbige, Laurence. 1996. “Nutrition and Immunity with Emphasis on Infection and Autoimmune Disease,” Nutrition and Health 10:285–312.
Harms, G., and H. Feldmeier. 2002. “Review: HIV Infection and Tropical Parasitic Diseases—Deleterious Interactions in Both Directions?” Tropical Medicine and International Health 7(6):479–488.
Hastaning, S., C. Nokes, W. S. Hertanto, et al. 1999. “Evidence for an Association between Hookworm Infection and Cognitive Function in Indonesian School Children,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 4(5):322–334.
Hedberg, K., N. Shaffer, F. Davachi, et al. 1993. “Plasmodium Falciparum-Associated Anemia in Children at a Large Urban Hospital in Zaire,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 48(3):365–371.
Henderson, James. 1999. Health Economics and Policy. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing.
Herwaldt, Barbara. 1999. “Leishmaniasis,” Lancet 354(9185):1191–1199.
Hess, S., M. B. Zimmermann, P. Adou, et al. 2002. “Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Goitrous Children Improves the Efficacy of Iodized Salt in Cote d'Ivoire,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75(4):743–748.
Hitchcock, Penny, and Lieve Fransen. 1998. Preventing HIV Infection: What Are the Lessons from Mwanza and Rakai? Available at: http://www.iaen.org/partmat/mwanza.htm.
Hlaing, T. 1993. “Ascariasis and Childhood Malnutrition,” Parasitology 107(Suppl.):S125–136.
Hoffman, I., C. Jere, T. Taylor, et al. 1999. “The Effect of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on HIV-1 RNA Blood Plasma Concentration,” AIDS 13:487–494.
HRW (Human Rights Watch). 2003. “To Serve without Health? Inadequate Nutrition and Health Care in the Russian Armed Forces,” Human Rights Watch Report 15(8D). Available at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/russia1103.
Huerta, Elmer, and Douglas Weed. 1998. “Cuidando su salud,” Cancer (Suppl.) 83(8):1805–1808.
IAVI (International AIDS Vaccine Initiative). 1994. Paris Report: Accelerating the Development of Preventive HIV Vaccines for the World. Summary Report and Recommendations of an International Ad Hoc Scientific Committee. New York: IAVI. Available at: http://www.iavi.org/about/paris.asp.
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank). 1998. Facing up to Inequality in Latin America: Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, 1998–1999 Report. Washington, D.C.: Johns Hopkins Press.
(p.240) “In Haiti, More Than Half of All Births Are Either Unwanted or Mistimed.” 1996. International Family Planning Perspectives 22(4):181–182.
IOM (International Organization for Migration). 2002. Public Perception and Awareness of Trafficking in Women in the Baltic States. Vilnius, Romania: IOM.
Izazola-Licea, J. S. Gortmaker, K. Tolbert, et al. 2000. “Prevalence of Same-Gender Sexual Behavior and HIV in a Probability Household Survey in Mexican Men.” Journal of Sex Research 37(1):37.
Izdebski, Zbigniew. 2002. Selected Aspects of Evaluation of the National HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. Warsaw: National AIDS Center, UNDP.
Jacobson, Maria. 2002. “Why Do Men Buy Sex? Interview with Professor Sven-Axel Mansson,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women's Studies and Gender Research; Oslo) 1:22–25.
Jamison, D. H., W. Mosley, A. Measham, and J.-L. Bobadilla, eds. 1993. Disease Control Priorities for Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jespersen, Eva. 1992. “External Shocks, Adjustment Policies and Economic and Social Performance,” in Giovanni Andrea Cornia, R. Van der Hoeven, and T. Mkandawire (eds.), Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From Stagnation and Adjustment to Human Development, pp. 9–50. New York: St. Martin's Press.
John, G., R. Nduati, D. Mbori-Ngacha, et al. 1997. “Genital Shedding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 DNA during Pregnancy: Association with Immunosuppression, Abnormal Cervical or Vaginal Discharge, and Severe Vitamin A Deficiency,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 175:57–62.
Kaisernetwork. 2003a. “HIV Infections among Libyan Children Due to Negligence, Not Intentional, Montagnier Says in Testimony,” Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, Sept 5. Available at: http://www.kaisernetwork.org.
Kaisernetwork. 2003b. “WHO Leaders Say Billions More Condoms Needed to Fight HIV/AIDS in Asia,” Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, Aug 18. Available at: http://www.kaisernetwork.org.
Kamarck, Andrew. 1988. “The Special Case of Africa,” in David Bell and Michael Reich (eds.), Health, Nutrition, and Economic Crises: Approaches to Policy in the Third World, pp. 199–221. Dover Mass.: Auburn House.
Keeler, Laura, and Marjut Jyrkinen. 2002. “Racism in the Sex Trade in Finland,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women's Studies and Gender Research; Oslo) 1:33–36.
Khan, M., S. Hawkes, and D. Ali. 2002. “Economic Evaluation of MCH-FP Clinic-Based Syphilis Screening in Rural Bangladesh.” Dhaka: International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Available at: http://www.icddrb.org.
Khandait, D. W., N. D. Vasudeo, S. P. Zodpey, et al. 1998. “Subclinical Vitamin A deficiency in Undersix Children in Nagpur, India,” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 29(2):289–292.
Kidd, D. 1904. The Essential Kafir. London: Adam and Charles Black.
Kidd, D. 1906. Savage Childhood: A Study of Kafir Children. London: Adam and Charles Black.
Kidd, D. 1908. Kafir Socialism and the Dawn of Individualism. London: Adam and Charles Black.
Koopman, James, and Ira Longini. 1994. “The Ecological Effects of Individual Exposures and Nonlinear Disease Dynamics in Populations,” American Journal of Public Health 84(5):836–842.
(p.241) Kost, Kathryn, and Jacqueline Darroch Forrest. 1992. “American Women's Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases,” Family Planning Perspectives 24(6):244–254.
Kovaleski, Serge. 2000. “Child Sex Trade Rises in Central America; Prostitution Is “Dark Side of Tourism,” Washington Post, January 2, p. A17.
Krieger, Nancy. 1994. “Epidemiology and the Web of Causation: Has Anyone Seen the Spider?” Social Science and Medicine 39(7):887–903.
Kuhn, T. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kvalsvig, J. D., R. M. Cooppan, and K. J. Connolly. 1991. “The Effects of Parasitic Infections on Cognitive Processes in Children,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 85(5):551–568.
Lakshmanan, T. R., U. Subramanian, W. Anderson, and F. Léautier. N.d. “Integration of Transport and Trade Facilitation: Selected Regional Case Studies.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Lamptey, Peter, and Helene Gayle. 2001. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Resource-Constrained Settings: Handbook for the Design and Management of Programs: Washington, D.C.: Family Health International.
Lamptey, Peter, Paul Zeitz, and Carol Larivee (eds.). 2001. Strategies for an Expanded and Comprehensive Response (ECR) to a National HIV/AIDS Epidemic: A Handbook for Designing and Implementing HIV/AIDS Programs. Arlington, Va.: FHI.
Landers, Daniel. 1996. “Nutrition and Immune Function II: Maternal Factors Influencing Transmission,” Journal of Nutrition, 126:2637S–2640S.
Lang, B. 1997. “Metaphysical Racism (Or: Biological Warfare by Other Means),” in N. Zack (ed.), Race/Sex: Their Sameness, Difference, and Interplay, pp. 19–27. New York: Routledge.
Laughlin, C., and E. Laughlin. 1973. “The So of Karamoja District, Eastern Uganda,” in A. Molnos (ed.), Cultural Source Material for Population Planning in East Africa. Vol. 3: Beliefs and Practices, pp. 352–364. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
Le Blanc, M-N., D. Meintel, and V. Piche. 1991. “The African Sexual System: Comment on Caldwell et al.,” Population and Development Review 17(3):497–505.
Leon, D., L. Chenet, V. Shkolnikov, et al. 1997. “Huge Variation in Russian Mortality Rates 1984–1994: Artefact, Alcohol, or What?” Lancet 350:383–388.
Leutscher, P., V. Ravaoalimalala, C. Raharisolo, et al. 1998. “Clinical Findings in Female Genital Schistosomiasis in Madagascar,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 3(4):327–332.
Leutscher, P., C-E. Ramarokoto, C. Reimert, et al. 2000. “Community-Based Study of Genital Schistosomiasis in Men from Madagascar,” Lancet 3555:117–118.
Levander, Orville. 1997. “Nutrition and Newly Emerging Viral Diseases: An Overview,” Journal of Nutrition 127: 948S–950S.
Levav, M., A. F. Mirsky, P. M. Schantz, et al. 1995. “Parasitic Infection in Manourished School Children: Effects on Behaviour and EEG,” Parasitology 110: 103–111.
Lévy-Bruhl, L. 1926. How Natives Think. London: George Allen Unwin.
Linné, C. von. 1758/1956. Systema Naturae. London: British Museum (Natural History).
(p.242) Litsios, Socrates. 2002. “Malaria Control and the Future of International Public Health,” in Elizabeth Casman and Hadi Dowlatabadi (eds.), The Contextual Determinants of Malaria, pp. 292–328. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Little, K. L. 1973. African Women in Towns: An Aspect of Africa's Social Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Loewenson, Rene, and Alan Whiteside. 2002. HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty Reduction. UNDP Policy Paper. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Logie, Dorothy. 1993. “Zimbabwe: Health or Debt,” Lancet 341: 950.
Lopez, Margarita. 2001. “Safe Sanctuary Found for Lucky Few,” Baltic Times, July 12–18: 20.
Luby, Stephen. 2001. “Injection Safety,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(3, Suppl.). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/v017n03 supp/luby.htm.
Lush, Louisiana, Gill Walt, and Jessica Ogden. 2003. “Transferring Policies for Treating Sexually Transmitted Infections: What's Wrong with the Global Guidelines?” Health Policy and Planning 18(1): 18–30.
Lush, L., E. Darkoh, and S. Ramotlhwa. 2005. “HIV/AIDS and Health Systems: Botswana,” in E. J. Beck, N. Mays, A. Whiteside, and J. M. Zuniga, (eds.), The HIV Pandemic: Global Implications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lutz, C., and J. Collins. 1993. Reading National Geographic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lynggard, Trine. 2002. “Nordic-Baltic Campaign against Trafficking in Women,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women's Studies and Gender Research; Oslo), 1: 16–17.
MacDonald, N. E., G. A. Wells, W. A. Fisher, et al. 1990. “High-Risk STD/HIV Behavior among College Students,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263: 3155–3159.
Madden, F. 1899. “A Case of Bilharzia of the Vagina,” Lancet 1:1716.
Mahler, K. 1997. “Increased Risk of STD Infection among Peruvian Women Linked to Their Partners' Sexual Practices.” International Family Planning Perspectives 23(1): 39–40.
Malhotra, I., P. Mungai, A. Wamachi, et al. 1999. “Helminth- and bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced immunity in children sensitized in utero to filariasis and schistosomiasis,” Journal of Immunology 162:6843–6848.
Marble, Michelle, and Keith Key. 1995. “Clinical Facets of a Disease Neglected Too Long,” AIDS Weekly Plus August 7: 16–19.
Markus, M., and J. Fincham. 2000. “Worms and Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Tuberculosis (Correspondence),” Journal of Infectious Diseases 181:1873.
McCarthy, F. D., H. Wolf, and Y. Wu. 2000. The Growth Costs of Malaria. NBER Working Paper 7541. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.
McDaniels, Andrea. 1998. “Brazil Turns to Women to Stop Dramatic Rise in AIDS Cases,” Christian Science Monitor, January 9, p. 7.
McMurray, David. 1998. “Impact of Nutritional Deficiencies on Resistance to Ex- perimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2): S147–152).
McPherson, Malcolm, D. Hoover, and D. Snodgrass. 2000. “The Impact on Eco (p.243) nomic Growth in Africa of Rising Costs and Labor Productivity Losses Associated with HIV/AIDS.” CAER II Discussion Paper No. 79. Cambridge, Mass. Available at: http://www.cid.harvard.edu/caer2/.
Meurs, Mieke, and Rasika Ranasinghe. 2003. “De-Development in Post-Socialism,” Politics and Society 31(1): 31–53.
Meydani, Simin, and Alison Beharka. 1998. “Recent Developments in Vitamin E and Immune Response,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2): S49–58.
Michael, Robert, J. Gagnon, E. Laumann, and G. Kolata. 1994. Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Boston: Little, Brown.
Miguel, E. A., and M. Kremer. 2001. Worms: Education and Health Expenditures in Kenya. NBER Working Paper 8481. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Miner, H. 1956. “Body Ritual among the Nacirema,” American Anthropologist 58: 503–507.
Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador. 1999. “Estadística de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual.” Photocopy of data from Dirección Nacional de Epidemiología, Quito.
Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador. 2000. “Datos estadísticos sobre el SIDA. Ecuador, 1984–1999.” Photocopy of data from the Programa Nacional de SIDA/ITS, Quito.
Montagu, M.F.A. 1952. Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Montresor, Antonio, Mahdi Ramsan, Hababu M. Chwaya, et al. 2001. Extending Anthelminthic Coverage to Non-enrolled School-Age Children Using a Simple and Low-Cost Method. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6(7): 535–537.
Moore, A., G. Herrera, J. Nyamongo, et al. 2001. “Estimated Risk of HIV Transmission by Blood Transfusion in Kenya,” Lancet 358: 657–660.
Morris, Chester. 2003. “Workplace HIV Programs in Malawi: A Case Study and Review of Evidence Based Interventions in HIV Care, Support and Prevention,” in William Kosanovich (ed.), Bureau of International Labor Affairs Research Symposium Papers. Vol. 2: HIV/AIDS and the Workplace in Developing Countries, pp. 165–188. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor.
Morris, J. Glenn Jr., and Morris Potter. 1997. “Emergence of New Pathogens as a Function of Changes in Host Susceptibility,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(4). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/v013n04/morris.htm.
Morrow, Richard, and John Bryant. 1995. “Health Policy Approaches to Measuring and Valuing Human Life: Conceptual and Ethical Issues,” American Journal of Public Health 85(10): 1356–1360.
Morse, Stephen. 1997. “The Public Health Threat of Emerging Viral Disease,” Journal of Nutrition 127: 951S–957S.
Moses, S., J. Bradley, N. Nagelkerke, et al. 1990. “Geographical Patterns of Male Circumcision Practices in Africa: Association with HIV Seroprevalence,” International Journal of Epidemiology 19: 693–697.
Mosunjac, M., T. Tadros, R. Beach, and M. Majmudar. 2003. “Cervical Schistosomiasis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Dangerous Coexistence or Coincidence?” Gynecologic Oncolgy 90(1): 211–214.
(p.244) Moustgaard, Ulrikke. 2002. “Bodies across Borders,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women”s Studies and Gender Research; Oslo) 1: 4–9.
Murray, C.J.L. 1994. “Quantifying the Burden of Disease: The Technical Basis for Disability-Adjusted Life Years,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 72(3): 429–445.
Murray, C.J.L., and J. L. Bobadilla. 1995. Epidemiological Transitions in the Formerly Socialist Economies: Divergent Patterns of Mortality and Causes of Death. Boston: Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University.
Murray, N. J., L. S. Zabin, V. Toledo-Dreves, and X. Luengo-Charath. 1998. “Gender Differences in Factors Influencing First Intercourse among Urban Students in Chile,” International Family Planning Perspectives 24(3): 139–144, 152.
Mwanga, J. R., P. Magnussen, C. L. Mugashe, et al. 2004. “Schistosomiasis-Related Perceptions, Attitudes and Treatment-Seeking Practices in Magu District, Tanazania: Public Health Implications,” Journal of Biosocial Science 36: 63–81.
Myrdal, G. 1944. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Nacher, M. 2002. “Worms and Malaria: Noisy Nuisances and Silent Benefits,” Parasite Immunology 24: 391–393.
Nacher, M., F. Gay, P. Singhasivanon, et al. 2000. “Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Is Associated with Protection from Cerebral Malaria,” Parasite Immunology 22: 107–114.
Nacher, M., P. Singhasivanon, F. Gay, et al. 2001. “Contemporaneous and Successive Mixed Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Infections Are Associated with Ascaris lumbricoides: An Immunomodulating Effect?” Journal of Parasitology 87(4): 912–915.
Nacher, M., P. Singhasivanon, S. Yimsamran, et al. 2002. “Intestinal Helminth Infections Are Associated with Increased Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Thailand,” Journal of Parasitology 88(1):55–58.
Nchinda, Thomas. 1998, “Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(3). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/v014n03/nchinda.htm.
Needham, C., H. Thi Him, N. Viet Hoa, et al. 1998. “Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Nematode Infections in Ha Nam Province, Vietnam,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 3(11):904–912.
NEI (Netherlands Economic Institute). 2001. “Strategic Review, SSATP: Synthesis Report.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available at:www.worldbank.org.
Nimmagadda, A., W. O'Brien, and M. Goetz. 1998. “The Significance of Vitamin A and Carotenoid Status in Persons Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 26:711–718.
Nokes, C., S. M. Grantham-McGregor, A. W. Sawyer, et al. 1992. “Parasitic Helminth Infection and Cognitive Function in School Children,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 247:77–81.
Oberhelman, R. A., E. S. Guerrero, M. L. Fernandez, et al. 1998, “Correlations between Intestinal Parasitosis, Physical Growth, and Psychomotor Development among Infants and Children from Rural Nicaragua,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 58(4):470–475.
OSI (Open Society Institute). 2001. Drugs, AIDS, and Harm Reduction. New York: OSI.
Packard, Randall, and Paul Epstein. 1991. “Epidemiologists, Social Scientists, and the (p.245) Structure of Medical Research on AIDS in Africa,” Social Science and Medicine 33(7):771–794.
PAHO (Pan American Health Organization). 1998. Health in the Americas. Vol. 1. Scientific Publication No. 569. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization.
PAHO (Pan American Health Organization). 2002. Health in the Americas. Vol. 1. Scientific Publication No. 569. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization.
PAHO (Pan American Health Organization). 2003. Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation in the Americas. Washington, D.C. Pan American Health Organization. Available at: http://www.paho.org/English/HDP/HDW/TraffickingPaper.pdf.
Pallangyo, Kisali. 2001. “Clinical Features of Tuberculosis among Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 21st Century,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 33:488–493.
Pelletier, David. 1994a. “The Potentiating Effects of Malnutrition on Child Mortality: Epidemiologic Evidence and Policy Implications,” Nutrition Reviews 52(12):409–415.
Pelletier, David. 1994b. “The Relationship between Child Anthropometry and Mortality in Developing Countries: Implications for Policy, Programs and Future Research,” Journal of Nutrition 124:2047S–2081S.
Pelletier, D., E. Frongillo Jr., and J.-P. Habicht. 1993. “Epidemiologic Evidence for a Potentiating Effect of Malnutrition on Child Mortality,” American Journal of Public Health 83(8):1130–1133.
Pelletier, D., E. Frongillo Jr., D. Schroeder, and J.-P. Habicht. 1994. “A Methodology for Estimating the Contribution of Malnutrition to Child Mortality in Developing Countries,” Journal of Nutrition 124:2106S–2122S.
Pelletier, D. L., E. Frongillo, D. Schroeder, and J-P. Habicht. 1995. “The Effects of Malnutrition on Child Mortality in Developing Countries,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73(4):443–448.
Philipson, T., and R. Posner. 1995. “The Microeconomics of the AIDS Epidemic in Africa,” Population and Development Review 21(4):835–848.
Pio, Alessandro. 1994. “The Social Impact of Adjustment in Africa,” in Giovanni Andrea Cornia and Gerald Helleiner (eds.), From Adjustment to Development in Africa, pp. 298–314. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Pitje, G. M. 1948. “Traditional and Modern Forms of Male Education among the Pedi and Cognate Tribes.” Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of South Africa. [Cited in P. Delius and C. Glaser (2002) “Sexual Socialisation in South Africa: A Historical Perspective,” African Studies 61(1):27–54.]
Poggensee, G., I. Kiwelu, V. Weger, et al. 2000. “Female Genital Schistosomiasis of the Lower Genital Tract: Prevalence and Disease-Associated Morbidity in Northern Tanzania,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 181:1210–1213.
Pounds, N.J.G. 1994. An Economic History of Medieval Europe. 2nd ed. London: Longman.
Powell, Josh. 1996. AIDS and HIV-Related Diseases. New York: Insight Books, Plenum Press.
PPC (Partnership for Parasite Control). 2002. Rome Meeting Notes, 2002. Geneva: PPC. Available at: http:///www.who.int/wormcontrol/about us/en/mtgnotes/apri12002.pdf.
(p.246) Quinn T., M. Wawer, N. Sewankambo, et al. 2000. “Viral Load and Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1,” New England Journal of Medicine 342(13):921–929.
Rau, Bill. 2002. Workplace HIV/AIDS Programs: An Action Guide for Managers. Washington, D.C.: Family Health International. Available at: http://www.fhi.org.
Ravigolione, M. C., H. L. Reider, K. Styblo, et. al. 1994. “Tuberculosis Trends in Eastern Europe and the Former USSR,” Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 75:400–416.
Reinisch, June M., Stephanie A. Sanders, Craig A. Hill, and Mary Ziemba-Davis. 1992. “High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Heterosexual Undergraduates at a Midwestern University,” Family Planning Perspectives 24(3):116–121, 145.
Remez, L. 1997. “Fertility Remains Elevated in Guatemala: One in Three Births Are Unplanned,” International Family Planning Perspectives 23(1):40–42.
Renton, Adrian. 1993. “Epidemiology and Causation: A Realist View,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 48:79–85.
Rifkin, Susan, and Gill Walt. 1986. “Why Health Improves: Defining the Issues Concerning `Comprehensive Primary Health Care' and `Selective Primary Health Care,' ” Social Science and Medicine 23(6):559–566.
Rose, G. 1985. “Sick Individuals and Sick Populations,” International Journal of Epidemiology 14:32–38.
Rosen, S., and AIDS Economics Team of the Center for International Health. 2002a. What Makes Nigerian Manufacturing Firms Take Action on HIV/AIDS? World Bank Africa Region Findings No. 199. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http://www.international-health.org/AIDS economics/.
Rosen, S., J. L. Simon, W. MacLeod, et al. 2002b. Investing in the Epidemic: Making the Business Case against AIDS in Africa. Boston: Center for International Health, Boston University School of Public Health. Available at: http://www.international-health.org/AIDS economics/.
Rowland-Jones, Sarah, and Barbara Lohman. 2002. “Interactions between Malaria and HIV Infection: An Emerging Public Health Problem?” Microbes and Infection 4:1265–1270.
Ruel, M. T., J. A. Rivera, M. C. Santizo, et al. 1997. “Impact of Zinc Supplementation on Morbidity from Diarrhea and Respiratory Infections among Rural Guatemalan Children,” Pediatrics 99(6):808–813.
Rushing, W. 1995. The AIDS Epidemic: Social Dimensions of an Infectious Disease. Boulder: Westview.
Ryu, J. S., H. K. Choi, D. Y. Min, et al. 2001. “Effect of Iron on the Virulence of Trichomonas vaginalis,” Journal of Parasitology 87(2):457–460.
Sanders, David, and Abdulrahman Sambo. 1991. “AIDS in Africa: The Implications of Economic Recession and Structural Adjustment,” Health Policy and Planning 6(2):157–165.
Sarin, A. R. 1995. “Severe Anemia of Pregnancy, Recent Experience,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 50(Suppl. 2):S45–S49.
Scanlon, Thomas, A. Tomkins, M. Lynch, and F. Scanlon. 1998. “Street Children in Latin America,” British Medical Journal 316(7144):1596–1600.
Schön, D. 1979. “Generative Metaphor: A Perspective on Problem-Setting in Social Policy,” in A. Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought, pp. 254–283. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(p.247) Schultz, T. Paul. 1997. “Assessing the Productive Benefits of Nutrition and Health: An Integrated Human Capital Approach,” Journal of Econometrics 77:141–158.
Schultz, T. Paul. 2002. “Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls,” World Development 30(2):207–225.
Schwartz, Sharon, and Kenneth Carpenter. 1999. “The Right Answer for the Wrong Question: Consequences of Type III Error for Public Health Research,” American Journal of Public Health 89:1175–1180.
Scott, Marilyn, and Kristine Koski. 2000. “Zinc Deficiency Impairs Immune Responses against Parasitic Nematode Infections at Intestinal and Systemic Sites,” Journal of Nutrition 130:1412S–1420S.
Scrimshaw, Nevin, and J. P. SanGiovanni. 1997. “Synergism of Nutrition, Infection, and Immunity: An Overview,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66:464S–477S.
Seitles, Marc D. 1997/1998. “Effect of the Convention on the Rights of the Child upon Street Children in Latin America: A Study of Brazil, Colombia, and Guatemala,” In the Public Interest 16:159–193.
Sekula, W., K. Babinska, and S. Petrova. 1997. “Nutrition Policies in Central and Eastern Europe,” Nutrition Reviews 55(11):S58–S73.
Semba, R. 1998. “The Role of Vitamin A and Related Retinoids in Immune Function,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2):S38–48.
Semba, R., N. Graham, W. Caiaffa, et al. 1993. “Increased Mortality Associated with Vitamin A Deficiency during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection,” Archives of Internal Medicine 153:2149–2154.
Semba, R., P. Miotti, J. Chiphangwi, et al. 1994. “Maternal Vitamin A Deficiency and Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1,” Lancet 343:1593–1597.
Shankar, A. H., B. Genton, R. D. Semba, et al. 1999. “Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation on Morbidity Due to Plasmodium falciparum in Young Children in Papua New Guinea: A Randomised Trial,” Lancet 354(9174):203–209.
Sharp, David. 2003. “Dam Medicine,” Lancet 362:184.
Shaw, Mary, Danny Dorling, and George Davey Smith. 1999. “Poverty, Social Exclusion, and Minorities,” in Michael Marmot and R. G. Wilkinson (eds.), Social Determinants of Health, pp. 211–239. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shcherbak, Yuri. 1996. “Ten Years of the Chornobyl Era,” Scientific American April 1996:44–49.
Shkolnikov, V., D. Leon, S. Adamets, et al. 1998. “Educational Level and Adult Mortality in Russia: An Analysis of Routine Data 1979 to 1994,” Social Science and Medicine 47(3):357–369.
Sigman, Marian, and Shannon Whaley. 1998. “The Role of Nutrition in the Development of Intelligence,” in Ulric Neisser (ed.), The Rising Curve: Long-Term Gains in IQ and Related Measures, pp. 155–182. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Simon, J. L., S. Rosen, A. Whiteside, et al. 2000. “The Response of African Businesses to HIV/AIDS,” in Commonwealth Secretariat (ed.), HIV/AIDS in the Commonwealth 2000/01, pp. 72–77. London: Kensington Publications. Available at: http://www.international-health.org/AIDS economics/.
Simonsen, L. A. Kane, and J. Lloyd. 1999. “Unsafe Injections in the Developing World and Transmission of Blood Borne Pathogens: A Review,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77:789–800.
(p.248) Singh, Susheela, and Jacqueline E. Darroch. 1999. “Trends in Sexual Activity among Adolescent American Women: 1982–1995,” Family Planning Perspectives 31(5):212–219.
Singh, S., D. Wulf, R. Samara, and Y. Cuca. 2000. “Gender Differences in the Timing of First Intercourse: Data from 14 Countries,” International Family Planning Perspectives 26(1):21–28, 43.
Sipaviciene, Audra. 2002. “You Will Be Sold Like a Doll,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women's Studies and Gender Research; Oslo) 1:10–15.
Skrabanek, P. 1992. “The Poverty of Epidemiology,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35:182–185.
Smith, Tom W. 1991. “Adult Sexual Behavior in 1989: Number of Partners, Frequency of Intercourse and Risk of AIDS,” Family Planning Perspectives 23(3):102–107.
Solomons, Noel. 1998, “Plant Sources of Vitamin A and Human Nutrition: Red Palm Oil Does the Job,” Nutrition Reviews 56(10):309–311.
Sommer, Alfred, and Keith West, with J. A. Olson and A. C. Ross. 1996. Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival, and Vision. New York: Oxford University Press.
“South Africa's President and the Plague.” 2000. Economist, May 25. Available at: http://www.economist.com/editorial/freeforall/current/ir7632.html.
Spanger, Marlene. 2002. “Between Suppression and Independence: Transnational Prostitution of Black Women in Denmark,” NIKK magasin (Nordic Institute for Women's Studies and Gender Research; Oslo) 1:18–21.
Stepan, N. L. 1982. The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800–1960. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books.
Stepan, N. L. 1990. “Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science,” in D. Goldberg (ed.), Anatomy of Racism, pp. 38–57. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Stephensen, C. B., J. O. Alvarez, J. Kohatsu, et al. 1994. “Vitamin A Is Excreted in the Urine during Acute Infection,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60(3):388–392.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2000. Economics of the Public Sector. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton.
Stephenson, L. 1993. “The Impact of Schistosomiasis on Human Nutrition,” Parasitology 107(Suppl.):S107–123.
Stillwaggon, Eileen. 1998. Stunted Lives, Stagnant Economies: Poverty, Disease, and Underdevelopment. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Stoltzfus, R., M. Albonico, H. Chwaya, et al. 1998. “Effects of the Zanzibar School-Based Deworming Program on Iron Status of Children,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68:179–186.
Storey, D. M. 1993. “Filariasis: Nutritional Interactions in Human and Animal Hosts,” Parasitology 107(Suppl.):S147–158.
Sturm, A. W., D. Wilkinson, N. Ndovela, et al. 1998. “Pregnant Women as a Reservoir of Undetected Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Rural South Africa: Implications for Disease Control,” American Journal of Public Health 88(8):1243–1245.
Suhrcke, Marc. 2000. Are Reforms from a Centrally Planned to a Market System Bad for Health? HWWZ Discussion Paper No. 105. Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Susser, M. 1977. “Judgment and Causal Inference: Criteria in Epidemiologic Studies,” American Journal of Epidemiology 105:1–5.
(p.249) Susser, M. 1985. “Epidemiology in the United States after World War II: The Evolution of Technique,” Epidemiological Review 7:147–177.
Synergy Project. 2002. “Putting on the Brakes, Preventing HIV Transmission along Truck Routes.” Washington, D.C.: USAID. Available at: www.synergyaids.com.
Tagwireyi, Julia, and Ted Greiner. 1994. Nutrition in Zimbabwe: An Update. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Tarasevich, I., E. Rydkina, and D. Raoult. 1998. “Outbreak of Epidemic Typhus in Russia,” Lancet 352:1151.
Terborgh, A., J. Rosen, R. Santiso Galvez, et al. 1995. “Family Planning among Indigenous Populations in Latin America,” International Family Planning Perspectives 21(4):143–149, 166.
Thomas, D., J. Strauss, and M.-H. Henriques. 1991. “How Does Mother's Education Affect Child Height?” Journal of Human Resources 26(2):183–211.
Thompson, R., J. Reynoldson, S. Garrow, et al. 2001. “Towards the Eradication of Hookworm in an Isolated Australian Community, Lancet 357:770–771.
TransMONEE Data Base. 2003. Florence: UNICEF/IRC. Available at: http://www.unicef.org.
Turbayne, C. 1962. The Myth of Metaphor. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Turner, R. 1993. “Landmark French and British Studies Examine Sexual Behavior, Including Multiple Partners, Homosexuality,” Family Planning Perspectives 25(2):91–92.
Umeta, M., C. West, J. Haidar, et al. 2000. “Zinc Supplementation and Stunted Infants in Ethiopia: A Randomised Controlled Trial,” Lancet 355(9220):2021–2026.
UN (United Nations). 1998. HIV/AIDS and Human Rights: International Guidelines. HR/PUB/98/1. Geneva: United Nations.
UN (United Nations). 2000. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/ww2000/table1a.htm.
UN (United Nations). 2004. Millennium Indicators Database. Deparatment of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division Available at: http://millenniumindicators.un.org.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 1998. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS. Available at: http://www.unaids.org.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 1999a. Fact Sheet on Dif-ferences in HIV Spread in African Cities. Geneva: UNAIDS. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/html/pub/Publications/IRC-pub03/lusaka99 en html.htm.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 1999b. Listen, Learn, Live: Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean. Geneva: UNAIDS. Available at: http://www.unaids orUNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 2000a. HIV and AIDS-Related Stigmatization, Discrimination and Denial: Forms, Contexts and Determinants. UNAIDS/00.16E. Geneva: United Nations.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, June 2002. Geneva: United Nations. Available at: http://www.unaids.org.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS). 2004. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: United Nations. Available at: http://www.unaids.org.
(p.250) UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1998. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1999. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2000. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2003a. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://www.undp.org/hdro/indicators.html.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2003b. The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe: Avoiding the Dependency Trap. A Regional Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://roma .undp.sk/.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2004. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). 1999. AIDS Update 1999. New York: UNFPA.
UNICEF. 2003. Social Monitor 2003. Florence: Innocenti Research Center. Available at: http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/pdf/monitor03/monitor2003.pdf.
Urassa, W., S. Kapiga, G. Msamanga, et al. 2001. “Risk Factors for Syphilis among HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” African Journal of Reproductive Health 5(3):54–62.
U.S. Census Bureau. 1999. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Available at: http://www.census.gov/ipc.
USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). 2001. Leading the Way: USAID Responds to HIV/AIDS. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). 2003. Country Profile, HIV/AIDS: Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: USAID. Available at: http://www.usaid.gov/pop health/aids/countries/africa/rwanda.html.
van Vliet, C., K. Holmes, B. Singer, and J.D.F. Habbema. 1997. The Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Strategies under Alternative Scenarios: Evaluation with the STDSIM Model. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http://www.iaen.org/files.cgi/6925 confront aids chapter 11.pdf.
Varney, James. 2000. “Plague on Honduras,” Times-Picayune (New Orleans), February 27, p. A1.
Vaughan, P., E. Rogers, A. Singhal, and R. Swalehe. 2000. “Entertainment-Education and HIV/AIDS Prevention: A Field Experiment in Tanzania,” Journal of Health Communication 5(Suppl.):81–100.
Verhoeff, F., B. Brabin, L. Chimsuku, et al. 1999. “Increased Prevalence of Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Its Implications for Malaria Control,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 4:5–12.
von Braun, Joachim, Tesfaye Teklu, and Patrick Webb. 1999. Famine in Africa: Causes, Responses, and Prevention. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Vos J., M. W. Borgdorff, and E. G. Kachidza. 1990. “Cost and Output of Mobile Clinics in a Commercial Farming Area in Zimbabwe,” Social Science and Medicine 31(11):1207–1211.
Walker, D. 2001. “Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Guidelines: Which Ones to Use?” Health Policy and Planning 16(1):113–121.
Walker, Damian. 2003. “Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS Prevention Strate (p.251) gies in Developing Countries: Is There an Evidence Base?” Health Policy and Planning 18(1):4–17.
Walker, Damien, and Julia Fox-Rushby. 2000. “Economic Evaluation of Parasitic Diseases: A Critique of the Internal and External Validity of Published Studies,” Tropical Medicine and International Health 5(4):237–249.
Walsh, J. A., and K. S. Warren. 1979. “Selective Primary Health Care: An Interim Strategy for Disease Control in Developing Countries,” New England Journal of Medicine 301(18):967–974.
Wapnir, Raul. 2000. “Zinc Deficiency, Malnutrition and the Gastrointestinal Tract,” Journal of Nutrition 130:1388S–1392S.
Warner, Dennis. 2001. “Environmental Sanitation and Child Health,” in Ernest Bartell and Alejandro O'Donnell (eds.), The Child in Latin America: Health, Development, and Rights, pp. 97–120. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.
Wawer, Maria, M. Sewankambo, D. Serwadda, et al. 1999. “Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases for AIDS Prevention in Uganda: A Randomised Community Trial,” Lancet 353:525–535.
WDI (World Development Indicators). 2004. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http://devdata.worldbank.org/dataonline.
Webster, Linda, J. Greenspan, A. Nakashima, and R. Johnson. 1993. “An Evaluation of Surveillance for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the United States, 1987–1991,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly 42(SS-3):21–27.
Weidenreich, F. 1946. Apes, Giants, and Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Whitaker, Rupert. 1997. “Re-assessing the Virological Approach to HIV Pathogenesis: Can It Explain AIDS as an Immunological Disease?” Journal of Theoretical Biology 187(1):45–56.
Whitworth, J., D. Morgan, M. Quigley, et al. 2000. “Effect of HIV-1 and Increasing Immunosuppression on Malaria Parasitaemia and Clinical Episodes in Adults in Rural Uganda: A Cohort Study,” Lancet 356(9235):1051–1056.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1987. Global Schistosomiasis Atlas. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/wormcontrol/documents/who docs/en.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1996 last updated/2003 accessed. Schistosomiasis. Fact Sheet No. 115. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact115.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1997. Health and Environment in Sustainable Development: Five Years after the Earth Summit. WHO/EHG/97.8. Geneva: WHO.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1998a. African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness) Control. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/ctd/html/trypano.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1998b. Intestinal Parasites Control. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/ctd/html/intest.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1998c. Malaria Prevention and Control. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/ctd/html/malaria.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1998d. Schistosomiasis Control. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/ctd/html/schisto.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2000a. Lymphatic Filariasis. Fact Sheet No. 102. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact102.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2000b. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates (p.252) Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/maternal mortality 2000/index.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2001a. African Trypanosomiasis or Sleeping Sickness. Fact Sheet No. 259. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact259.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2001b. Geographical Distribution. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/emc/diseases/tryp/trypanogeo.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2003a. Expert Group Stresses That Unsafe Sex Is the Primary Mode of Transmission of HIV in Africa. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/mediacentre/statements/2003/statements5/en/print.html.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2003b. Tuberculosis Epidemiological Surveillance Report. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2003c. Unsafe Injection Practices: A Plague of Many Health Care Systems. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int/injection safety/about/resources/BackInfoUnsafe/en/.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2004. Tuberculosis. Fact Sheet No. 104. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http:/www.who.int.
Wolday, D., S. Mayaan, Z. Mariam, et al. 2002. “Treatment of Intestinal Worms Is Associated with Decreased HIV Plasma Viral Load,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 31:56–62.
Woodward, Bill. 1998. “Protein, Calories, and Immune Defenses,” Nutrition Reviews 56(1, Part 2):S84–92.
World Bank. 1993a. Investing in Health: World Development Report 1993. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
World Bank. 1993b. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Prevention and Care Project, Zimbabwe. Staff Appraisal Report No. 11730-ZIM. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
World Bank. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 1998. “Nutritional Status and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Findings 108, April.
World Bank. 1999. World Development Report, 1998/1999. New York: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 2003a. AIDS and Transport in Africa. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
World Bank. 2003b. School Deworming at a Glance. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http:/www.worldbank.org/hnp.
World Bank. 2004. World Development Report, 2005. New York: Oxford University Press.
Xiao, L, S. Owen, D. Rudolph, et al. 1998. “Plasmodium falciparum Antigen-Induced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication Is Mediated through Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 177:437–445.
Young, T. Kue. 1998. Population Health: Concepts and Methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zbarskaya, Irina. 2002. “Poverty and Welfare Trends in the Russian Federation over the 1990s.” Background paper for the Social Monitor (2002), UNICEF.