Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology$

Paul K. Moser

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780195130058

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195130057.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 22 January 2017

(p.569) Bibliography on Epistemology

(p.569) Bibliography on Epistemology

Source:
The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

General Works

Achinstein, Peter, ed. The Concept of Evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Alcoff, Linda, and Elizabeth Potter, eds. Feminist Epistemologies. London: Routledge, 1993.

Almeder, Robert. Blind Realism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

Alston, William P. Epistemic Justification. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

——. “Meta‐Ethics and Meta‐Epistemology.” In Values and Morals, pp. 275–297. Edited by A. I. Goldman and J. Kim. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1978.

——. The Reliability of Sense Perception. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993.

——. “The Role of Reason in the Regulation of Belief.” In Rationality in the Calvinian Tradition, pp. 135–170. Edited by N. Wolterstorff et al. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1983.

Antony, Louise, and Charlotte Witt, eds. A Mind of One's Own. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1992.

Armstrong, David M. Belief, Truth, and Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Audi, Robert. The Architecture of Reason. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

——. Epistemology. London: Routledge, 1998.

——. Moral Knowledge and Ethical Character. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

——. The Structure of Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

(p.570) ——, ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; 2d ed., 1999.

Aune, Bruce. Knowledge, Mind, and Nature. New York: Random House, 1967.

——. Knowledge of the External World. London: Routledge, 1991.

Axtell, Guy, ed. Knowledge, Belief, and Character: Readings in Virtue Epistemology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

Ayer, A. J. Probability and Evidence. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

——. The Problem of Knowledge. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956.

Baergen, Ralph. Contemporary Epistemology. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995.

BonJour, Laurence. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Butchvarov, Panayot. The Concept of Knowledge. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1970.

Campbell, Richmond. Illusions of Paradox: A Feminist Epistemology Naturalized. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

Carruthers, Peter. Human Knowledge and Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Cassam, Quassim, ed. Self‐Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chisholm, Roderick M. The Foundations of Knowing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

——. Perceiving: A Philosophical Study. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1957.

——. Theory of Knowledge, 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1966; 2d ed., 1977; 3d ed., 1989.

Chisholm, Roderick, and Robert Swartz, eds. Empirical Knowledge. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1973.

Clay, Marjorie, and Keith Lehrer, eds. Knowledge and Skepticism. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1989.

Coady, C. A. J. Testimony. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Code, Lorraine. Epistemic Responsibility. Hanover, N.H.: Brown University Press/University Press of New England, 1987.

Coffa, J. Alberto. The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Cornman, James W. Perception, Common Sense, and Science. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975.

Craig, Edward. Knowledge and the State of Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

——, ed. Perceptual Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Dancy, Jonathan, and Ernest Sosa, eds. A Companion to Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Danto, Arthur. Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

DePaul, Michael, and William Ramsey, eds. Rethinking Intuition. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

DeVries, Willem, and Timm Triplett. Knowledge, Mind, and the Given. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2000.

Dicker, Georges. Perceptual Knowledge. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.

(p.571) Dretske, Fred I. Seeing and Knowing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Fairweather, Abrol, and Linda Zagzebski, eds. Virtue Epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Fales, Evan. A Defense of the Given. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

Feldman, Richard and Earl Conee. “Evidentialism.” Philosophical Studies 48 (1985): 15–34.

Reprinted in P. K. Moser and Arnold vander Nat, eds., Human Knowledge, pp. 334–345. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Firth, Roderick. In Defense of Radical Empiricism. Edited by John Troyer. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

Foley, Richard. Intellectual Trust in Oneself and Others. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

——. The Theory of Epistemic Rationality. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

——. Working Without a Net. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

French, Peter, et al., eds. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Fumerton, Richard. Metaphysical and Epistemological Problems of Perception. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

——. Metaepistemology and Skepticism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1995.

Gardner, Howard. The Mind's New Science. New York: Basic, 1985; expanded ed., 1987.

Ginet, Carl. “The Justification of Belief: A Primer.” In Knowledge and Mind. Edited by C. Ginet and S. Shoemaker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

——. Knowledge, Perception, and Memory. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1975.

Goldman, Alvin I. Epistemology and Cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.

——. Knowledge in a Social World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

——. Liaisons. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.

——. Pathways of Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Greco, John. “Two Kinds of Intellectual Virtue.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2000): 179–184.

——. “Virtue Epistemology and the Relevant Sense of ‘Relevant Responsibility’.” Southern Journal of Philosophy 32 (1993): 61–77.

——. “Virtues and Vices in Virtue Epistemology.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (1993): 413–432.

Greco, John, and Ernest Sosa, eds. The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999.

Griffiths, A. P., ed. Knowledge and Belief. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Grossmann, Reinhardt. The Fourth Way. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Haack, Susan. Evidence and Inquiry. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

——. “Theories of Knowledge: An Analytic Framework.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 83 (1983): 143–157.

Hamlyn, D. W. The Theory of Knowledge. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.

Harman, Gilbert. Change In View. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.

——. Thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Hetherington, Stephen. Epistemology's Paradox. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

Hill, Thomas. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. New York: Macmillan, 1961.

(p.572) Hintikka, Jaakko. Knowledge and Belief. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1962.

——. Knowledge and the Known, 2d ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.

Hirsch, Eli. Dividing Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Hirst, R.J., ed. Perception and the External World. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

Jeffrey, Richard C. The Logic of Decision, 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Kaplan, Mark. Decision Theory as Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Kitcher, Philip. The Advancement of Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kornblith, Hilary, ed. Epistemology: Internalism and Externalism. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2001.

Kulp, Christopher, ed. Realism/Antirealism and Epistemology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

Kvanvig, Jonathan. The Intellectual Virtues and the Life of the Mind. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

——, ed. Warrant in Contemporary Epistemology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

Lehrer, Keith. Knowledge. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.

——. Self‐Trust. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

——. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.

Levi, Isaac. The Enterprise of Knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980.

Lewis, C. I. An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1946.

Lycan, William. Judgment and Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Malcolm, Norman. Knowledge and Certainty. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1963.

McGinn, Colin. Knowledge and Reality: Selected Essays. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999.

Meyers, Robert. The Likelihood of Knowledge. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988.

Montmarquet, James. Epistemic Virtue and Doxastic Responsibility. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1993.

Moser, Paul K. Empirical Justification. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

——. Knowledge and Evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

——. Philosophy after Objectivity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

——. “Epistemology (1900–Present).” In John Canfield, ed., Routledge History of Philosophy, vol. 10, Philosophy of the English Speaking World in the 20th Century. London: Routledge, 1996.

——, ed. Empirical Knowledge, 2d ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

——, ed. Rationality in Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Moser, Paul K., J. D. Trout, and D. H. Mulder. The Theory of Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Moser, Paul K., and Arnold VanderNat, eds. Human Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987; 2d ed., 1995; 3d ed., 2002.

Nagel, Ernest, and Richard Brandt, eds. Meaning and Knowledge. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965.

Pappas, G. S., ed. Justification and Knowledge. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

Pappas, G. S. and Marshall Swain, eds. Essays on Knowledge and Justification. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Plantinga, Alvin. Warrant: The Current Debate. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

——. Warrant and Proper Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

(p.573) Pollock, John L. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986; 2d ed. (with J. Cruz), 1999.

——. Knowledge and Justification. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974.

Popper, Karl. Objective Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Quine, W. V. Pursuit of Truth. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Quine, W. V., and J. S. Ullian, The Web of Belief, 2d ed. New York: Random House, 1978.

Roth, Michael, and Leon Galis, eds. Knowing: Essays in the Analysis of Knowledge. New York: Random House, 1970.

Russell, Bertrand. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1948.

Schlesinger, George N. The Range of Epistemic Logic. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities, 1985.

Schmitt, Frederick. Knowledge and Belief. London: Routledge, 1992.

——, ed. Socializing Epistemology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994.

Sellars, Wilfrid. Science, Perception, and Reality. Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview, 1991.

——. The Metaphysics of Epistemology. Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview, 1989.

Shope, Robert. “The Conditional Fallacy in Contemporary Philosophy.” Journal of Philosophy 75 (1978): 397–413.

Sintonen, Matti, ed. Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on Jaakko Hintikka's Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997.

Sorensen, Roy. Thought Experiments. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Sosa, Ernest. Knowledge in Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

——, ed., Knowledge and Justification. Aldershot, U.K.: Dartmouth, 1994.

Sosa, Ernest, and Jaegwon Kim, eds. Epistemology. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000.

Stalnaker, Robert C. Inquiry. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.

Steup, Matthias, ed. Knowledge, Truth, and Duty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Stich, Stephen. The Fragmentation of Reason. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.

Stroll, Avrum, ed. Epistemology. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Stroud, Barry. Understanding Human Knowledge: Philosophical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Swain, Marshall. Reasons and Knowledge. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Swartz, R.J., ed. Perceiving, Sensing, and Knowing. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965.

Tomberlin, James, ed. Philosophical Perspectives, vol. 2, Epistemology. Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview, 1988.

——, ed. Philosophical Perspectives, vol. 13, Epistemology. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999.

Williams, Michael. Problems of Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

A Priori Knowledge

Benacerraf, Paul, and Hilary Putnam, eds. Philosophy of Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1964.

Bennett, Jonathan. Kant's Analytic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966.

(p.574) Blackburn, Simon, ed. Meaning, Reference, and Necessity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

BonJour, Laurence. In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of “A Priori” Justification. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Casullo, Albert, ed. A Priori Knowledge. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 1999.

——. A Priori Justification. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.

——. “Actuality and the A Priori”. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (1988): 390–402.

——. “Necessity, Certainty, and the ‘A Priori’.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1988): 43–66.

——. “Revisability, Reliabilism, and A Priori Knowledge.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (1988): 187–213.

Harris, J. F., and R. H. Severens, eds. Analyticity: Selected Readings. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970.

Kitcher, Philip. The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

——. “A Priori Knowledge.” Philosophical Review 76 (1980): 3–23.

——. “Apriority and Necessity.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (1980): 89–101.

Kripke, Saul A. Naming and Necessity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.

——. “Identity and Necessity.” In Naming, Necessity, and Natural Kinds, pp. 66–101. Edited by S. P. Schwartz. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977.

——. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Lewis, C. I. An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation, chaps. 3–6. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1946.

——. Mind and the World Order, chaps. 7–9. New York: Scribner's, 1929.

——. “A Pragmatic Conception of the A Priori.” Journal of Philosophy 20 (1923): 169–177.

Reprinted in Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis, pp. 231–239. Edited by J. D. Goheen and J. L. Mothershead. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970.

Moser, Paul K., ed. A Priori Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Pap, Arthur. The A Priori in Physical Theory. New York: King's Crown, 1946.

——. Semantics and Necessary Truth. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1958.

Pasch, Alan. Experience and the Analytic: A Reconsideration of Empiricism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Price, H. H. Thinking and Experience, 2d ed. London: Hutchinson, 1969.

Putnam, Hilary. “The Analytic and the Synthetic.” In Putnam, Mind, Language, and Reality, Philosophical Papers, vol. 2, pp. 33–69. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

——. “Analyticity and Apriority: Beyond Wittgenstein and Quine.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 4, pp. 423–441. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979.

——. “There Is at Least One A Priori Truth.” Erkenntnis 13 (1978): 153–70.

Reprinted in Putnam, Realism and Reason, Philosophical Papers, Vol. 3, pp. 98–114. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

——. “ ‘Two Dogmas’ Revisited.” In Putnam, Realism and Reason, Philosophical Papers, vol. 3, pp. 87–97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

(p.575) Quine, W. V. “Carnap and Logical Truth.” In Quine, The Ways of Paradox, pp. 100–125. New York: Random House, 1966.

——. “The Ground of Logical Truth.” In Quine, Philosophy of Logic, chap. 7. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1970.

——. “Truth by Convention.” In Quine, The Ways of Paradox, pp. 70–99. New York: Random House, 1966.

——. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism.” In Quine, From a Logical Point of View, 2d ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.

——. “Two Dogmas in Retrospect.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (1991): 265–274.

Resnik, M. D. Frege and the Philosophy of Mathematics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Rosenthal, Sandra. The Pragmatic A Priori: A Study in the Epistemology of C. I. Lewis. St. Louis, Green, 1976.

Sleigh, R. C., ed. Necessary Truth. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1972.

Steiner, Mark. Mathematical Knowledge. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, 3d ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978.

Wright, Crispin. Wittgenstein on the Foundations of Mathematics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Epistemic Foundationalism

Almeder, Robert F. “Basic Knowledge and Justification.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1983): 115–28.

Alston, William P. Epistemic Justification. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

——. “Plantinga's Religious Epistemology.” In Alvin Plantinga, pp. 287–309. Edited by J. E. Tomberlin and P. van Inwagen. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

——. “Some Remarks on Chisholm's Epistemology.” Noûs 14 (1980): 565–586.

Annis, David B. “Epistemic Foundationalism.” Philosophical Studies 31 (1977): 345–352.

Armstrong, David M. Belief, Truth, and Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Audi, Robert. The Structure of Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Ayer, A. J. “Basic Propositions.” In Philosophical Analysis, pp. 60–74. Edited by M. Black. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1950.

Reprinted in Ayer, Philosophical Essays. London: Macmillan, 1965.

——. The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge. New York: Macmillan, 1940.

BonJour, Laurence. “Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5: Studies in Epistemology, pp. 53–74. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

——. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Chisholm, Roderick. “The Directly Evident.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 115–127. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

(p.576) ——. “On the Nature of Empirical Evidence.” In Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 253–278. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. Theory of Knowledge, 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall, 1966; 2d ed., 1977; 3d ed., 1989.

——. “Theory of Knowledge in America.” In Chisholm, The Foundations of Knowing, pp. 109–196. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

——. “A Version of Foundationalism.” In Chisholm, The Foundations of Knowing, pp. 3–32. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

Churchland, Paul M. Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind, chap. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Cornman, James W. “Foundational versus Nonfoundational Theories of Empirical Justification.” American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (1977); 287–297.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 229–252. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. Skepticism, Justification, and Explanation. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, chaps. 4 and 5. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

DePaul Michael, ed. Resurrecting Old‐Fashioned Foundationalism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Foley, Richard. The Theory of Epistemic Rationality. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

——. Working without a Net. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Fumerton, Richard. Metaepistemology and Skepticism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1995.

——. Metaphysical and Epistemological Problems of Perception, chap. 2. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Goldman, Alan H. Empirical Knowledge. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1988.

——. “Epistemic Foundationalism and the Replaceability of Ordinary Language.” Journal of Philosophy 79 (1982): 136–154.

Heidelberger, Herbert. “Chisholm's Epistemic Principles.” Noûs 3 (1969): 73–82.

Heil, John. “Foundationalism and Epistemic Rationality.” Philosophical Studies 42 (1982): 179–188.

Kornblith, Hilary. “Beyond Foundationalism and the Coherence Theory.” Journal of Philosophy 72 (1980): 597–612.

Reprinted in Naturalizing Epistemology, pp. 115–128. Edited by H. Kornblith. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.

Lehrer, Keith. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.

Lewis, C. I. An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation, chaps. 7 and 8. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1946.

——. “The Given Element in Empirical Knowledge.” Philosophical Review 61 (1952): 168–175.

——. Mind and the World Order. New York: Scribner's, 1929.

McGrew, Timothy. The Foundations of Knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Littlefield Adams, 1995.

Moser, Paul K. “A Defense of Epistemic Intuitionism.” Metaphilosophy 15 (1984): 196–209.

——. Empirical Justification, chaps. 4 and 5. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

(p.577) ——. Knowledge and Evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

——. Philosophy after Objectivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Pastin, Mark. “Lewis' Radical Foundationalism.” Noûs 9 (1975): 407–420.

——. “Modest Foundationalism and Self‐Warrant.” In American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph Series, No. 9: Studies in Epistemology, pp. 141–149. Edited by N. Rescher. Oxford: Blackwell, 1975.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 279–288. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Pollock, John. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986; 2d ed. (with J. Cruz), 1999.

——. Knowledge and Justification. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974.

——. “A Plethora of Epistemological Theories.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 93–113. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

Quinton, Anthony. “The Foundations of Knowledge.” In British Analytic Philosophy, pp. 55–86. Edited by Bernard Williams and Alan Montefiore. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

——. The Nature of Things, chap. 8. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

Russell, Bertrand. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits, part 2. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1948.

——. An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, chaps. 9 and 10. New York: Norton, 1940.

——. “On Verification.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 38 (1937–1938), 1–15.

Scheffler, Israel. Science and Subjectivity, 2d ed., chaps. 2 and 5. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1982.

Sellars, Wilfrid. “Does Empirical Knowledge Have a Foundation?,” in Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1, pp. 293–300. Edited by H. Feigl and M. Scriven. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956.

Reprinted in Sellars, Science, Perception, and Reality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.

Sosa, Ernest. Knowledge in Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Strawson, Peter F. “Does Knowledge Have Foundations?.” In Teorema, Mono. 1: Conocimiento y Creencia, pp. 99–110. Universidad de Valencia, 1974.

Swain, Marshall. “Cornman's Theory of Justification.” Philosophical Studies 41 (1982): 129–148.

——. Reasons and Knowledge. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Van Cleve, James. “Epistemic Supervenience and the Circle of Belief.” The Monist 68 (1985): 90–104.

——. “Foundationalism, Epistemic Principles, and the Cartesian Circle.” Philosophical Review 88 (1979): 55–91.

Epistemic Coherentism

Audi, Robert. The Structure of Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Bender, John, ed. The Current State of the Coherence Theory. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.

(p.578) Blanshard, Brand. The Nature of Thought, vol. 2, chaps. 25–27. London: Allen & Unwin, 1939.

BonJour, Laurence. “The Coherence Theory of Empirical Knowledge.” Philosophical Studies 30 (1976): 281–312.

——. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, chaps. 8 and 9. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

——. “On Coherence Theories of Justification: Can an Empiricist be a Coherentist?.” American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1984): 359–365.

Davidson, Donald. “A Coherence Theory of Truth and Knowledge.” In Kant oder Hegel, pp. 423–438. Edited by Dieter Henrich. Stuttgart: Klett‐Cotta, 1983.

Firth, Roderick. “Coherence, Certainty, and Epistemic Priority.” Journal of Philosophy 61 (1964), 545–557.

Harman, Gilbert. Change In View. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.

——. “Knowledge, Inference, and Explanation.” American Philosophical Quarterly 5 (1968): 164–173.

——. “Knowledge, Reasons, and Causes.” Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970): 841–855.

——. Thought, chap. 8. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Lehrer, Keith. “Justification, Explanation, and Induction.” In Induction, Acceptance, and Rational Belief, pp. 100–33. Edited by M. Swain. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1970.

——. Knowledge, chaps. 7 and 8. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.

——. “The Knowledge Cycle.” Noûs 11 (1977): 17–26.

——. “Knowledge, Truth, and Ontology.” In Language and Ontology: Proceedings of the 6th International Wittgenstein Symposium, pp. 201–211. Edited by W. Leinfellner et al. Vienna: Holder‐Pichler‐Tempsky, 1982.

——. “Self‐Profile.” In Keith Lehrer, pp. 3–104. Edited by R. J. Bogdan. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1981.

——. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.

Lehrer, Keith, and Stewart Cohen. “Justification, Truth, and Coherence.” Synthese 55 (1983): 191–208.

Lemos, Noah. “Coherence and Epistemic Priority.” Philosophical Studies 41 (1982): 299–316.

Moser, Paul K. Empirical Justification, chap. 3. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

——. Knowledge and Evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Pastin, Mark. “Social and Anti‐Social Justification: A Study of Lehrer's Epistemology.” In Keith Lehrer, pp. 205–222. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1981.

Rescher, Nicholas. “Blanshard and the Coherence Theory of Truth.” In The Philosophy of Brand Blanshard, pp. 574–588. Edited by P. Schilpp. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1980.

——. Cognitive Systematization. Oxford: Blackwell, 1979.

——. The Coherence Theory of Truth. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

——. “Foundationalism, Coherentism, and the Idea of Cognitive Systematization.” Journal of Philosophy 71 (1974): 695–708.

——. A System of Pragmatic Idealism, 3 vols. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991–1994.

——. “Truth as Ideal Coherence.” Review of Metaphysics 38 (1985): 795–806.

Sellars, Wilfrid. “Epistemic Principles.” In Action, Knowledge, and Reality: Critical Studies (p.579) in Honor of Wilfrid Sellars, pp. 332–348. Edited by H.‐N. Castaneda. Indianapolis: Bobbs‐Merrill, 1975.

——. “Givenness and Explanatory Coherence.” Journal of Philosophy 70 (1973): 612–624.

——. “More on Givenness and Explanatory Coherence.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 169–181. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

Sosa, Ernest. “Circular Coherence and Absurd Foundations.” In A Companion to Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation. Edited by E. Lepore. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

——. Knowledge in Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Epistemic Contextualism

Airaksinen, Timo. “Contextualism: A New Theory of Epistemic Justification.” Philosophia 12 (1982): 37–50.

Annis, David. “The Social and Cultural Component of Epistemic Justification: A Reply.” Philosophia 12 (1982): 51–55.

Morawetz, Thomas. Wittgenstein and Knowledge. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.

Moser, Paul K. Empirical Justification, chap. 2. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

Rorty, Richard. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, chap. 7. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.

——. “From Epistemology to Hermeneutics.” In Acta Philosophica Fennica, vol. 30, The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change. Edited by I. Niiniluoto and R. Tuomela. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1978.

Schmitt, Frederick, ed. Socializing Epistemology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994.

Shiner, Roger. “Wittgenstein and the Foundations of Knowledge.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 78 (1977–78): 103–124.

Sosa, Ernest. “On Groundless Belief.” Synthese 43 (1979): 453–460.

Williams, Michael. “Coherence, Justification, and Truth.” Review of Metaphysics 34 (1980): 243–272.

——. Groundless Belief. Oxford: Blackwell, 1977; 2d ed., Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.

——. Unnatural Doubts. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. On Certainty. Edited by G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969.

Epistemic Reliabilism

Armstrong, David M. Belief, Truth, and Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

(p.580) ——. “Self‐Profile.” In D. M. Armstrong, pp. 30–37. Edited by R. Bogdan. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984.

Audi, Robert. The Structure of Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

BonJour, Laurence. “Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology, pp. 53–73. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Cohen, Stewart. “Justification and Truth.” Philosophical Studies 46 (1984): 279–295.

Dretske, Fred I. “Conclusive Reasons.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (1971): 1–22.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 41–60. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. “The Pragmatic Dimension of Knowledge.” Philosophical Studies 40 (1981): 363–378.

——. Knowledge and the Flow of Information, chaps. 4 and 5. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981.

——. “Precis of Knowledge and the Flow of Information.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1983): 55–63.

Feldman, Richard. “Reliability and Justification.” The Monist 68 (1985): 159–174.

Feldman, Richard and Earl Conee. “Evidentialism.” Philosophical Studies 48 (1985): 15–34.

Firth, Roderick. “Epistemic Merit, Intrinsic and Instrumental.” In Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 55 (1981): 5–23.

Foley, Richard. “What's Wrong with Reliabilism?” The Monist 68 (1985): 188–202.

Friedman, Michael. “Truth and Confirmation.” Journal of Philosophy 76 (1979): 361–382.

Reprinted in Naturalizing Epistemology, pp. 147–168. Edited by H. Kornblith. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.

Ginet, Carl. “Contra Reliabilism.” The Monist 68 (1985): 175–187.

Goldman, Alvin I. “Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976): 771–791.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 120–145. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. Epistemology and Cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.

——. “The Internalist Conception of Justification.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology, pp. 27–52. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

——. Liaisons. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.

——. “What Is Justified Belief?” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 1–23. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

Heil, John. “Reliability and Epistemic Merit.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (1984): 327–338.

Kornblith, Hilary. “Beyond Foundationalism and the Coherence Theory.” Journal of Philosophy 72 (1980): 597–612.

——. “Ever Since Descartes.” The Monist 68 (1985): 264–276.

——. “Justified Belief and Epistemically Responsible Action.” Philosophical Review 92 (1983): 33–48.

——. “The Psychological Turn.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 60 (1982): 238–253.

——, ed. Naturalizing Epistemology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994.

Kvanvig, Johathan. The Intellectual Virtues and the Life of the Mind. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

(p.581) Lycan William G. “Armstrong's Theory of Knowing.” In D. M. Armstrong, pp. 139–160. Edited by R. Bogdan. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984.

——. Judgment and Justification. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Montmarquet, James. Epistemic Virtue and Doxastic Responsibility. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1993.

Moser, Paul K. Empirical Justification, chap. 4 and appendix. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985.

——. “Knowledge without Evidence.” Philosophia 15 (1985): 109–116.

Nozick, Robert. Philosophical Explanations, chap. 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Pappas, George S. “Non‐Inferential Knowledge.” Philosophia 12 (1982): 81–98.

Pastin, Mark. “Knowledge and Reliability: A Critical Study of D. M. Armstrong's Belief, Truth, and Knowledge.” Metaphilosophy 9 (1978): 150–162.

——. “The Multi‐perspectival Theory of Knowledge.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology, pp. 97–111. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Pollock, John. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986; 2d ed. (with J. Cruz), 1999.

——. “Reliability and Justified Belief.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1984): 103–114.

Schmitt, Frederick F. “Justification as Reliable Indication or Reliable Process.” Philosophical Studies 40 (1981): 409–417.

——. Knowledge and Belief. London: Routledge, 1992.

——. “Knowledge as Tracking.” Topoi 4 (1985): 73–80.

——. “Knowledge, Justification, and Reliability.” Synthese 55 (1983): 209–229.

——. “Reliability, Objectivity, and the Background of Justification.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (1984): 1–15.

Shope, Robert K. “Cognitive Abilities, Conditionals, and Knowledge: A Response to Nozick.” Journal of Philosophy 81 (1984): 29–47.

Sosa, Ernest. Knowledge in Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Swain, Marshall. “Justification and the Basis of Belief.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 25–49. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

——. “Justification and Reliable Belief.” Philosophical Studies 40 (1981): 389–407.

—— “Justification, Reasons, and Reliability.” Synthese 64 (1985): 69–92.

——. Reasons and Knowledge, chap. 4. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Van Cleve, James. “Reliability, Justification, and the Problem of Induction.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy , vol. 9, pp. 555–567. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

Naturalized Epistemology

Almeder, Robert. Harmless Naturalism. Chicago: Open Court, 1998.

——. “On Naturalizing Epistemology.” American Philosophical Quarterly 27 (1990): 263–279.

(p.582) Bogen, James. “Traditional Epistemology and Naturalistic Replies to its Skeptical Critics.” Synthese 64 (1985): 195–223.

Boyd, Richard. “Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology.” In PSA 80 (1982), vol. 2. East Lansing, Mich.: Philosophy of Science Association.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, chap. 15. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

Devitt, Michael. Realism and Truth, chap. 5. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984; 2d ed., 1991.

Goldman, Alvin I. Epistemology and Cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.

——. “Epistemology and the Psychology of Belief.” The Monist 61 (1978): 525–535.

——. “Epistemology and the Theory of Problem Solving.” Synthese 55 (1983): 21–48.

——. Liaisons. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.

——. “The Relation between Epistemology and Psychology.” Synthese 64 (1985): 29–68.

——. “Varieties of Cognitive Appraisal.” Noûs 13 (1979): 23–38.

Haack, Susan. “The Relevance of Psychology to Epistemology.” Metaphilosophy 6 (1975): 161–176.

Kitcher, Philip. “The Naturalists Return.” Philosophical Review 101 (1992): 53–114.

Kornblith, Hilary, ed. Naturalizing Epistemology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985; 2d ed., 1994.

Lycan, William G. “Epistemic Value.” Synthese 64 (1985): 137–164.

Moser, Paul K., and David Yandell. “Against Naturalizing Rationality.” In Gerhard Preyer and Georg Peter, eds. The Contextualization of Rationality, pp. 81–94. Paderborn: Mentis, 2000.

Putnam, Hilary. “Why Reason Can't Be Naturalized.” In Putnam, Realism and Reason: Philosophical Papers, vol. 3, pp. 229–247. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Quine, W. V. “The Nature of Natural Knowledge.” In Mind and Language: Wolfson College Lectures, pp. 67–81. Edited by S. Guttenplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Rorty, Richard. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, chap. 5. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Siegel, Harvey. “Empirical Psychology, Naturalized Epistemology, and First Philosophy.” Philosophy of Science 51 (1984): 667–676.

——. “Justification, Discovery, and the Naturalizing of Epistemology.” Philosophy of Science 47 (1980): 297–321.

——. “Naturalism, Instrumental Rationality, and the Normativity of Epistemology.” In Gerhard Preyer and Georg Peter, eds. The Contextualization of Rationality, pp. 95–107. Paderborn: Mentis, 2000.

Sosa, Ernest. “Nature Unmirrored, Epistemology Naturalized.” Synthese 55 (1983): 49–72.

Stroud, Barry. “The Significance of Naturalized Epistemology.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 6, Analytic Philosophy, pp. 455–471. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1981.

Reprinted in Naturalizing Epistemology, pp. 71–89. Edited by H. Kornblith. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.

——. The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism, chap. 6. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984.

Swain, Marshall. “Epistemics and Epistemology.” Journal of Philosophy 75 (1978): 523–525.

(p.583) Gettier Problem

Audi, Robert. “Defeated Knowledge, Reliability, and Justification.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology, pp. 75–95. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Chisholm, Roderick M. “Knowledge as Justified True Belief.” In Chisholm, The Foundations of Knowing, pp. 43–49. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, chap. 2. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

Dretske, Fred I. “Conclusive Reasons.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (1971): 1–22.

Feldman, Richard. “An Alleged Defect in Gettier Counter‐Examples.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 52 (1974): 68–69.

Gettier, Edmund. “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?.” Analysis 23 (1963): 121–123.

Goldman, Alvin. “A Causal Theory of Knowing.” Journal of Philosophy 64 (1967): 357–372.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 67–86. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. “Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976): 771–791. Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 120–45.

Harman, Gilbert. “Knowledge, Inference, and Explanation.” American Philosophical Quarterly 5 (1968): 164–173.

——. “Knowledge, Reasons, and Causes.” Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970): 841–855.

——. “Reasoning and Evidence One Does Not Possess.” In Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5, Studies in Epistemology, pp. 163–182. Edited by P. French et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

——. Thought, chaps. 7–9. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Kaplan, Mark. “It's Not What You Know That Counts.” Journal of Philosophy 82 (1985): 350–363.

Klein, Peter D. “Knowledge, Causality, and Defeasibility.” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976): 792–812.

——. “A Proposed Definition of Propositional Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 68 (1971): 471–482.

——. “Misleading Evidence and the Restoration of Justification.” Philosophical Studies 37 (1980): 81–89.

——. “Real Knowledge.” Synthese 55 (1983): 143–164.

Lehrer, Keith. “The Gettier Problem and the Analysis of Knowledge.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 65–78. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

——. Knowledge, chap. 9. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.

——. “Self‐Profile.” In Keith Lehrer, pp. 3–104. Edited by R. Bogdan. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1981.

——. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.

Moser, Paul K. Knowledge and Evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

——. “Propositional Knowledge.” Philosophical Studies 52 (1987): 91–114.

Reprinted in Ernest Sosa, ed., Knowledge and Justification, vol. 1, pp. 99–124. Aldershort, U.K.: Dartmouth, 1994.

(p.584) Roth, Michael D, and Leon Galis, eds. Knowing: Essays in the Analysis of Knowledge. New York: Random House, 1970.

Shope, Robert K. The Analysis of Knowing. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.

——. “Knowledge and Falsity.” Philosophical Studies 36 (1979): 389–405.

——. “Knowledge as Justified Belief in a True, Justified Proposition.” Philosophy Research Archives 5 (1979): 1–36.

Slaght, Ralph. “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?: A Selective Critical Survey of Recent Work.” Philosophy Research Archives 3 (1977): 1–135.

Sosa, Ernest. “How Do You Know?.” American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1974): 113–122.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 184–205. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. “Epistemic Presupposition.” In Justification and Knowledge, pp. 79–92. Edited by G. S. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

Swain, Marshall. “Epistemic Defeasibility.” American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1974): 15–25.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 160–183. Edited by G. S. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. “Knowledge, Causality, and Justification.” Journal of Philosophy 69 (1972): 291–300. Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 87–99.

——. Reasons and Knowledge. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981.

——. “Reasons, Causes, and Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 75 (1978): 229–249.

Thalberg, Irving. “In Defense of Justified True Belief.” Journal of Philosophy 66 (1969): 794–803.

Williams, Michael. “Inference, Justification, and the Analysis of Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 75 (1978): 249–263.

Epistemological Skepticism

Amico, Robert. The Problem of the Criterion. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1993.

Brueckner, Anthony L. “Skepticism and Epistemic Closure.” Philosophical Topics 13 (1985): 89–117.

Burnyeat, Myles, ed. The Skeptical Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Butchvarov, Panayot. Skepticism about the External World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Chisholm, Roderick M. “The Problem of the Criterion.” In Chisholm, The Foundations of Knowing, pp. 61–75. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

Clay, Marjorie, and Keith Lehrer, eds. Knowledge and Skepticism. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1989.

Cornman, James W. Skepticism, Justification, and Explanation. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.

Dancy, Jonathan. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, chap. 1. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985.

DeRose, Keith, and Ted Warfield, eds. Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

(p.585) Floridi, Luciano. Scepticism and the Foundation of Epistemology. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Fogelin, Robert. Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Foley, Richard. Working without a Net. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

——. Review of Peter Klein's Certainty: A Refutation of Scepticism. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research 4 (1984).

Fumerton, Richard. Metaepistemology and Skepticism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1995.

Greco, John. Putting Skeptics in their Place. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Hilpinen, Risto. “Skepticism and Justification.” Synthese 55 (1983): 165–174.

Huemer, Michael. Skepticism and the Veil of Perception. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Johnson, Oliver. “Ignorance and Irrationality: A Study in Contemporary Scepticism.” Philosophy Research Archives 5 (1979): 368–417.

——. Skepticism and Cognitivism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Klein, Peter D. Certainty: A Refutation of Scepticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1981.

——. “Real Knowledge.” Synthese 55 (1983): 143–164.

Lehrer, Keith. Knowledge, chap. 10. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.

——. “The Problem of Knowledge and Skepticism.” In James Cornman, Keith Lehrer, and George Pappas, Philosophical Problems and Arguments: An Introduction, 3d ed., chap. 2. New York: Macmillan, 1982.

——. Theory of Knowledge. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.

——. “Why Not Scepticism?” Philosophical Forum 2 (1971): 283–298. Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 346–363.

Luper‐Foy, Steven, ed. The Possibility of Knowledge: Nozick and his Critics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986.

Moser, Paul K. “Justified Doubt without Certainty.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 65 (1984): 97–104.

——. Knowledge and Evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

——. Philosophy After Objectivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

——. “Skepticism Undone?” In The Philosophy of Ernest Sosa. Edited by John Greco. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 2002.

Naess, Arne. Skepticism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.

Nathan, N. M. L. The Price of Doubt. London: Routledge, 2001.

Nozick, Robert. Philosophical Explanations, chap. 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Oakley, I. T. “An Argument for Skepticism Concerning Justified Belief.” American Philosophical Quarterly 13 (1976): 221–228.

O'Connor, D. J., and Brian Carr. Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, chap. 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.

Odegard, Douglas. “Chisholm's Approach to Scepticism.” Metaphilosophy 12 (1981): 7–12.

——. Knowledge and Skepticism. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1983.

Pappas, George. “Some Forms of Epistemological Scepticism.” In Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 309–316. Edited by G. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Rescher, Nicholas. Scepticism: A Critical Reappraisal. Oxford: Blackwell, 1979.

(p.586) Roth, M. D., and G. Ross, eds. Doubting. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990.

Slote, Michael. Reason and Scepticism. New York: Humanities, 1970.

Sosa, Ernest, and Enrique Villanueva, eds. Skepticism. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000.

Strawson, Peter F. Skepticism and Naturalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Stroud, Barry. The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984.

——. “The Significance of Scepticism.” In Transcendental Arguments and Science. Edited by P. Bieri et al. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979.

——. “Skepticism and the Possibility of Knowledge.” Journal of Philosophy 81 (1984): 545–551.

Unger, Peter. “A Defense of Skepticism.” Philosophical Review 80 (1971): 198–218.

Reprinted in Essays on Knowledge and Justification, pp. 317–336. Edited by G. Pappas and M. Swain. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. Ignorance. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.

——. “Two Types of Scepticism.” Philosophical Studies 25 (1974): 77–96.

Vinci, Thomas. Critical Notice of Peter Klein's Certainty: A Refutation of Scepticism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1984): 125–145.

Watkins, John. Science and Scepticism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Williams, Michael. Unnatural Doubts. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. On Certainty. Edited by G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969.

Woods, Michael. “Scepticism and Natural Knowledge.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 54 (1980): 231–248.