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Reforming MaryChanging Images of the Virgin Mary in Lutheran Sermons of the Sixteenth Century$

Beth Kreitzer

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195166545

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2005

DOI: 10.1093/019516654X.001.0001

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(p.143) Appendix: Biographies of Lutheran Preachers

(p.143) Appendix: Biographies of Lutheran Preachers

Reforming Mary
Oxford University Press

alber(us), erasmus.

ca. 1500–1553. Alberus studied in Wittenberg from 1520, first as a student of Karlstadt, and then of Luther. From 1525 to 1527 he taught school in several small towns, then became a pastor and reformer in Sprendlingen. After 1539 he was forced to lead a wandering life, mostly as a result of his frequent disagreements: he served as pastor in Brandenburg, Rothenburg o.T., Wetterau, and Neubrandenburg. He received his doctorate in 1543 and in 1548 became a pastor in Magdeburg. He was a strong critic of the Interim, Rome, the reformed, and Osiander. In 1552 he was again unemployed and living in Hamburg, but in 1553 he was called as superintendent to Neubrandenburg. He died soon after. He was a lifelong strong supporter of Luther and fought any developments in the tradition. He published hymns, satirical works, polemical fables, and sermons. [NDB 1, 123, Gustav Hammann; ADB 1, 219–20, Gaß]

andreae, jakob.

1528–1590. In 1541 Andreae entered the university at Tübingen, receiving his baccalaureate degree in 1543 and his magister in 1545. In 1546 he married and became a deacon in Stuttgart. During the Interim he was forced back to Tübingen, where he taught boys and continued preaching. In 1553 he received his doctorate and was made the city preacher and superintendent (first “special,” then general) in Göppingen. He worked for many years introducing the reform to various places and was a colleague of Brenz. He was involved in disputes over the Eucharist, but eventually sided against Melanchthon and the Swiss and Calvinist parties. In 1562, he became professor of theology at Tübingen, eventually also serving as provost and chancellor. In 1568, he was sent by the duke to Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel to help introduce reform and build consensus with the north German theologians. From 1568 to 1580 he was involved in formulating the concord, attempting to rid Lutheranism of cryptocalvinism and to institute orthodoxy. He died in Tübingen in 1590. [RTK 1, 501–505, Wagenmann (T. Kolde); NDB 1, 277, Peter Meinhold; ADB 1, 436–441, Henke]

(p.144) artopoeus (becker), johannes.

1520–1566. Born in Speier, Becker studied in Cologne (from 1538), where he received his magister, then at Freiburg from 1540, where he taught the sons of vice-chancellor Mathias Held. He studied philosophy, Greek, and law, receiving his doctorate in both laws (canon and secular) in 1546. He served as a professor of canon law and eventually became rector of the university. He composed panegyrics for both Charles V and Ferdinand I. [ADB I, 614, Steffenh. u. Scherer; NDB 1, 403, Theodor Zwölfer]

baumgart(en) (pomarius), johann.

1514–1578. Baumgarten studied in Wittenberg under Georg Major, Luther, and Melanchthon. He taught in Naumberg and then at the Magdeburg Gymnasium, finally becoming the pastor at the Holy Spirit Church there in 1540. He published many catechetical and polemical writings, as well as school dramas and hymns. [NDB 1, 658, A. Elschenbroich; ADB 2, 158, W. Scherer]

brenz, johannes.

1498/9–1570. Brenz studied in Heidelberg from 1514, where he heard Luther in the Heidelberg Disputation. He took a call as a preacher to Schwäbisch Hall in 1522 and stayed as a reformer there until 1533. In 1526 he wrote the first Kirchenordnung (ecclesiastical constitution) in Hall. In 1530 he attended the Reichstag in Augsburg to assist Melanchthon, and in 1534 was invited by Duke Ulrich to reform Württemburg, including the university in Tübingen. In 1538 he returned to Hall, and in 1550 he was invited to reform Stuttgart. In 1559, at the Stuttgart Synod, he opposed Calvinistic leanings in Lutheran teaching and published the Große Kirchenordnung of 1559, influential throughout Germany. His many publications also include the first evangelical catechism, published in 1527. [NDB 2, 598–599, H. Hermelink; ADB 3, 314–316, Hartmann; RTK 3, 376–388, (Hartmann) Bossert]

bugenhagen, johannes.

1484(?)–1558. Bugenhagen studied in Greifswald and received his magister in 1503. He taught school in Treptow, and in 1517 the duke commissioned him to write a history of Pommern. He read Luther's 1520 treatise on the “Babylonian Captivity of the Church” and in 1521 traveled to Wittenberg, where he was permitted to lecture on the Psalms in Luther's absence. In 1523 he took the position of city preacher in Wittenberg and was active in the dispute with Zwingli over the Eucharist. His widely distributed Passional first appeared in 1524. In 1528 he was called to Braunschweig, and also helped to develop the ecclesiastical constitutions for Hamburg and Lübeck. In 1533 he received his doctorate and in 1534 returned to help reform Pommern. The year 1535 saw his return to Wittenberg, but in 1537 he was called to Denmark by Christian III, who made his new ecclesiastical constitution law in 1539. He remained in Denmark two years, crowning the new king and teaching at the university in Copenhagen. In 1539 he was made the general superintendent in Saxony and in 1542 traveled to Schleswig-Holstein to introduce his ecclesiastical ordinance, but rejected the bishopric there to return to Braunschweig. In the last years of his life (he died in Wittenberg) he was involved in intra-Lutheran conflicts, siding with Melanchthon. [ADB 3, 504–508, J. Köstlin; RTK 3, 525–532, G. Kawerau; NDB 3, Berlin 1957, 9–10, E. Wolf]

chemnitz, martin.

1522–1586. Chemnitz received his education in Wittenberg, Magdeburg, and Frankfurt a.O. After teaching, he returned to Wittenberg in 1545 to study math and astrology, but was soon forced to leave because of the Interim. He was related to Melanchthon through marriage and conducted private studies with him. In (p.145) 1550 he became the ducal librarian in Königsberg, but fled to Wittenberg in 1554 as a result of the Osiander controversy. In 1554 he was ordained and went to Braunschweig to work with Mörlin. Here he held lectures on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, and participated in numerous debates, managing to straddle the fence between the gnesio Mörlin and his old teacher Melanchthon. When Mörlin left Braunschweig, Chemnitz became the superintendent. In 1568 he received his doctorate from Rostock and was elemental in founding the university in Helmstedt. Throughout the 1570s he devoted much of his time to Lutheran unity and was one of the major authors of the Lutheran Concord. His postil was published posthumously in 1593. [NDB 3, 201–202, E. Wolf; ADB 4, 116–118, Brecher; RTK 3, 796–804, Johannes Kunze]

claius (clajus, clay), johannes.

1535–1592. Claius studied in Leipzig from 1555 to 1557 and taught in several places until 1569. He then returned to Wittenberg to study theology and received his magister in 1570. From 1570 to 1572 he was the rector of a school in Nordhausen, then in 1573 became the pastor in Bendeleben. He was the author of an important grammatical treatise. [NDB 3, 258–259, Otto Basler; ADB 4, 270–272, Eckstein]

corvinus (rabe), anton.

1501–1553. After attending the Dominican school, Corvinus entered the Cistercian cloister in Loccum in 1519. He studied a short time in Leipzig, then became a monk in Riddagshausen. After reading Luther's writings, he became an evangelical and was ousted from his monastery in 1523. In 1528 he became the pastor at St. Stephen in Goslar, then in 1529 moved to Witzenhausen. Here he wrote his popular Kurze und einfältige Auslegung, which appeared 1535–1537. In 1536 he received his magister in Marburg. He attended a number of important conferences (including Regensburg) as an advisor to Philipp of Hesse and composed various ecclesiastical constitutions. Eventually he became the regional superintendent in Calenberg-Göttingen and was imprisoned from 1549 to 1552 for his opposition to the Interim. [NDB 3, 371–372, H.H. Harms; ADB 4, 508–509, Brecher; RTK 4, 302–305, G. Uhlhorn]

culmann, leonhard.

1497/8–1562. Culmann attended schools in Halle, Dinkelsbühl, Nuremberg, Saalfeld, and the universities in Erfurt and Leipzig. He was the teacher at the cathedral school in Bamberg, then served various schools and churches in Ansbach and Nuremberg, becoming the preacher at St. Sebald in 1549. He was the main supporter of Osiander after 1552, although Melanchthon warned him against it. He was forced out in 1555 and in 1556 went to Wiesensteig as pastor. In 1558, he was involved in another argument, this time with Brenz, and he left to be pastor of Bernstatt near Ulm, where he died in 1562. [ADB 4, 639, J. Hartmann]

dietrich, veit.

1506–1549. Dietrich attended the university in Wittenberg from 1522, living first with Melanchthon and then with Luther, serving as Luther's secretary. In 1529 he received his magister and in 1533 was made a deacon. In 1535 he left for Nuremberg to become the preacher at St. Sebald, but he came into conflict with Osiander over the issue of private confession. Dietrich published his notes of Luther's lectures (not always with Luther's permission) and also published Luther's Hauspostille (1530–1534). He attended the colloquy at Regensburg and died during the fight against the Interim. [NDB 3, 699, M. Simon; RTK 4, 653–658, T. Kolde; ADB 5, Leipzig 1877, 196–197, Herzog]

(p.146) draconites (drach, trach, draco, carlstadt), johannes.

1494–1566. Drach was active in humanist circles while studying in Erfurt and received his magister in 1514. In 1521 he went to Wittenberg to study Hebrew, and he received his doctorate in 1523. He served several parishes in the 1520s, and from 1536 he was a pastor and professor in Marburg, attending the Regensburg Colloquy in 1541. In 1547 he went to Lübeck, and then in 1551 went as Ratsprofessor to Rostock, where he was engaged in conflict with Hesshusen. In 1557 he became the city superintendent in Rostock, and in 1560 he left to become bishop in Pommern. He was relieved of this position in 1564, since he spent all his time in Wittenberg. [NDB 4, Berlin 1959, 95, E. Kähler; ADB 5, 371, Fromm]

eber, paul. 1511–1569.

In 1532 Eber came to study in Wittenberg with Melanchthon, joining the arts faculty in 1537 after receiving his magister. In 1541 he became a professor of Latin. After the Schmalkaldic war he stayed in Wittenberg and was eventually made a professor of theology. In 1558 he succeeded Bugenhagen as pastor. He tried to take a middle position between the Philippist and gnesio Lutheran parties. [NDB 4, 225, Robert Stupperich; ADB 5, 529–531, Brecher; RTK 5, Leipzig 1898, 118–121, G. Kawerau]

greser, daniel.

1504–1591. Greser studied theology in Mainz and Marburg, and was ordained a priest in 1526. He was already familiar with evangelical theology through Erhard Schnepf, preacher in Weilburg. Greser's first evangelical call was in 1532 to Gießen, where he served for ten years. Upon his disagreement with Philipp regarding Philipp's marital problems, he left to be pastor and superintendent in Dresden, where he served until 1589. [NDB 7, Berlin 1966, 49–50, Franz Lau; ADB 9, 641, C. Brockhaus]

heerbrand, jakob.

1521–1600. From 1538 to 1543 Heerbrand was a student of Melanchthon and Luther in Wittenberg. In 1543 he was made a deacon in Tübingen, but was let go in 1548 during the Interim. In 1550 he received his doctorate in theology and served as superintendent in Herrenberg. He was active with Brenz in several conflicts and councils, and in 1557 returned as a professor of theology to Tübingen. In 1590 he was made chancellor of the university, advisor to the city council, and prior of the Stiftkirche. He wrote an important Compendium Theologiae (1573), an evangelical book of doctrine. [NDB 8, Berlin 1969, 194–195, H. Fausel; ADB 11, Leipzig 1880, 242–244, Schott; RTK 7, 519–524, (Wagenmann) Bossert]

heidenreich, esaias.

1532–1589. Heidenreich studied in Frankfurt, then was pastor in Lemberg and in Schweidnitz. From 1569, he served in Breßlau as church and school inspector, assessor of the consistory, pastor at St. Elizabeth, and professor of theology in the gymnasium. He wrote a Gebets-postil. [Jöcher 2, 1442]

hemming[sen], niels or nicolaus.

1513–1600. Born in Denmark, Hemmingsen attended university in Wittenberg in 1537, paying for his education by tutoring wealthier students. After receiving his master's degree, he returned in 1542 to Denmark, and from 1543 taught Greek at the university in Copenhagen. In 1545 he became a professor of dialectic and also lectured on the Hebrew language. In 1547 he became professor of theology and soon took over the office of vice-chancellor. He was a strong supporter of Melanchthon, and it was because of his influence that the king of Denmark never adopted the Formula of Concord. He was occasionally accused of Calvinism and (p.147) was eventually released from his post (1579). He left to become a canon at the cathedral in Roeskilde. [ADB 11, 724–725, Prantl; RTK 7, 659–662, Fr. Nielsen]

hesshus(en), tilemann.

1527–1588. Hesshusen studied with Melanchthon in Wittenberg from 1553, receiving his magister. His feisty personality caused him to change positions often. He served as pastor in Goslar (from 1553); professor and pastor in Rostock (1556); professor and general superintendent in Heidelberg (from 1557); pastor in Bremen (1559); superintendent in Magdeburg (1560–1562); preacher at the court in Neuburg/Donau (from 1565); professor in Jena (from 1569); bishop in Samland (1571); professor in Helmstedt (from 1577). He was a strong supporter of the Formula of Concord, and argued against his former friend, Flacius, over the question of original sin. [NDB 9, Berlin 1972, 24–25, R. Dollinger; ADB 12, 314–316, Gaß; RTK 8, Leipzig 1900, 8–14, Hackenschmidt]

heune (gigas), johannes.

1514–1581. Heune studied with Luther in Wittenberg, and from 1537 lived in Leipzig. In 1541 he became rector of a school in Joachimsthal, in 1542 taught in Marienberg, then from 1543 taught in Pforta. He served as a pastor in a village in Silesia, then in Freystadt (for 27 years), then finally from 1577 in Schweidnitz. [ADB 9, 167, H. Kaemmel]

huber(inus), caspar.

1500–1553. In 1522 Huberinus matriculated at the university in Wittenberg, probably as a monk. In 1525 he left for Augsburg and was sent by the city council in 1528 to the Bern disputation over the Eucharist, although he held no official office. From 1532 he was supported privately and published critical writings against the Zwinglians. He was sent to Wittenberg in 1535, becoming a deacon and, in 1542, a pastor. He was called through Brenz to be preacher for the Catholic counts of Hohenlohe in Öhringen. Here he was able to push through reforms of church services and the Latin school. He published more than 200 writings. [NDB 9, 701, Gunther Franz; RTK 8, 415–417, T. Kolde; ADB 13, 258–259, Bertheau]

kantz, kaspar.

d. 1544. Shortly before 1501 Kantz entered a Carmelite cloister and studied at the university in Leipzig, taking degrees in 1502 (bacc.), 1505 (mag.), 1511 (bacc. biblicus), and 1515 (sent.) He returned home to Nördlingen to become prior, but in 1517 his provincial wanted him removed. He received the support of the city council against his order. He must have been an early supporter of reform, for he published an “evangelische mess” in 1522. In 1523 his provincial again attempted to oust him, but the council continued to support him until 1523, when he was banished for announcing in a sermon that he had taken a wife. In 1524 he matriculated in Wittenberg. Eventually he returned to Nördlingen as a schoolteacher, and in 1535 as a preacher. He also published a catechism, hymns, and other pastoral works. [RTK 10, Leipzig, 1901, 23–25, Chr. Geyer]

keller (cellarius), andreas.

1503–1562. Keller had lived in a cloister before he appeared in Rottenburg in 1524, giving public sermons against the papacy. He was forbidden to preach, but left to serve at Alt-St.-Peter in Strassburg. In 1524 he became pastor in Wasselnheim, near Strassburg. In 1530 he published his own catechism. In 1536 he left to become pastor in Wildberg, and in 1551 was made superintendent there. [NDB 11, Berlin 1977, 432–433, G. Franz; RTK 10, 203–204, G. Bossert]

(p.148) lauterbach, johann.

1531–1593. Lauterbach studied with Melanchthon in Wittenberg, then served in the court of the counts of Hohenlohe. In 1553 he became the rector at the university in Heilbronn. An important poet, he also composed hymns. [ADB 18, 75, R. Eitner]

luther, martin.

1483–1546. Luther was a former Augustinian friar and professor at the university in Wittenberg who sparked a major religious reform movement. He is considered the founder of the Lutheran Church. Many of Luther's sermons were transcribed and often published. The sermons of Luther used in this study can mostly be found in the Festpostille of 1527 and the Hauspostille of 1544.

major, georg.

1502–1574. Major studied in Wittenberg, receiving his degrees in 1521, 1522, and 1523. He taught in Wittenberg until he received a call in 1529 to serve as rector of the gymnasium in Magdeburg. From 1537 he was the preacher of the castle church in Wittenberg, and he was ordained by Luther. He also taught on the arts faculty at the university, and from 1541 on the theology faculty. He joined the Wittenberg consistory in 1542 and in 1544 received his doctorate, giving up his preaching position in 1545 to become a full-time professor. During the Schmalkaldic war, he fled with his family to Magdeburg. In 1551–1552 he served as superintendent in Eisleben, but during this period was involved in a serious controversy over his supposed return to Roman teachings. From Bugenhagen's death in 1558 until his own in 1574 he served as dean of the theology faculty in Wittenberg. [NDB 15, 718–719, Helmar Junghans; ADB 20, Leipzig 1884, 109–111, Wagenmann; RTK 12, Leipzig 1903, 85–91, G. Kawerau]

mat(t)hesius, johann(es).

1504–1565. Mathesius studied in Ingolstadt, and taught in the Schloß Odelzhausen in 1526–1527. Here he read Luther's “Sermon on Good Works” and joined the reform movement. After studying theology in Wittenberg, he taught in Altenburg from 1529. In 1532 he was called to be rector of the Latin school in Joachimsthal, a silver-mining town in Bohemia. In 1540–1542 he studied again in Wittenberg with Luther and Melanchthon, and after his ordination in 1542 he took another call to Joachimsthal, this time as preacher. From 1545 until his death in 1565 he served as pastor in this community. Around 1,500 of his sermons were printed, especially those relating to weddings and funerals. [NDB 16, 369–370, Herbert Wolf; ADB 20, 586–589, Ledderhose; RTK 12, 425–428, Georg Loesche]

melanchthon, philipp.

1497–1560. Melanchthon was a younger contemporary of Luther who became his most important colleague. Melanchthon's Loci Communes dominated Lutheran (and Protestant) theology for much of the century and after. His postils are published in the Corpus Reformatorum, volumes 24 and 25.

mörlin, joachim.

1514–1571. Mörlin studied from 1532 in Wittenberg, receiving his magister in 1535 and his doctorate in 1540. In 1540 he was called to be superintendent in Arnstadt, but fell out of grace for giving critical sermons and was removed from office in 1543. From 1544 he served as superintendent in Göttingen, but also had problems there and opposed the Interim. He lost this position in 1550. From 1551 he served in Königsberg, where he had a major conflict with Osiander over justification. He was forced to leave Prussia in 1553. He was called as superintendent to Braunschweig and, working closely with Chemnitz, pushed forward Lutheran consensus with the Concord (p.149) of 1580. From 1568 he was bishop in Samland. [NDB 17, 679–680, Inge Mager; RTK 13, 237–247, Wagenmann (Lezius); ADB 22, 322–325, H. A. Lier]

musäus (meusel), simon.

1529–1582. Musäus studied in Frankfurt a.O., and then in Wittenberg from 1545 to 1547. He taught Greek at a school in Nuremberg, then from 1549 served as pastor in Fürstenwalde in the Neumark. On account of his marriage, the bishop expelled him in 1551, but in 1552 he went as pastor to Crossen. In 1554 he was forced to leave this position for criticizing the city council in his sermons. In this same year he was called to Kosten bei Breslau and also received his doctorate from Wittenberg. In Kosten he fought against the Interim and made enemies of the Catholic clergy, who denounced him and demanded that the city council fire him. He left for Gotha and eventually went to Jena as superintendent and professor, leading the gnesio-Lutheran fight against Wittenberg. From 1561 until his death in 1582 he held a variety of positions and occasionally lived without a position in the cities of Bremen, Lüneberg, Schwein, Gera, Thorn, Coburg, Soest, and, finally, Mansfeld. [ADB 23, Leipzig 1886, 91–92, Schimmelpfennig]

osiander, andreas.

1498–1552. Osiander attended the university in Ingolstadt, where he had humanistic training and studied Hebrew. In 1520 he was ordained a priest in Nuremberg and taught Hebrew at the Augustinian cloister. Here he came into close contact with Luther and other Wittenbergers. In 1522 he was assigned to be preacher at St. Lorenz, and he soon became one of the leaders of the reform movement. In 1525 he married, and he stood with Luther against both the Swiss and the uprising peasants. He enjoyed a period of great popularity and influence, but in the 1530s and 1540s was involved in one of the major intra-Lutheran battles, over the question of requiring personal confession. In 1549 he left to preach in Königsberg and became professor at the university, although he held no academic degree. He was involved in another major conflict in the 1550s, this time over justification by faith. He had many problems with Mörlin, and eventually broke completely with Melanchthon and Wittenberg. He died in 1552; his body was disinterred, and his final gravesite is unknown. [ADB 24, 473–483, M. Möller; RTK 14, 501–509, (M. Möller) P. Tschackert]

pankratius, andreas.

1529/31–1576. Pankratius probably studied in Wittenberg with Georg Major. He served as deacon in Pressath in the Pfalz, then as preacher in Amberg in the Oberpfalz. He lost his position in 1566 when the duke moved toward Calvinism, and went as preacher, superintendent, and inspector of the gymnasium to Hof in Vogtlande. [ADB 25, Leipzig 1887, 119–221, Wagenmann]

pauli, simon.

1534–1591. Pauli attended the university in Rostock in 1552 but received his magister from Wittenberg in 1555. He was recommended by Melanchthon to the duke in 1558 to be professor of theology in Rostock. Soon the duke called Pauli to be his cathedral preacher and took him along to the Augsburg Reichstag. In 1561 he was named pastor of St. Jacobi and professor of theology in Rostock. In this same year he received his doctorate. He was a close friend of David Chytraeus and was a gnesio Lutheran (i.e., against Melanchthon, cryptocalvinism, and Flacius). He became superintendent of Rostock in 1574. [ADB 25, 273–274, Krause]

rhegius, urbanus.

1489–1541. In 1508 Rhegius attended the university in Freiburg, studying theology with Eck. He followed Eck to Ingolstadt in 1510, taking his (p.150) baccalaureate and master's there. He taught rhetoric and poetry, and was crowned poet laureate by the emperor in 1517. He continued his theological studies and was ordained in Constanz in 1519. He received his doctorate in theology in Basle in 1520. After his call to be preacher at the cathedral in Augsburg, he became a reformer and strong supporter of Luther. He was soon forced to leave the city and returned to his home for several years. In 1524 he was called to be preacher in Hall im Innthal, but he soon returned to Augsburg to preach at St. Anna. He married in 1525 and eventually was again forced to leave the city, moving to Celle as court preacher and superintendent. He is considered the reformer of the duchy Lüneberg and published many works in his lifetime. [ADB 28, 374–378, Wagenmann; RTK 16, Leipzig 1905, 734–741, (G. Uhlhorn) P. Tschackert]

seehofer, arsacius.

d. 1545. Seehofer studied in Wittenberg with Melanchthon but received his magister in 1522 in Ingolstadt. He had to take an oath that he did not follow Lutheran beliefs. However, in the following year he gave a lecture on Paul's letters following Melanchthon's interpretation, and was denounced by the faculty senate and arrested. This caused a great uproar, and led Argula von Grumbach, a noblewoman who sympathized with the reform, to write her famous letter to the university in support of Seehofer. He was finally released after a public disputation of the faculty, and he left for Wittenberg. After a short stay in Prussia, he taught from 1534 in a gymnasium in Augsburg, then in 1536 went as pastor to Leonberg. Later he served as pastor in Winnenden, in Würrtemberg. He published his Enarrationes evangeliorum dominicalium in 1538, and it was placed on numerous Roman indexes. [ADB 33, 573–574, Reusch; RTK 18, Leipzig 1906, 124–126, T. Kolde]

selneccer, nicolaus.

1530–1592. Selneccer studied theology in Wittenberg from 1549, becoming a close friend of Melanchthon. In 1558 he was called to be court preacher in Dresden, and to teach the prince. In 1562 he left to be a professor at the new university in Jena, turning more stringently Lutheran after Melanchthon's death. He was forced out of the university in 1568 under suspicions of cryptocalvinism and went as the general superintendent and pastor to St. Thomas in Leipzig. In 1570 he went as preacher to the court of Julius in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, helping to found the new university in 1571. Here he also had problems with the gnesio party and returned to his old position in Leipzig in 1574, where he fought against the Philippists. He was a major player in the development of the Formula of Concord. In 1586 after the death of the elector, the new elector, Christian, supported the Philippist party. Thus, by 1589 Selneccer lost his position and was banned, but in 1590 went as superintendent to Hildesheim, then in 1592 returned to Augsburg. In 1591 Christian died, so he was able to return to Leipzig but could find no position there. He returned again to Hildesheim, where he died in 1592. [ADB 33, 687–692, v. Egloffstein; RTK 18, 184–191 (Wagenmann) Franz Dibelius]

spangenberg, cyriacus.

1528–1604. Son of Lutheran pastor Johannes S., Cyriacus studied in Wittenberg from 1542. After receiving his magister, he taught at the gymnasium in Eisleben. Upon his father's death, he took over that preaching position. From 1553 he served as deacon in Mansfeld, having quarreled with his father's replacement, Georg Major, over his theory of good works. In 1559 he became court preacher and began working to publish his own and his father's writings. From 1564 he was a member of the Flacian party, which finally led to his exile. His next service was in Sangerhausen, but his opposition to the Formula of Concord led to his further exile in (p.151) Strassburg. From 1581 to 1590 he served as pastor in Schlitz, near Strassburg, but was forced to leave. In 1595 or 1596 he returned to Strassburg to renew their music school. [ADB 35, 37–41, Edward Schröder; RTK 18, 567–572, Kawerau]

spangenberg, johann.

1484–1550. In 1508 or 1509 Spangenberg was at the university in Erfurt; he received his baccalaureate degree in 1511, and later his magister. He was called to be rector of the Latin school in Stolberg and from 1520 served as a preacher at St. Martins. In 1524 he was called by the council of Nordhausen to be pastor at St. Blasius, and he served there for twenty-two years. He also ran a private school in his home after the city schools were destroyed in the peasants' revolt, then opened a Latin school. In 1546, he was sent by Luther to Eisleben to serve as general inspector. [RTK 18, 565–567, Kawerau; ADB 35, 43–46, Paul Tschackert]

spindler, georg.

1525–1605. Spindler studied theology under Cruciger in Wittenberg from 1548. In 1560 he was called to a preaching position in Schlackenwerth in Bohemia. He was involved in the fights against the cryptocalvinists, but after publishing his 1578 postil he was accused of having himself written a Calvinist work. This pushed him to read Calvin's Institutes, which helped changed his allegiance. In 1580 he lost his position, wandering until he found a new position in Obernberngau in 1584. He reworked his postil into an explicitly Calvinist vein, publishing it in 1593. [ADB 35, 199–200, Cuno]

strigel, victor(inus).

1524–1569. Strigel studied in Wittenberg from 1542, receiving his magister in 1544. He held lectures here until the Schmalkaldic war forced him out. In 1547 he began lecturing in Erfurt, then went to Jena to help found the university. Here he was involved in a long-term fight with Flacius over the freedom of the human will, siding with Melanchthon. Eventually, after serving time in prison, Strigel was victorious and Flacius and friends were expelled. Strigel was returned to his position in 1562, but in 1563 left for Leipzig. In 1567 he began having troubles in Leipzig over his supposed Calvinist leanings in Eucharistic doctrine, so he left again. After serving for a while in Amberg, he went to the university in Heidelberg, where he died in 1569. [ADB 36, 590–594, P. Tschackert; RTK 19, 97–102, (Wagenmann) Kawerau]

vischer (piscator), christoph.

d. 1597/1600? In 1543 or 44 Vischer received his magister in Wittenberg, then went as pastor to Jüterbogk, and eventually to Bensen. In 1552 he was called to be superintendent in Schmalkalden. In 1571 he went as general superintendent to Meiningen and after three years left to be head pastor in Halberstadt. When he died in 1597, he was serving as the general superintendent of Braunschweig and court preacher in Celle. [ADB 7, Leipzig 1878, 51–52, H. Kellner; ADB 40, Leipzig 1896, 30–31]

walther, georg.

Dates unknown. Walther was a magister philosophia and preached in Halle in Saxony. He was in this position when he signed the Formula of Concord in 1580. He is the author of several works. [Jöcher 4, 1800]

weller, hieronymus.

1499–1572. Weller studied in Wittenberg, particularly Greek, and received his magister in 1518. He taught in Zwickau, but returned in 1526 to Wittenberg to study law and receive his doctorate. After hearing Luther preach, he began (p.152) to study theology, receiving this doctorate in 1535. In 1539 he was called to be superintendent and inspector of schools in Freyburg. He died in Freyburg in 1572. [Jöcher 4, 1879–1880]

wigand, johann.

1523–1587. Wigand studied in Wittenberg from 1539, and in 1541 went as teacher to the Lorenz school in Nuremberg. After three years he returned to his studies in Wittenberg, but during the war (1546) left to preach and teach in Mansfeld. He published many controversial writings, often fighting on the side of Flacius. In 1553 he was chosen to be pastor at St. Ulrich's in Magdeburg, and in 1560 followed Flacius to Jena as professor. Here the two differed over the question of original sin, and Wigand was expelled for being too troublesome. He returned to Magdeburg, then went as superintendent to Wismar in 1562. In 1568 he was recalled to Jena, and the old fight between Wittenberg and Jena broke out again. The streng Lutherans were expelled in 1573, and Wigand and Hesshusen left for Braunschweig. Soon Wigand left to teach at the university in Königsberg. In 1575 he was called as bishop in Pomesanien, where he fell into another fight, this time with Hesshusen, now bishop of Samland. Hesshusen was expelled, and Wigand was given his bishopric. [ADB 42, 452–454, Brecher; RTK 21, 270–275, Hauck]