Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Golden FettersThe Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939$

Barry Eichengreen

Print publication date: 1996

Print ISBN-13: 9780195101133

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195101138.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.401) References

(p.401) References

Source:
Golden Fetters
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abreu, Marcelo de Paiva (1984), “Argentina and Brazil During the 1930s: The Impact of British and American International Policies,” in Rosemary Thorp (ed.) Latin America in the 1930s, London: Macmillan, pp. 144–162.

Aftalion, Albert (1927), Monnaie, prix et change, Paris: Société Anonyme du Recueil Sirey.

Aftalion, Albert (1932), L'or et sa distribution mondiale, Paris: Librarie Dalloz.

Albert, Bill (1988), South America and the First World War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Albert, Bill and Paul Henderson (1981), “Latin America and the Great War: A Preliminary Survey of Developments in Chile, Peru, Argentina and Brazil,” World Development 9, pp. 717–734.

Alberti, Mario (1931), Banche di Emissione, Moneta e Politica Monetaria in Italia dal 1849 al 1929, Milan: Universita Commerciale Luigi Bucconi.

Alesina, Alberto (1988), “The End of Big Public Debts,” in Francesco Giavazzi and Luigi Spaventa (eds), High Public Debt: The Italian Experience, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 34–79.

Alesina, Alberto and Allan Drazen (1989), “Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?” unpublished manuscript, Harvard University and Tel Aviv University.

Alesina, Alberto, Alessandro Prati, and Guido Tabellini (1990), “Debt Management and Debt Panics in Italy,” in Rudiger Dornbusch and Mario Draghi (eds.), Public Debt Management: Theory and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 94–117.

Anderson, B. M., Jr. (1919), Effects of the War on Money, Credit and Banking in France and the United States, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Preliminary Economic Study of the War No. 15, New York: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, B. M., Jr. (1921), “Procedure in Paying the German Indemnity,” Chase Economic Bulletin 1, no. 4, pp. 3–21.

Anderson, B. M., Jr. (1930), “The ‘Free Gold’ of the Federal Reserve System and the Cheap Money Policy,” Chase Economic Bulletin X (September), pp. 3–25.

Angell, James W. (1926), The Theory of International Prices, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Angell, James W. (1932), The Recovery of Germany, New Haven: Yale University Press (revised ed.).

Angell, James W. (1933), Financial Foreign Policy of the United States, New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Ansiaux, M. (1910), Principes de la politique régulatrice des changes, Paris: Marcel Rivière.

Arndt, H. W. (1944), The Economic Lessons of the Nineteen‐Thirties, London: Frank Cass. (p.402)

Ayres, Leonard P. (1939), Turning Points in Business Cycles, New York: The Macmillan Co.

Babé, Marcel (1925), La Technique des Emprunts de Guerre Français, Paris: Marcel Girard.

Bailey, Thomas A. (1944), Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace, New York: Quadrangle Books.

Balderston, T. (1977), “The German Business Cycle in the 1920s: A Comment,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 30, pp. 159–161.

Balderston, T. (1982), “The Origins of Economic Instability in Germany, 1924–1930: Market Forces Versus Economic Policy,” Vierteljabrschrift für Sozial und Wirtschafts‐geschichte 69, pp. 488–514.

Balderston, T. (1983), “The Beginning of the Depression in Germany, 1927–30: Investment and the Capital Market,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 36. pp. 395–415.

Balderston, T. (1989), “War Finance and Inflation in Britain and Germany, 1914–1918,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 42, pp. 222–244.

Balderston, T. (1990), “Fiscal Imbalances 1924–1928,” unpublished manuscript, University of Manchester.

Ballantine, Arthur A. (1948), “When All the Banks Closed,” Harvard Business Review XXVI, pp. 129–143.

Bank of France (various years), Compte Rendu au Nom du Conseil Général de la Banque, Paris: Imprimerie Paul Dupont.

Bank for International Settlements (various years), Annual Report, Basle: BIS.

Bank for International Settlements (1953), The Sterling Area, Basle: BIS.

Barnard, Alan (1986a), “Some Government Financial Data 1850 to 1982,” Source Paper No. 13, Australian National University.

Barnard, Alan (1986b), “Commonwealth Government Finances, 1901–1982: A Handy Compendium,” Source Papers in Economic History No. 17, Australian National University.

Barsky, Robert and J. Bradford DeLong (1990), “Bull and Bear Markets in the 20th Century,” Journal of Economic History 50, pp. 265–282.

Barsky, Robert, N. Gregory Mankiw, Jeffrey Miron, and David Weill (1988), “The World‐wide Change in the Behavior of Interest Rates and Prices in 1914,” European Economic Review 32, pp. 1123–1154.

Barro, Robert J. (1979), “On the Determination of the Public Debt,” Journal of Political Economy 87, pp. 940–971.

Baudhuin, Fernand (1936), La dévaluation du franc Belge, Brussels: Edition Universelle (rev. ed.)

Baudhuin, Fernand (1946), Histoire économique de la Belgique 1914–1939, Brussels: Emile Bruylant.

Beach, W. E. (1935), British International Gold Movements and Banking Policy, 1881–1913, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Beard, Charles A. (1922), Cross Currents in Europe To‐Day, Boston: Marshall Jones Company.

Beard, Charles A. and George H. A. Smith (1941), The Old Deal and the New, New York: Macmillan.

Beckhart, B. H. (1910 [1929]), The Banking System of Canada, New York: Henry Holt.

Beney, M. Ada (1936), Wages, Hours and Employment in the United States, New York: National Industrial Recovery Board.

Bennett, Edward W. (1962), Germany and the Diplomacy of the Financial Crisis, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Bergman, Karl (1927), The History of Reparations, London: E. Benn. (p.403)

Bernanke, Ben (1983), “Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression,” American Economic Review 73, pp. 257–276.

Bernanke, Ben and Harold James (1991), “The Gold Standard, Deflation and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison,” in R. Glenn Hubbard (ed.), Financial Markets and Financial Crises, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 33–68.

Bernard, Philippe and Henri Dubief (1985), The Decline of the Third Republic 1914–1938, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bernstein, Michael (1987), The Great Depression: Delayed Recovery and Economic Change in America, 1929–1939, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bertrand, Charles L., ed. (1977), Revolutionary Situations in Europe, 1917–1922, Montreal: Interuniversity Centre for European Studies.

Birck, L. V. (1927), The Public Debt, New York: The Dial Press.

Blackburn, Keith and Michael Christensen (1989), “Monetary Policy and Policy Credibility,” Journal of Economic Literature XXVII, pp. 1–45.

Block, Fred L. (1977), The Origins of International Economic Disorder, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bloomfield, Arthur I. (1950), Capital Imports and the American Balance of Payments 1934–39, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bloomfield, Arthur I. (1959), Monetary Policy under the International Gold Standard, 1880–1914, New York: Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Bloomfield, Arthur I. (1963), “Short‐Term Capital Movements under the Pre‐1914 Gold Standard,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 11, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Blum, John Morton (1959), From the Morgenthau Diaries: Years of Crisis 1928–1938, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (various years), Annual Report, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (various years), Federal Reserve Bulletin, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1943), Banking and Monetary Statistics, Washington, D.C.: National Capital Press.

Bogart, Ernest Ludlow (1921), War Costs and Their Financing, New York: D. Appleton and Company.

Bonn, Moritz Julius (1925), The Crisis of European Democracy, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Borchardt, K. (1984), “Could and Should Germany Have Followed Great Britain in Leaving the Gold Standard?” Journal of European Economic History 13, pp. 471–498.

Borchardt, K. (1990), “A Decade of Debate About Brüning's Economic Policy,” in J. Baron von Kruedener (ed.), Economic Crisis and Political Collapse: The Weimar Republic 1924–1933, New York: Berg.

Borchardt, K. (1991), Perspectives on Modern German Economic History and Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bordo, Michael D. and Lars Jonung (1987), The Long‐Run Behavior of the Velocity of Circulation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bordo, Michael D. and Angela Redish (1987), “Credible Commitment and Exchange Rate Stability: Canada's Interwar Experience,” unpublished.

Bouvier, Jean (1984), “The French Banks, Inflation and the Economic Crisis, 1919–1939,” Journal of European Economic History 13 (special issue), pp. 29–80. (p.404)

Boyce, Robert W. D. (1987), British Capitalism at the Crossroads, 1919–1932, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bresciani‐Turroni, Constantino (1937), The Economics of Inflation, London: Allen and Unwin.

Brocard, Lucien (1932), “Face à la crise: Le credit,” Revue des Deux Mondes (15 March), pp. 277–295.

Brown, Carolyn (1985), “The Inflationary Effects of the NIRA and U.S. Gold Policy, 1933–1934,” unpublished manuscript, Harvard University.

Brown, E. Cary (1956), “Fiscal Policy in the 1930s: A Reappraisal,” American Economic Review 46, pp. 857–879.

Brown, William Adams (1940), The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted, 1914–1934, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Brunner, Karl and Allan H. Meltzer (1968), “What Did We Learn from the Monetary Experience of the United States in the Great Depression?” Canadian Journal of Economics 1, pp. 334–348.

Brynes, James (1958), All in One Lifetime, New York: Harper.

Bryce, Robert B. (1942), “Basic Issues in Postwar International Economic Relations,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 32, pp. 165–181.

Buiter, Willem and Vittorio Grilli (1990), “The ‘Gold Standard Paradox’ and Its Resolution,” unpublished manuscript, Yale University.

Burgess, W. R. (1929), “The Money Market in 1928,” Review of Economic Statistics 11, pp. 19–25.

Burgess, W. R. (1930), “The Money Market in 1929,” Review of Economic Statistics 12, pp. 15–20.

Burnett, P. A. (1940), Reparations at the Paris Peace Conference from the Standpoint of the American Delegation, New York: Colombia University Press.

Butlin, M. W. and P. M. Boyce (1989), “Monetary Policy in Depression and Recovery,” in R. G. Gregory and N. G. Butlin (eds.), Recovery From the Depression: Australia and the World Economy in the 1930s, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 193–216.

Butlin, N. G. (1984), “Select Comparative Economic Statistics, 1900–1940,” Source Paper No. 4, Department of Economic History, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University.

Cagan, Philip (1956), “The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation,” in Milton Friedman (ed.), Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 25–117.

Cairncross, Alec and Barry Eichengreen (1983), Sterling in Decline, Oxford: Blackwell.

Caillaux, Joseph (1932), The World Crisis, London: Cobden‐Sanderson.

Campbell, Peter (1958), French Electoral Systems and Elections 1789–1957, New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Capie, Forrest and Michael Collins (1983), The Interwar British Economy: A Statistical Abstract, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Capie, Forrest and Alan Webber (1985), A Monetary History of the United Kingdom, 1870–1982, Volume 1: Data, Sources, Methods, London: Allen & Unwin.

Carstairs, Andrews McLaren (1980), A Short History of Electoral Systems in Western Europe, London: George Allen & Unwin.

Carsten, F. L. (1972), Revolution in Central Europe 1918–1919, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cassel, Gustav (1922), Money and Foreign Exchange After 1914, London: Constable & Co.

Cassel, Gustav (1936), The Downfall of the Gold Standard, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (p.405)

Chalkley, H. O. (1929), Commercial, Economic and Financial Conditions in the Argentine Republic, Department of Overseas Trade, London: HMSO.

Chandler, Lester V. (1958), Benjamin Strong: Central Banker, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Charbonnet, Germain (1922), La politique financiere de la France pendant la guerre, Bordeaux: Imprimerie de L'Université.

Chlepner, Ben Serge (1943), Belgian Banking and Banking Theory, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Clarke, Stephen V. O. (1967), Central Bank Cooperation 1924–1931, New York: Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Clarke, Stephen V. O. (1973), “The Reconstruction of the International Monetary System: The Attempts of 1922 and 1933,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 33, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Clarke, Stephen V. O. (1977), “Exchange‐Rate Stabilization in the Mid‐1930s: Negotiating the Tripartite Agreement,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 41, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Clarke, Truman (1986), “Interest Rate Seasonals and the Federal Reserve,” Journal of Political Economy 94, pp. 76–125.

Clay, Henry (1957), Lord Norman, London: Macmillan.

Cohen, Jon S. (1972), “The 1927 Revaluation of the Lira: A Study in Political Economy,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 25, pp. 642–654.

Comision Economica par America Latina (1959), Analisis y proyecciones del desarrolo economico, vol. v, Mexico City: CEPAL.

Committee Appointed on the Recommendation of the London Conference (1931), Report, London: B.I.S.

Committee on Currency and Foreign Exchanges After the War (1919), First Interim Report, Cd. 9182, London: HMSO.

Committee on Finance and Industry (1931), Minutes of Evidence, Cmd. 3879, London: HMSO.

Condliffe, John Bell (1931), World Economic Survey 1930–31, Geneva: League of Nations.

Condliffe, John Bell (1932), World Economic Survey 1931–32, Geneva: League of Nations.

Cooper, Richard N. (1968), The Economics of Interdependence, New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Cooper, Richard N. (1989), “International Cooperation in Public Health as a Prologue to Macroeconomic Cooperation” in Richard Cooper, Barry Eichengreen, Randall Henning, Gerald Holtham, and Robert Putnam, Can Nations Agree? Issues in International Cooperation, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, pp. 178–254.

Cooper, Russell and Andrew John (1988), “Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models,” Quarterly Journal of Economics CIII, pp. 441–460.

Copland, D. B. (1925), “Australian Banking and Exchange,” Economic Record 2, pp. 17–28.

Copland, D. B. (1934), Australia in the World Crisis 1929–33, London: Macmillan.

Costigliola, Frank (1977), “Anglo‐American Financial Rivalry in the 1920s,” Journal of Economic History 37, pp. 911–934.

Costigliola, Frank (1984), Awkward Dominion: American Political, Economic and Cultural Relations with Europe, 1919–1937, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Courchene, Thomas J. (1969), “An Analysis of the Canadian Money Supply: 1925–1934,” Journal of Political Economy 77, pp. 363–391.

Cox, Gary W. (1989), “Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems,” unpublished paper, Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego.

Cross, Ira (1923), Domestic and Foreign Exchange, London: Macmillan. (p.406)

Curtis, C. A. (1932), “The Canadian Monetary Situation,” Journal of Political Economy XL, pp. 314–337.

de Cecco, Marcello (1984), The International Gold Standard: Money and Empire, London: Frances Pinter (second ed.).

DeLong, J. Bradford (1987), Returning to the Gold Standard: A Macroeconomic History of Britain and France in the 1920s, unpublished dissertation, Harvard University.

de Swaan, Abram (1973), Coalition Theories and Cabinet Formations, Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Debeir, Jean Claude (1978), “La crise du franc de 1924: Un exemple de spéculation international,” Relations Internationales 13, pp. 29–49.

Decamps, Jules (1922), Les changes étrangers, Paris: F. Alcan.

Dick, Trevor J. O. and John E. Floyd (1987), Canada and the Gold Standard, 1871–1913 (forthcoming).

Dodd, Lawrence C. (1976), Coalitions in Parliamentary Government, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Dornbusch, Rudiger (1976), “Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics,” Journal of Political Economy 84, pp. 1161–1176.

Dornbusch, Rudiger (1987), “Lessons from the German Inflation Experience of the 1920s,” in Rudiger Dornbusch, Stanley Fischer, and John Bossons (eds.), Macroeconomics and Finance: Essays in Honor of Franco Modigliani, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, pp. 337–366.

Dornbusch, Rudiger (1990), “Experiences with Extreme Monetary Instability,” Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper No. 455.

Dowd, Lawrence P. (1957), “The Impact of Exchange Policy on the International Economy of Japan During the Period 1930–1940,” Kobe Economic and Business Review 4, pp. 1–58.

Drummond, Ian M. (1979), “London, Washington, and the Management of the France, 1936–39,” Princeton Studies in International Finance, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Dulles, Eleanor Lansing (1929), The French Franc 1914–1928, New York: Macmillan.

Duverger, Maurice (1954), Political Parties, New York: John Wiley (second ed.).

Eaton, Jonathan (1987), “Public Debt Guarantees and Private Capital Flight,” World Bank Economic Review 1, pp. 337–396.

Economic and Financial Conference (Genoa) (1922), Resolutions of the Financial Commission Recommending Certain Resolutions for the Adoption of the Conference. Reports of the Committee of Experts, Cmd. 1650, London: HMSO.

Edelstein, Michael (1982), Overseas Investment in the Age of High Imperialism, New York: Columbia University Press.

Eichengreen, Barry (1981), “Sterling and the Tariff, 1929–32,” Princeton Studies in International Finance, No. 48, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Eichengreen, Barry (1983), “The Causes of British Cycles, 1833–1913,” Journal of European Economic History 12, pp. 145–161.

Eichengreen, Barry (1984a), “Currency and Credit in the Gilded Age,” in Gary Saxonhouse and Gavin Wright (eds.), Technique, Spirit and Form in the Making of the Modern Economies: Essays in Honor of William N. Parker, New York: JAI Press, pp. 87–114.

Eichengreen, Barry (1984b), “Central Bank Cooperation Under the Interwar Gold Standard,” Explorations in Economic History 21, pp. 64–87.

Eichengreen, Barry (1985), “International Policy Coordination in Historical Perspective: A View from the Interwar Years,” in Willem Buiter and Richard Marston (eds.), International Economic Policy Coordination, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 139–178. (p.407)

Eichengreen, Barry (1986a), “Understanding 1921–1927: Inflation and Economic Recovery in the 1920s,” Rivista di Storia Economica, new ser., 5, pp. 34–66.

Eichengreen, Barry (1986b), “The Bank of France and the Sterilization of Gold, 1926–32,” Explorations in Economic History 23, pp. 56–84.

Eichengreen, Barry (1987), “Conducting the International Orchestra: Bank of England Leadership Under the Classical Gold Standard, 1880–1913,” Journal of International Money and Finance 6, pp. 5–29.

Eichengreen, Barry (1988a), “Did International Economic Forces Cause the Great Depression?” Contemporary Policy Issues 6, pp. 90–114.

Eichengreen, Barry (1988b), “The U.S. Capital Market and Foreign Lending, 1920–55,” in Jeffrey Sachs (ed.), Developing Country Debt and Economic Performance, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 107–155.

Eichengreen, Barry (1989a), “Hegemonic Stability Theories of the International Monetary System,” in Richard Cooper, Barry Eichengreen, Randall Henning, Gerald Holtham, and Robert Putnam, Can Nations Agree? Issues in International Cooperation, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, pp. 255–298.

Eichengreen, Barry (1989b), “The Political Economy of the Smoot Hawley Tariff,” Research in Economic History 11, pp. 1–44.

Eichengreen, Barry (1989c), “Resolving Debt Crises: An Historical Perspective,” in Sebastian Edwards and Felipe Larrain (eds.), Debt, Adjustment and Recovery: Latin America's Prospects for Growth and Recovery, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 68–96.

Eichengreen, Barry (1989d), “Trade Deficits in the Long Run,” in A. Berger (ed.), The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences and Cures, Boston: Kluwer Academic, pp. 239–274.

Eichengreen, Barry (1989e), “The Comparative Performance of Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rate Regimes: Interwar Evidence,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 3097.

Eichengreen, Barry (1990a), “International Monetary Instability Between the Wars: Structural Flaws or Misguided Policies?” in Yoshio Suzuki, Junichi Miyake, and Mitauaki Okabe (eds.), The Future of the International Monetary System, Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, pp. 71–116.

Eichengreen, Barry (1990b), “The Capital Levy in Theory and Practice,” in R. Dornbusch and M. Dragi (eds.), Public Debt Management: Theory and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 191–220.

Eichengreen, Barry and T. J. Hatton, eds. (1988), Interwar Unemployment in International Perspective, Dordrecht and Boston: Martinus‐Nijhoff.

Eichengreen, Barry and Caroline James (1991), “Can Informal Coordination Stabilize Exchange Rates: Evidence from the 1936 Tripartite Agreement,” IBER Discussion Paper No. 91–162, University of California at Berkeley.

Eichengreen, Barry and Peter Lindert (1989), The International Debt Crisis in Historical Perspective, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Eichengreen, Barry and Richard Portes (1987), “The Anatomy of Financial Crises,” in Richard Portes and Alexander Swoboda (eds.), Threats to International Financial Stability, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 10–58.

Eichengreen, Barry and Richard Portes (1989), “After the Deluge: Default, Negotiation and Readjustment during the Interwar Years,” in Barry Eichengreen and Peter Lindert (eds.), The International Debt Crisis in Historical Perspective, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, pp. 12–47. (p.408)

Eichengreen, Barry and Jeffrey Sachs (1985), “Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s,” Journal of Economic History 45, pp. 925–946.

Eichengreen, Barry and Jeffrey Sachs (1986), “Competitive Devaluation and the Great Depression: A Theoretical Reassessment,” Economics Letters 22, pp. 67–71.

Eichengreen, Barry and Marc Uzan (1990), “The 1933 World Economic Conference as an Instance of Failed International Cooperation,” IBER Discussion Paper 90–149, University of California at Berkeley.

Einzig, Paul (1931a), The Fight for Financial Supremacy, London: Macmillan.

Einzig, Paul (1931b) Behind the Scenes of International Finance, London: Macmillan.

Einzig, Paul (1933), The Sterling‐Dollar‐Franc Tangle, New York: Macmillan.

Einzig, Paul (1937a), World Finance 1935–1937, London: Macmillan.

Einzig, Paul (1937b), The Theory of Forward Exchange, London: Macmillan.

Elliot, Arthur D. (1911), The Life of George Joachim Goschen, London: Longmans, Green.

Ellis, H. S. (1941), Exchange Control in Central Europe, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Emerson, Michael et al. (1990), One Market, One Money, Brussels: Commission of European Communities.

Epstein, Gerald and Thomas Ferguson (1984), “Monetary Policy, Loan Liquidation and Industrial Conflict: The Federal Reserve and the Open Market Operations of 1932,” Journal of Economic History XLIV, pp. 957–984.

Epstein, Klaus (1959), Matthias Erzberger and the Dilemma of German Democracy, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Falkus, M. E. (1975), “The German Business Cycle in the 1920s,” Economic History Review, sec. ser., 28, pp. 451–465.

Federal Reserve Board (1921), “Foreign Exchange Operations,” Federal Reserve Bulletin 7 (December), pp. 1402–1412.

Federal Reserve Board (1943), Banking and Monetary Statistics, Washington, D.C.: National Capital Press.

Feinstein, Charles (1972), National Income, Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom, 1855–1965, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Feis, Herbert (1930), Europe, the World's Banker, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Feis, Herbert (1966), 1933: Characters in Crisis, Boston: Little, Brown.

Feldman, Gerald D. (1977), Iron and Steel in the German Inflation, 1916–1923, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Felix, David (1971a), “Reparations Reconsidered with a Vengeance,” Central European History 4, pp. 171–179.

Felix, David (1971b), Walter Rathenau and the Weimar Republic, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Fetter, Frank (1931), Monetary Inflation in Chile, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Field, Alexander J. (1984), “A New Interpretation of the Onset of the Great Depression,” Journal of Economic History 44, pp. 489–498.

Fink, Carole (1984), The Genoa Conference: European Diplomacy, 1921–1922, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Fishlow, Albert (1986), “Lessons of the 1890's for the 1980's,” in Guillermo Calvo et al. (eds.), Debt, Stabilization and Development, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 19–47.

Fishlow, Albert (1987), “Market Forces or Group Interests: Inconvertible Currency in Pre1914 Latin America,” unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley.

Fishlow, Albert (1989), “Conditionality and Willingness to Pay: Some Parallels from the 1890s,” in Barry Eichengreen and Peter Lindert (eds.), The International Debt Crisis in Historical Perspective, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 86–105. (p.409)

Fisk, Harvey E. (1919), Our Public Debt, New York: Bankers Trust Company.

Fisk, Harvey E. (1922), French Public Finance in the Great War and To‐day, New York: Bankers Trust Company.

Flora, Peter (1983), State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe, 1815–1975, Volume 1, Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

Ford, A. G. (1956), “Argentina and the Baring Crisis of 1890,” Oxford Economic Papers 8, pp. 127–150.

Ford, A. G. (1962), The Gold Standard, 1880–1914: Britain and Argentina, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Fraga, Arminio (1986), “German Reparations and Brazilian Debt: A Comparative Study,” Essays in International Finance No. 163, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Franck, Louis (1927), La Stabilisation Monétaire en Belgique, Paris: Payot.

Frankel, Jeffrey A. (1988), “Obstacles to International Economic Policy Coordination,” Princeton Studies in International Finance no. 64, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Frankel, Jeffrey A. and K. Rockett (1988), “International Macroeconomic Policy Coordination When Policymakers Disagree on the True Model of the Economy,” American Economic Review 78, pp. 318–340.

Frankel, Jeffrey A. and Alan MacArthur (1988), “Political versus Currency Premia in International Real Interest Rate Differentials: A Study of Forward Rates for 24 Countries,” European Economic Review 32, pp. 1083–1114.

Fraser, Herbert Freeman (1933), Great Britain and the Gold Standard, London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd.

Freidel, Frank (1973), Franklin Roosevelt: Launching of the New Deal, Boston: Little, Brown.

Frenkel, Jacob A. (1977), “The Forward Exchange Rate, Expectations, and the Demand for Money during the German Hyperinflation,” American Economic Review 67, pp. 653–670.

Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwartz (1963), A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fritsch, Winston (1989), External Constraints on Economic Policy, Brazil 1889–1930, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Fukai, Eigo (1937), “The Recent Monetary Policy of Japan,” in A. D. Gayer (ed.), The Lessons of Monetary Experience, New York: Farrar and Rinehart, pp. 379–395.

Fulford, Roger (1953), Glyn's 1753–1953, London: Macmillan.

Galenson, Walter and Arnold Zellner (1957), “International Comparisons of Unemployment Rates,” in The Measurement and Behavior of Unemployment, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 439–580.

Gantenbein, James W. (1939), Financial Questions in United States Foreign Policy, New York: Columbia University Press.

Gardner, Richard N. (1956), Sterling‐Dollar Diplomacy, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gayer, Arthur D. (1937), Monetary Policy and Economic Stabilisation: A Study of the Gold Standard, London: Adam and Charles Black.

Germain‐Martin, Louis (1936), Le problème financier 1930–1936, Paris: Domat‐Montchristien.

Gide, M. Charles (1919), “French War Budgets for 1919–1920,” Economic Journal 29, pp. 129–137.

Gilbert, Charles (1970), American Financing of World War I, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Corp.

Giovannini, Albert (1989), “How Fixed Exchange Rate Systems Work: The Gold Standard, Bretton Woods and the EMS,” in Marcus Miller, Barry Eichengreen, and Richard Portes (eds.), Blueprints for Exchange Rate Management, New York: Academic Press, pp. 13–42. (p.410)

Goldenweiser, E. A. (1925), The Federal Reserve System in Operation, New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Goossens, Martine, Stefaan Peeters, and Guido Pepermans (1988), “Interwar Unemployment in Belgium,” in Barry Eichengreen and T.J. Hatton (eds.), Interwar Unemployment in International Perspective, Dordrecht: Kluwer Nijhoff, pp. 289–324.

Gourevitch, Peter (1984), “Breaking with Orthodoxy: The Politics of Economic Policy Responses to the Depression of the 1930s,” International Organization 38, pp. 95–129.

Grady, Henry F. (1927), British War Finance 1914–1919, New York: Columbia University Press.

Graham, Frank D. (1930), Exchange, Prices and Production in Hyperinflation in Germany, 1920–1923, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Grand, Georges (1928), Le franc d'hier et le franc d'aujourd'hui, Roustan, Paris et Delaunay: Clermont‐Ferrand.

Great Britain, Committee on the Currency and Bank of England Note Issues (1925), Report, London: HMSO.

Great Britain, Committee on Industry and Finance (Macmillan Committee) (1931), Report, London: HMSO.

Gregory, R. G., V. Ho, L. McDermott and J. Hagan (1988), “The Australian and U.S. Labor Markets in the 1930's,” in Barry Eichengreen and T.J. Hatton (eds.), Interwar Unemployment in International Persepective, Dordrecht: Kluwer Nijhoff, pp. 397–430.

Gregory, R. G., V. Ho, and L. McDermott (1989), “Sharing the Burden: The Australian Labor Market in the 1930s,” in R. G. Gregory and N. G. Butlin (eds.), Recovery From the Depression: Australia and the World Economy in the 1930s, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 217–245.

Gregory, T. E. (1935), The Gold Standard and its Future, New York: E. P. Dutton (third ed.).

Griffiths, R. T. and H. J. Langeveld (1987), “Economy and Politics,” in R. T. Griffiths (ed.), The Netherlands and the Gold Standard 1931–1936, Amsterdam: NEHA, pp. 1–18.

Grilli, Enzo R. and Maw‐Cheng Yang (1988), “Primary Commodity Prices, Manufactured Goods Prices, and the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries: What the Long Run Shows,” World Bank Economic Review 2, pp. 1–48.

Guttmann, William and Patricia Meehan (1975), The Great Inflation: Germany 1919–23, London: Gordon and Cremonesi.

Hacault, R. (1930), “Les caractéristiques de la presente crise économique,” Journal des économistes (October), pp. 221–223.

Haig, Robert Murray (1929), The Public Finances of Post‐War France, New York: Columbia University Press.

Hall, N. F. (1935), The Exchange Equalisation Account, London: Macmillan.

Halm, George N. (1945), International Monetary Cooperation, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Hamilton, James D. (1987), “Monetary Factors in the Great Depression,” Journal of Monetary Economics 13, pp. 1–25.

Hansen, Alvin H. (1938), Full Recovery or Stagnation?, New York: W. W. Norton.

Hardach, Gerd (1977), The First World War 1914–1918, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hardach, Gerd (1982), “The 1931 Crisis in Germany,” Paper presented to the Conference on “The 1931 Crisis and Its Aftermath,” Clare College, Cambridge, April. (p.411)

Hardach, Gerd (1984), “Banking and Industry in Germany in the Interwar Period 1919–1939,” Journal of European Economic History 13 (special issue), pp. 203–234.

Hardach, Karl (1980), The Political Economy of Germany in the Twentieth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Harding, William P. G. (1925), The Formative Period of the Federal Reserve System, Boston: Houghton‐Mifflin.

Hardy, Charles O. (1932), Credit Policies of the Federal Reserve System, Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Hardy, Charles O. (1936), Is There Enough Gold Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Harris, Jose (1972), Unemployment and Politics, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Harris, Seymour Edwin (1931), Monetary Problems of the British Empire, London: Macmillan.

Harris, S. R. S. (1935), Germany's Foreign Indebtedness, London: Oxford University Press.

Hawke, Gary R. (1971), “New Zealand and the Return to Gold in 1925,” Australian Economic History Review 10, pp. 48–58.

Hawke, Gary R. (1985), The Making of New Zealand, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. (1913), Good and Bad Trade, London: Constable.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. (1923 [1926]), Monetary Reconstruction, London: Longman.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. (1931 [1933]), The Gold Standard in Theory and Practice, London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. (1932), The Art of Central Banking, London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. (1933), Trade Depression and the Way Out, London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Headlam‐Morley, Agnes (1928), The New Democratic Constitutions of Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Helfferich, Karl (1927), Money, London: E. Benn Ltd.

Herlitz, Nils (1925), “Proportional Representation in Sweden,” American Political Science Review 19, pp. 582–592.

H.M. Government (1930), Agreements Concluded at the Hague Conference, January 1930, Cmd. 3484, London: HMSO.

Hermens, F. A. (1941), Democracy or Anarchy? A Study of Proportional Representation, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Hicks, J. R., U. K. Hicks, and L. Rostas (1941), The Taxation of War Wealth, Oxford: Clarendon Press (second ed.).

Hicks, Ursula K. (1938), The Finance of British Government, 1920–1936, London: Humphrey Milford.

Hirschman, Albert O. (1963), Journeys Toward Progress, New York: Norton.

Hobson, Charles Kenneth (1914), The Export of Capital, London: Constable and Company.

Hodson, H. V. (1938), Slump and Recovery, 1929–1937, London: Oxford University Press.

Hoffmann, Walther G. (1965), Das Wachstum der Deutchen Wirtschaft seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Berlin: Springer‐Verlag.

Hollander, Jacob H. (1919), War Borrowing: A Study of Treasury Certificates of Indebtedness of the United States, New York: Macmillan Co.

Holtfrerich, Carl‐Ludwig (1986a), “U.S. Capital Exports to Germany, 1919–1923 Compared to 1924–1929,” Explorations in Economic History 23, pp. 1–32.

Holtfrerich, Carl‐Ludwig (1986b), The German Inflation, 1914–1923, New York: Walter de Gruyter. (p.412)

Hoover, Herbert (1952), The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: The Great Depression 1929–1941, New York: Macmillan.

Horsefield, J. Keith (1969), The International Monetary Fund, 1945–1965, Washington, D.C.: IMF.

Howson, Susan (1975), Domestic Monetary Management in Britain, 1919–1938, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Howson, Susan (1980), “Sterling's Managed Float: The Operations of the Exchange Equalisation Account,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 46, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Hume, David (1752), “On the Balance of Trade,” in Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, vol. 1, 1898 ed., London: Longmans, Green, pp. 330–345.

Hume, L. J. (1970), “The Gold Standard and Deflation,” in Sidney Pollard (ed.), The Gold Standard and Employment Policies Between the Wars, London: Methuen, pp. 122–145.

International Labour Office (1938), I.L.O. Yearbook 1937–38, Geneva: I.L.O.

Irving, Stanley G. (1929), Financial, Commercial and Economic Conditions in Brazil, October 1928, Department of Overseas Trade, London: HMSO.

Iversen, Carl (1936), “The Importance of the International Margin: Some Lessons of Recent Danish and Swedish Monetary Experience,” in Jacob Viner et al. (eds.), Explorations in Economics: Notes and Essays Contributed in Honor of F. W. Taussig, New York: McGraw‐Hill, pp. 68–83.

Jack, D. T. (1927), The Restoration of European Currencies, London: P. S. King & Son Ltd.

Jackson, Julian (1985), The Politics of Depression in France, 1932–1936, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jackson, Julian (1988), The Popular Front in France: Defending Democracy, 1934–38, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

James, F. Cyral (1938), The Growth of Chicago Banks, New York: Harper & Brothers.

James, Harold (1984), “The Causes of the German Banking Crisis of 1931,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 38, pp. 68–87.

James, Harold (1985), The Reichsbank and Public Finance in Germany, 1924–1933, Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag.

James, Harold (1986), The German Slump: Politics and Economics, 1924–1936, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

James, Harold (1989), “What Is Keynesian about Deficit Financing? The Case of Interwar Germany,” unpublished.

Jervis, Robert (1976), Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Johnson, G. G. (1939), The Treasury and Monetary Policy, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Johnson, J. F. (1910), The Canadian Banking System, U.S. National Monetary Commission, Washington, D. C.: GPO.

Joint, E. J. (1930), Economic Conditions in the Argentine Republic, November 1929, Department of Overseas Trade, London: HMSO.

Jones, Joseph M., Jr. (1934), Tariff Retaliation, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Jones, Larry E. (1979), “Inflation, Revaluation and the Crisis of Middle Class Politics: A Study in the Dissolution of the German Party System,” Central European History 12, pp. 143–188.

Jonung, Lars (1979), “Cassel, Davidson and Heckscher on Swedish Monetary Policy—Confidential Report to the Riksbank in 1931,” Economy and History XXII, pp. 85–101. (p.413)

Jonung, Lars (1981), “The Depression in Sweden and the United States: A Comparison of Causes and Policies,” in Karl Brunner (ed.), The Great Depression Revisited, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 286–315.

Josephson, Matthew (1972), The Money Lords, New York: Weybright and Talley.

Kalecki, M. (1938), “The Lessons of the Blum Experiment,” Economic Journal XLVIII, pp. 26–41.

Kamii, Yoshi (1937), “Industrial Recovery in Japan: Its Causes and Social Effects,” International Labour Review 35, pp. 31–52.

Kaplan, Jacob J. and Günther Schleiminger (1989), The European Payments Union, Oxford: Clarendon.

Katz, Richard S. (1980), A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kaufman, Burton I. (1974), Efficiency and Expansion: Foreign Trade Organization in the Wilson Administration, 1913–1921, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Kenen, Peter B. (1990), “The Coordination of Macroeconomic Policies,” in William H. Branson, Jacob A. Frenkel, and Morris Goldstein (eds.), International Policy Coordination and Exchange Rate Fluctuations, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 63–102.

Kennedy, Susan Eastabrook (1973), The Banking Crisis of 1933, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Kent, Bruce (1989), The Spoils of War: The Politics, Economics, and Diplomacy of Reparations 1918–1922, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Keohane, Robert (1980), “The Theory of Hegemonic Stability and Changes in International Economic Regimes,” in Ole R. Holsti et al. (eds.), Change in the International System, Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 131–162.

Keohane, Robert (1984), After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Keynes, John Maynard (1913), Indian Currency and Finance, London: Macmillan and Co.

Keynes, John Maynard (1914), “War and the Financial System, August, 1914,” Economic Journal 24, pp. 460–486.

Keynes, John Maynard (1920), The Economic Consequences of the Peace, London: Macmillan and Co.

Keynes, John Maynard (1922), A Revision of the Treaty, London: Macmillan and Co.

Keynes, John Maynard (1923), A Tract on Monetary Reform, London: Macmillan and Co.

Keynes, John Maynard (1925), The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, reprinted in The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. IX, 1972 (ed. Donald Moggridge), New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 207–230.

Keynes, John Maynard (1929a), “Is There Enough Gold? The League of Nations Inquiry,” The Nation and Athenaeum, 19 January, reprinted in The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. XIX, 1981 (ed. Donald Moggridge), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 775–780.

Keynes, John Maynard (1929b), “The German Transfer Problem,” Economic Journal 39, pp. 1–7.

Keynes, John Maynard (1930), A Treatise on Money, London: Macmillan.

Keynes, John Maynard (1932), Essays in Persuasion, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Keyssar, A. (1986), Out of Work: The First Century of Unemployment in Massachusetts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kindleberger, Charles (1934), “Competitive Currency Depreciation Between Denmark and New Zealand,” Harvard Business Review XII, pp. 416–426. (p.414)

Kindleberger, Charles P. (1973 [1986]), The World in Depression, 1929–1939, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kirkaldy, A. W. (1921), British Finance During and After the War, 1914–1921, New York: I. Pitman.

Kisch, C. H. and W. A. Elkin (1930), Central Banks, London: Macmillan and Co.

Kitchin, J. (1929), “Gold Production: A Survey and Forecast,” Review of Economic Statistics 11, pp. 64–67.

Kjellstrom, Erik (1934), Managed Money: The Experience of Sweden, New York: Columbia University Press.

Kobayashi, U. (1930), The Basic Industries and the Social History of Japan, 1914–1918, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kooker, Judith L. (1976), “French Financial Diplomacy: The Interwar Years,” in Benjamin M. Rowland (ed.), Balance of Power or Hegemony: The Interwar Monetary System, New York: New York University Press, pp. 83–146.

Krugman, Paul (1988), “Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 2481.

Kuczynski, Robert R. (1932), Bankers' Profits from German Loans, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Kunz, Diane B. (1987), The Battle for Britain's Gold Standard in 1931, London: Croom Helm.

Kuznets, Simon (1938), Commodity Flow and Capital Formation, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Kydland, Finn and Edward Prescott (1977), “Rules Rather than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans,” Journal of Political Economy 85, pp. 473–491.

Lamartine Yates, Paul (1959), Forty Years of Foreign Trade, London: Allen & Unwin.

Large, David Clay (1990), Between Two Fires: Europe's Path in the 1930s, New York: Norton.

Larmour, Peter (1964), The French Radical Party in the 1930s, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Lary, Hal B. (1943), The United States in the World Economy, Washington D.C.: GPO.

Laursen, Karsten and Jorgen Pedersen (1964), The German Inflation, 1918–1923, Amsterdam: North Holland.

Lawson, W. R. (1915), British War Finance 1914–1915, New York: D. van Nostrand.

League of Nations (1920a), International Financial Conference (Brussels): Report of the Advisory Committee, London: Harrison and Sons Ltd.

League of Nations (1920b), International Financial Conference (Brussels): Monetary Problems No. XIII: Introduction and Joint Statement of Economic Experts, London: Harrison and Sons Ltd.

League of Nations (1926), Memorandum on Currency and Central Banks, 1913–1925, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations, Gold Delegation (1930), Interim Report, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1931a), Course and Phases of the World Economic Depression, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1931b), The Agricultural Crisis, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1932), Balances of Payments, 1930, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1933a), Monetary and Economic Conference Draft Annotated Agenda, C.48.M. 18, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1933b), Economic Survey 1932/33, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1935a), Economic Survey 1934/35, Geneva: League of Nations. (p.415)

League of Nations (1935b), Memorandum on Commercial Banking, 1929–1934, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1935c), Commercial Banks, 1929–1934, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1936a), Monetary Review 1935/36, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1936b), Economic Survey 1935/36, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1936c), Commercial Banks, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1936d), Commercial Banks, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1937a), Economic Survey 1936/37, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1937b), Money and Banking 1935/36, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1938a), World Production and Prices, 1937–1938, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1938b), Report on Exchange Control, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1938c), Monetary Review 1937/38, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1938d), Economic Survey 1937/38, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1939), Monetary Review, Geneva: League of Nations.

League of Nations (1946), The Course and Control of Inflation, Geneva: League of Nations.

Lee, Bradford A. (1989), “The Onset of Three Recoveries from the Great Depression,” unpublished paper, Naval War College.

Lees, Dennis S. (1953), “The Technique of Monetary Insulation, December 1932 to December 1937,” Economica, new series 20, pp. 341–355.

Leffingwell, R. C. (1921), “Discussion,” American Economic Review 11, pp. 30–36.

Lefranc, G. (1965), Histoire du Front Populaire, 1934–1938, Paris: Payot.

Leith‐Ross, Sir Frederick (1968), Money Talks: Fifty Years of International Finance: The Autobiography of Sir Fredrick Leith‐Ross, London: Hutchinson.

Lester, Richard A. (1937), “The Gold Parity Depression in Norway and Denmark, 1924–1928,” Journal of Political Economy 45, pp. 433–467.

Lester, Richard A. (1939), Monetary Experiments, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lewis, Cleona (1938), America's Stake in International Investments, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Lewis, W. A. (1949), Economic Survey, 1919–1939, London: Allen & Unwin.

Li, Zheng Yi et al. (1984), A New English‐Chinese Dictionary, New York: Commercial Press.

Liesse, André (1910), The Evolution of Credit and Banks in France, Senate Doc. No. 522, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Lijphart, Arend (1968), The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Lijphart, Arend (1977), Democracy in Plural Societies, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lijphart, Arend (1990), “The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, 1945–1985,” American Political Science Review 84, pp. 481–496.

Lindahl, Eric J. (1936), “Der Übergang zur Papier‐wahrung in Schweden 1913,” Weltwirt‐schaftsliches Archiv 43, pp. 82–96.

Lindert, Peter H. (1969), “Key Currencies and Gold, 1900–1913,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 24, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Lindley, Ernest K. (1933), The Roosevelt Revolution. First Phase, New York: Viking.

Lomax, J. Garnett (1931), Economic Conditions in Brazil, December, 1930, Department of Overseas Trade, London: HMSO.

Luzzatti, Luigi (1908), “Une conférence internationale pour le paix monétaire,” Compte rendu des séances de l'Académie des Sciences morales et politiques, Paris: Picard, vol. 1, pp. 358–368. (p.416)

Lyman, Richard W. (1957), The First Labour Government, 1924, London: Chapman & Hall.

McDougall, Walter A. (1978), France's Rhineland Diplomacy, 1914–1924, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

McNeil, William C. (1986), American Money and the Weimar Republic, New York: Columbia University Press.

McVey, Frank L. (1918), The Financial History of Great Britain, 1914–1918, New York: Oxford University Press.

Machlup, Fritz (1964), International Payments, Debts and Gold, New York: Scribner.

Madden, John T. and Marcus Nadler (1935), The International Money Markets, New York: Prentice‐Hall.

Maddison, Angus (1985), Two Crises: Latin America and Asia, 1929–1938 and 1973–83, Paris: OECD.

Maier, Charles S. (1975), Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany and Italy in the Decade after World War I, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Maizels, Alfred (1970), Growth and Trade, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Makinen, Gail E. and Thomas G. Woodward (1989), “Some Sadly Neglected Monetary Aspects of the Poincaré Stabilization,” Southern Economic Journal 56, pp. 191–211.

Makinen, Gail E. and Thomas G. Woodward (1990), “Funding Crises in the Aftermath of the Great War,” in Rudiger Dornbusch and Mario Draghi (eds.), Public Debt Management: Theory and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153–182.

Malamud, Bernard (1983), “John H. Williams on the German Inflation: The International Amplification of Monetary Disturbances,” in Nathan Schmukler and Edward Markus (eds.), Inflation Through the Ages, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 417–434.

Malenbaum, Wilfred (1953), The World Wheat Economy, 1885–1939, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Mantoux, Etienne (1952), The Carthaginian Peace, or The Economic Consequences of Mr. Keynes, New York: Scribner.

Marcus, Edward (1954), Canada and the International Business Cycle, 1927–1939, New York: Bookman Associates.

Marjolin, Robert (1938), “Reflections on the Blum Experiment,” Economica 5, pp. 177–191.

Marks, Sally (1978), “The Myths of Reparations,” Central European History 3, pp. 231–255.

Mendershausen, Horst (1940), The Economics of War, New York: Prentice Hall.

Methorst, H. W. (1938), Recueil international de statistiques economiques 1931–1936, The Hague: International Conference of Economic Services.

Meynial, P. (1927), “La Balance des Comptes,” Revue d'Économie Politique 41, pp. 271–289.

Miller, Marcus and Paul Weller (1989), “Exchange Rate Bands and Realignments in a Stationary Stochastic Setting,” in Marcus Miller, Barry Eichengreen, and Richard Portes (eds.), Blueprints for Exchange Rate Management, New York: Academic Press, pp. 161–174.

Miller, R. (1981), “Latin American Manufacturing and the First World War: An Exploratory Essay,” World Development 9, pp. 707–716.

Mills, J. Saxon (1923), The Genoa Conference, London: Hutchinson & Co.

Milward, Alan (1977), War Economy and Society 1939–1945, London: Allen Lane.

Ministére de Finance (1966), Annuaire Statistique de la France: Résumé Rétrospective, Paris: INSEE.

Mintz, Hse (1959), Trade Balances During Business Cycles: U.S. and Britain Since 1880, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. (p.417)

Miron, Jeffrey (1986), “Financial Panics, the Seasonality of the Nominal Interest Rate, and the Founding of the Fed,“ American Economic Review 76, pp. 125–140.

Miron, Jeffrey (1989), “The Founding of the Fed and the Destabilization of the Post‐1914 U.S. Economy,” in Macello de Cecco and Alberto Giovannini (eds.), A European Central Bank?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 290–327.

Mitchell, B. R. (1975), European Historical Statistics, London: Macmillan.

Mlynarski, Feliks (1929), Gold and Central Banks, New York: The Macmillan Co.

Moggridge, Donald (1969), The Return to Gold, 1925: The Formulation of Economic Policy and Its Critics, London: Cambridge University Press.

Moggridge, Donald (1972), British Monetary Policy 1924–1931, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moley, Raymond (1939), After Seven Years, New York: Harper and Brothers.

Moley, Raymond (1966), The First New Deal, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

Montgomery, Arthur (1938), How Sweden Overcame the Depression 1930–1933, Stockhom: Alb. Bonniers Boktryckeri.

Moore, James Ray (1972), “A History of the World Economic Conference, London, 1933,” Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Moreau, Emile (1954), Souvenirs d'un Gouverneur de la Banque de France, Paris: M. T. Genin.

Morgan, E. Victor (1952), Studies in British Financial Policy, London: Macmillan.

Morton, Walter Albert (1943), British Finance 1930–1940, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Moulin, Annie (1988), Les paysans de la société française, Paris: Seuil.

Moulton, Harold G. and Cleona Lewis (1925), The French Debt Problem, New York: The Macmillan Co.

Moulton, Harold G. and Leo Pasvolsky (1932), War Debts and World Prosperity, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Mouré, Kenneth (1988), As Good as Gold: French Monetary Management, 1928–1936, Ph.D. dissertation, University Toronto.

Mouré, Kenneth (1989), “Policy‐makers and the Economic Crisis in France,” unpublished, University of California at Santa Barbara.

Mouré, Kenneth (1990), “The Bank of France and the Gold Standard, 1928–1936,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History 17, pp. 459–468.

Mowat, Charles Loch (1955), Britain Between the Wars, 1918–1940, London: Methuen.

Mundell, Robert A. (1963), “Capital Mobility and Stabilization Policy Under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates,” Canadian Journal of Economics 29, pp. 475–485.

Myers, Margaret (1936), Paris as a Financial Centre, London: P. S. King.

Nadler, Marcus and Jules I. Bogen (1933), The Banking Crisis: The End of an Epoch, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.

Nelson, Daniel B. (1989), “Was the Deflation of 1929–30 Anticipated? The Monetary Regime as Viewed by the Business Press,” unpublished manuscript, University of Chicago.

Newman, Karl J. (1970), European Democracy Between the Wars, London: Allen & Unwin.

Nichols, Jeanette P. (1934), “Silver Inflation in the Senate in 1933,” Social Studies 25, pp. 12–18.

Nichols, Jeanette P. (1951), “Roosevelt's Monetary Diplomacy in 1933,” American Historical Review LVI, pp. 295–317.

Nogaro, Bertrand (1927), Modern Monetary Systems, London: P.S. King & Son Ltd. (p.418)

Notel, Rudolf (1984), “Money, Banking and Industry in Interwar Austria and Hungary,” Journal of European Economic History 13 (special issue), pp. 137–202.

Nurkse, Ragnar (1944), International Currency Experience, Geneva: League of Nations.

Nye, John V. (1991), “The Myth of Free Trade Britain and Fortress France: Tariffs and Trade in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Economic History 51, pp. 23–46.

O'Connell, Arturo (1984), “Argentina into the Depression: Problems of an Open Economy,” in Rosemary Thorp (ed.), Latin America in the 1930s, London: Macmillan, pp. 188–221.

O'Farrell, Horace Handley (1913), The Franco‐German War Indemnity and Its Economic Results, London: Harrison & Sons.

Ogawa, G. and K. Yamasaki (1929), The Effect of the World War Upon the Commerce and Industry of Japan, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Ogburn, W. F. and W. Jaffe (1929), The Economic Development of Postwar France, New York: Columbia University Press.

Ohkawa, Kazushi and Henry Rosovsky (1973), Japanese Economic Growth, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Ohlin, Bertil (1929), “The Reparation Problem: A Discussion,” Economic Journal 39, pp. 172–173.

Ohlin, Bertil (1931), The Course and Phases of the World Economic Depression, Geneva: League of Nations.

Ohlin, Bertil (1932), “Sweden's Monetary Policy,” Svenska Handelsbanken Index 7, pp. 268–277.

Paish, George (1920), The World Crisis: A Suggested Remedy, London: Benn Brothers.

Palgrave, Robert Harry Inglis, Sir (1903), “Bank Rate and the Money Market in England,” London: J. Murray.

Palyi, Melchior (1972), The Twilight of Gold 1914–1936, Chicago: Henry Regnery Co.

Paris, James Daniel (1938), Monetary Policies of the United States 1932–1938, New York: Columbia University Press.

Parkinson, J. F. (1934), Canadian Investment and Foreign Exchange Problems, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Parrini, Carl (1969), Heir to Empire: United States Economic Diplomacy, 1916–1923, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Pasvolsky, Leo (1933), Current Monetary Issues, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Patron, Maurice (1910), The Bank of France in Its Relation to National and International Credit, Senate Doc. No. 494, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Patterson, E. L. Stewart (1916), “London and New York as Financial Centers,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science LXVIII, pp. 264–277.

Pedersen, Jørgen (1961), “Some Notes on the Economic Policy of the United States during the Period 1919–1932,” in H. Hegeland (ed.), Money, Growth and Methodology: Essays in Honor of Johan Åkerman, Lund: Gleerup.

Peel, George (1925), The Financial Crisis in France, London: Macmillan and Co.

Peel, George (1937), The Economic Policy of France, London: Macmillan and Co.

Penati, Alessandro (1991), “Poincaré's Stabilization: Stopping a Run on Government Debt,” Journal of Monetary Economics 27, pp. 213–240.

Persons, Warren M. (1931), Forecasting Business Cycles, New York: Chapman & Hall.

Peters, H. E. (1934), The Foreign Debt of the Argentine Republic, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Phelps, Clyde William (1927), The Foreign Expansion of American Banks, New York: The Ronald Press Company. (p.419)

Phelps‐Brown, E. H. and M. Browne (1968), A Century of Pay, London: Macmillan.

Philippe, Raymond (1931), Un point d'histoire: Le drame financier de 1924 à 1928, Paris: Gallimard.

Pigou, Arthur C. (1947), Aspects of British Economic History, 1918–1925, London: Macmillan.

Pope, David (1989), “Free Banking in Australia Before World War I,” unpublished manuscript, Australian National University.

Pressnell, L. S. (1978), “1925: The Burden of Sterling,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 31, pp. 67–88.

Pressnell, L. S. (1968), “Gold Reserves, Banking Reserves and the Baring Crisis of 1890,” in C. R. Whittlesey and J. S. G. Wilson (eds.), Essays in Honour of R. S. Sayers, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 167–228.

Puxley, H. L. (1933), A Critique of the Gold Standard, New York: Harper & Brothers.

Rae, Douglas W. (1967), The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Randall, Laura (1977), A Comparative Economic History of Latin America, 1500–1914, Institute of Latin American Studies, Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.

Redmond, John (1980), “An Effective Exchange Rate for the Pound in the 1930s,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 33, pp. 83–91.

Reed, Harold L. (1922), The Development of Federal Reserve Policy, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Reed, Harold L. (1930), Federal Reserve Policy, 1921–1930, New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Reparation Commission (1927), Official Documents: The Experts' Plan for Reparation Payments, London: HMSO.

Reparation Commission (1930), Report of the Agent‐General for Reparation Payments (May 21, 1930), Official Documents XXII, London: HMSO.

Rich, Georg (1984), “Canada without a Central Bank: Operation of the Price‐Specie‐Flow Mechanism, 1872–1913,” in Michael Bordo and Anna Schwartz (eds.), A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821–1931, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 547–586.

Rich, Georg (1988), The Cross of Gold: Money and the Canadian Business Cycle, 1867–1913, Ottawa: Carleton University Press.

Rich, Georg (1989), “Canadian Banks, Gold, and the Crisis of 1907,” Explorations in Economic History 26, pp. 135–160.

Rist, Charles (1921), Les finances de guerre de L'Allemagne, Paris: Payot.

Rist, Charles (1933), “Caractère et origine de la crise de 1929,” in Essais sur quelques problèmes économiques et monétaires, Paris: Recueil Sirey, pp. 325–343.

Robbins, Lionel (1934), The Great Depression, London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.

Rogers, James Harvey (1929), The Process of Inflation in France, 1914–1927, New York: Columbia University Press.

Rogowski, Ronald (1987), “Trade and the Variety of Democratic Institutions,” International Organization 41, pp. 203–224.

Rogowski, Ronald (1989), Commerce and Coalitions, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Romasco, Albert U. (1983), The Politics of Recovery: Roosevelt's New Deal, New York: Oxford University Press.

Romer, Christina (1988), “World War I and the Postwar Recession,” Journal of Monetary Economics 22, pp. 91–115.

Romer, Christina (1990), “The Great Crash and the Onset of the Great Depression,” Quarterly Journal of Economics CV, pp. 597–624. (p.420)

Roose, Kenneth D. (1954), The Economics of Recession and Revival, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Royal Commission on Indian Finance and Currency (1914), Interim Report and Appendices, Cmd. 7070, London: HMSO.

Royal Comission on Indian Currency and Finance (1926), Report and Appendices, Cmd. 2687, London: HMSO.

Royal Institute of International Affairs (1931), The International Gold Problem, London: Humphrey Milford.

Royal Institute of International Affairs (1932), World Agriculture: An International Survey, London: Humphrey Milford.

Royal Institute of International Affairs (1937), The Problem of International Investment, London: Oxford University Press.

Rupieper, Hermann J. (1979), The Cuno Government and Reparations, 1922–1923, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Rustow, Dankwart A. (1955), The Politics of Compromise: A Study of Parties and Cabinet Government in Sweden, New York: Greenwood Press.

Sachs, Jeffrey and Charles Wyplosz (1984), “Real Exchange Rate Effects of Fiscal Policy,” Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 1050.

Saint‐Etienne, C. (1983), “L'offre et la demande de monnaie dans la France de l'entre‐deux‐guerres (1920–1939),” Revue Économique 34, pp. 344–367.

Saint Marc, Michele (1984), Histoire monetaire de la France, 1800–1980, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Salais, R.N., N. Baverez, and B. Reynaud (1986), L'invention du chômage, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Samuelson, Paul and Everett Hagen (1943), After the War, 1918–1920, Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Resources Planning Board.

Sargent, Thomas J. (1986a), “The Ends of Four Big Inflations,” in Thomas Sargent, Rational Expectations and Inflation, New York: Harper and Row, pp. 40–109.

Sargent, Thomas (1986b), “Stopping Moderate Inflations: The Methods of Poincaré and Thatcher,” in Thomas Sargent. Rational Expectations and Inflation, New York: Harper and Row, pp. 110–157.

Sauvy, Alfred (1984), Histoire économique de la France entre les deux guerres, (second ed.), Paris: Economica.

Say, Leon (1898), Les finances de la France sous la troisième république, Tome 1, Paris: Calmann Lévy.

Sayers, Richard S. (1936), Bank of England Operations, 1890–1914, London: P. S. King and Son, Ltd.

Sayers, Richard S. (1957), Central Banking After Bagehot, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sayers, Richard S. (1960), “The Return to Gold, 1925,” in L. S. Pressnell (ed.), Studies in the Industrial Revolution, London: Althone Press, pp. 313–327.

Sayers, Richard S. (1976), The Bank of England, 1891–1944, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scammel, W. M. (1983), The International Economy Since 1945, New York: St. Martin's.

Schacht, Hjalmar H. G. (1927), The Stabilization of the Mark, New York: Adelphi.

Schedvin, C. B. (1970), Australia and the Great Depression, Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Schloss, Henry H. (1958), The Bank for International Settlements: An Experiment in Central Bank Cooperation, Amsterdam: North Holland.

Schmid, Gregory C. (1974), “The Politics of Currency Stabilization: The French Franc, 1926,” Journal of European Economic History 3, pp. 359–377. (p.421)

Schmidt, Carl T. (1934), German Business Cycles 1924–1933, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Schneider, Herbert W. (1936), The Fascist Government of Italy, New York: D. Van Nostrand Co.

Schrecker, Ellen (1978), The Hired Money: The French Debt to the United States 1917–1929, New York: Arno Press.

Schubert, Aurel (1990), The Credit Anstalt Crisis of 1931, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (forthcoming).

Schuker, Stephen A. (1976), The End of French Predominance in Europe, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Schuker, Stephen A. (1985), “American ‘Reparations’ to Germany, 1919–1933,” in Gerald D. Feldman et al. (eds.), Die Nachwirkungen der Inflation auf die deutsche Geschichte, 1924–1933, Munich: Oldenbourg.

Schuker, Stephen A. (1988), “American Reparations to Germany, 1919–33: Implications for the Third World Debt Crisis,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 61 (July), Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1939), Business Cycles, New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Schwedtman, F. C. (1911), “Lending our Financial Machinery to Latin America,” American Political Science Review 11, pp. 239–251.

Seligman, Edwin R. A. (1924), “Comparative Tax Burdens in the Twentieth Century,” Political Science Quarterly 39, pp. 106–146.

Shepherd, Henry L. (1936), The Monetary Experience of Belgium 1914–1936, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Shinjo, Hiroshi (1958), “History of Yen: Its Development in the Japanese Economy,” Kobe Economic and Business Review 5, pp. 1–22.

Siepmann, H. A. (1920), “The International Financial Conference at Brussels,” Economic Journal XXX, pp. 437–459.

Simkin, Colin G. F. (1951), The Instability of a Dependent Economy: Economic Fluctuations in New Zealand 1840–1914, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slichter, Sumner H. (1938), “The Downturn of 1937,” Review of Economic Statistics 20, pp. 97–110.

Smith, Rixley and Norman Beasley (1939), Carter Glass: A Biography, New York: Longmans, Green and Co.

Sommariva, Andrea and Giuseppe Tullio (1986), German Macroeconomic History 1880‐1979, London: Macmillan.

Southern, David B. (1979), “The Revaluation Question in the Weimar Republic,” Journal of Modern History 51, pp. 1029–1054.

Southern, David B. (1981), “The Impact of the Inflation: Inflation, the Courts and Revaluation,” in Richard Bessel and E. J. Feuchtwanger (eds.), Social Change and Political Development in Weimar Germany, Totowa, N.J.: Barnes & Noble, pp. 55–76.

Staley, Eugene (1935), War and the Private Investor, New York: Doubleday.

Stallings, Barbara (1987), Banker to the Third World: U.S. Portfolio Investment in Latin America, 1900–1986, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Stamp, Sir Josiah (1931), Papers on Gold and the Price Level, London: P. S. King & Son, Ltd.

Stamp, Sir Josiah (1932), Taxation During the War, London: Humphrey Milford.

Stiefel, D. (1983), “The Reconstruction of the Credit‐Anstalt,” in A. Teichova and P. C. Cottrell (eds.), International Business and Central Europe 1918‐1939, Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Stoddard, Lothrop (1932), Europe and Our Money, New York: Macmillan. (p.422)

Stolper, Gustav (1940), The German Economy, New York: Reynal & Hitchcock.

Subercaseaux, Guillermo (1922), Monetary and Banking Policy of Chile, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sullivan, Lawrence (1936), Prelude to Panic: The Story of the Bank Holiday, Washington, D.C.: Statesman Press.

Svennilson, Ingmar (1954), Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy, Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

Swanson, W. W. (1915), The Financial Power of the Empire, Kingston: The Jackson Press.

Taagepera, Rein and Bernard Grofman (1985), “Rethinking Duverger's Law: Predicting the Effective Number of Parties in Pluraity and PR Systems—Parties Minus Issues Equals One,” European Journal of Political Research 13, pp. 341–352.

Tagaki, Shinji (1988), “Floating Exchange Rates and Macroeconomic Adjustment in Interwar Japan,” unpublished manuscript, Bank of Japan.

Tardieu, André (1927), France and America: Some Experiences in Cooperation, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Tardieu, André (1933), Où en sommes‐nous? Paris: La Revue Hebdomadaire.

Taussig, F. W. (1917), “International Trade Under Depreciated Paper,” Quarterly Journal of Economics XXXI, pp. 380–403.

Taussig, F. W. (1928), International Trade, New York: Macmillan.

Taylor, F.I. (1909), A Bibliography of Unemployment and the Unemployed, London: P.S. King.

Taylor, Henry C. and Anne Dewees Taylor (1943), World Trade in Agricultural Products, New York: The Macmillan Co.

Taylor, Michael and V.M. Herman (1971), “Party Systems and Government Stability,” American Political Science Review 65, pp. 28–37.

Temin, Peter (1971), “The Beginning of the Great Depression in Germany,” Economic History Review, sec. ser. 24, pp. 240–248.

Temin, Peter (1976), Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression?: New York: Norton.

Temin, Peter (1989), Lessons from the Great Depression, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Temin, Peter and Barrie A. Wigmore (1990), “The End of One Big Deflation,” Explorations in Economic History 27, pp. 483–502.

Tew, Brian (1988), The Evolution of the International Monetary System, 1945–1988, London: Hutchinson Education (fourth ed.).

Thelwall, J. W. F. and C. J. Kavanagh (1929), Economic and Financial Conditions in Germany, 1928–1929, Department of Overseas Trade, London: HMSO.

Thomas, Brinley (1936), Monetary Policy and Crises, London: George Routledge and Sons.

Thorp, Rosemary, ed. (1984), Latin America in the 1930s, London: Macmillan.

Tinbergen, Jan (1934), International Abstract of Economic Statistics, 1919–1930, London: International Conference of Economic Services.

Tobin, James (1969), “A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory,” Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking 1, pp. 15–29.

Tocker, A. H. (1924), “The Monetary Standards of New Zealand and Australia,” Economic Journal XXXIV, pp. 556–575.

Trachtenberg, Marc (1980), Reparation in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press.

Traynor, Dean E. (1949), International Monetary and Financial Conferences in the Interwar Period, Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.

Triffin, Robert (1937), “La théorie de la surévaluation monétaire et la dévaluation belge,” Bulletin de l'Institut des Recherches Économiques de l'Université de Louvain IX, pp. 3–36. (p.423)

Triffin, Robert (1947), “National Central Banking and the International Economy,” Postwar Economic Studies, Washington D.C.: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Vol. 7, pp. 46–81.

Triffin, Robert (1960), Gold and the Dollar Crisis, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Triffin, Robert (1964), “The Evolution of the International Monetary System: Historical Reappraisal and Future Perspectives,” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 12, Princeton: International Finance Section, Department of Economics.

United Kingdom (1924), Papers Relating to the Economic Conference, Genoa, April–May 1922, Cmd. 1667, London: HMSO.

United Nations (1948), Public Debt 1914–1946, Lake Success, N.Y.: United Nations.

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (various issues), Bulletin, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Congress, Senate (1934), Antidumping Legislation and Other Import Regulation in the United States and Foreign Countries, 73 Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Doc. 112, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Department of Commerce (1976), Historical Statistics of the United States, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Department of State (1933), Foreign Relations of the United States, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Director of the Mint (1944), Annual Report, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States National Monetary Commission (1910), Interviews on the Banking and Currency Systems of England, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, S. Doc. 405, 61st Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States National Recovery Administration (various issues), Codes of Fair Conduct, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Senate (1923), Minutes of Conference of the Federal Reserve Board of the Board of the Federal Advisory Council and the Class A Directors of the Federal Reserve Banks Held at Washington, D.C., May 19, 1920, Senate Document No. 310, 67. Cong. 4 sess., Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Senate, Banking and Currency Committee (1931), Operation of the National and Federal Reserve Banking Systems, 71. Cong. 3 sess., Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Senate, Committee on Banking and Currency (1932), “Restoring and Maintaining the Average Purchasing Power of the Dollar,” Hearings, 72nd Congress, 1st Session, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States Treasury (1920), Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1920, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

United States World War Foreign Debt Commission (1927), Combined Annual Reports, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Urquhart, Malcolm C. and K. A. H. Buckley (1965), Historical Statistics of Canada, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van der Wee, Herman and K. Tavernier (1975), La Banque Nationale de Belgique et l'histoire monétaire entre les deux guerres mondiales, Brussels: Banque Nationale de Belgique.

Van Sant, Edward (1937), The Floating Debt of the Federal Government, 1919–1936, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Verrijn Stuart, G. M. (1937), “The Netherlands During the Recent Depression,” in A. D. Gayer (ed.), Lessons of Monetary Experience, New York: Farrar & Rinehart, pp. 237–258.

Viner, Jacob (1924), Canada's Balance of International Indebtedness, 1900–1913, New York: Harper Brothers. (p.424)

Viner, Jacob (1937), Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper Brothers.

Viner, Jacob (1951), International Economics: Studies, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.

Waites, B. A. (1976), “The Effect of the First World War on Class and Status in England,” Journal of Contemporary History 11, pp. 27–48.

Walker, Charles A. (1934), “The Working of the Pre‐War Gold Standard,” Review of Economic Studies 1, pp. 196–209.

Walre de Bordes, J. van (1924), The Austrian Crown, London: P. S. King.

Warren, George F. and F. A. Pearson (1935), Gold and Prices, New York.

Webb, Steven B. (1986), “Government Revenue and Spending in Germany, 1919 to 1923,” in Gerald D. Feldman, Carl‐Ludwig Holtfrerich, Gerhard A. Ritter, and Peter‐Christian Witt (eds.), Die Anpassung an die Inflation, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 46–82.

Webb, Steven B. (1988), “The German Reparation Experience Compared with the LDC Debt Problem Today,” Weltwirtschaftsliches Archiv 124, pp. 745–774.

Webb, Steven B. (1989), Inflation and Stabilization in Weimar Germany: Policies, Politics and Market Reactions, New York: Oxford University Press.

Weinstein, Michael (1981), “Some Macroeconomic Consequences of the National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933–1935,” in Karl Brunner (ed.), The Great Depression Revisited, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 262–281.

Weir, Margaret and Theda Skocpol (1985), “State Structures and the Possibilities for ‘Keynesian’ Responses to the Great Depression in Sweden, Britain and the United States,” in Peter Evans et al. (eds.), Bringing the State Back In, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 107–163.

Werth, Alexander (1934), France in Ferment, London: Jarrolds.

Westerfield, Ray (1938), Money, Credit and Banking, New York: Ronald Press.

Whale, P. B. (1930), Joint Stock Banking in Germany, London: Macmillan.

Whale, P. B. (1937), “The Working of the Prewar Gold Standard,” Economica 4, pp. 18–32.

Wheeler‐Bennett, John W. (1933), The Wreck of Reparations, London: Allen & Unwin.

Wheelock, David (1988), “Interregional Reserve Flows and the Fed's Reluctance to Use Open‐Market Operations During the Great Depression,” prepared for the Social Science History Association meeting, Chicago, November.

White, Eugene N. (1983), The Regulation and Reform of the American Banking System, 1900–1929, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

White, Eugene N. (1990), “When the Ticker Ran Late: The Stock Market Boom and Crash of 1929,” in Eugene N. White (ed.), Crashes and Panics: The Lessons from History, New York: Dow Jones‐Irwin, pp. 143–187.

White, Harry D. (1933), The French International Accounts, 1880–1913, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Wicker, Elmus (1966), Federal Reserve Monetary Policy 1917–1933, New York: Random House.

Wicker, Elmus (1971), “Roosevelt's 1933 Monetary Experiment,” Journal of American History LVII, No. 4, March, 1971, pp. 864–879.

Wicksell, Knut (1918), “International Freights and Prices,” Quarterly Journal of Economics XXXII, pp. 401–410.

Wigmore, Barrie (1987), “Was the Bank Holiday of 1933 Caused by a Run on the Dollar?” Journal of Economic History XLVII, pp. 739–756.

Williams, Benjamin H. (1929), Economic Foreign Policy of the United States, New York: McGraw‐Hill.

Williams, David (1968), “The Evolution of the Sterling System,” in C. R. Whittlesey and J. S. G. Wilson (eds.), Essays in Money and Banking in Honour of R. S. Sayers, Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 266–297. (p.425)

Williams, John H. (1920), Argentine International Trade under Inconvertible Paper Money, 1880–1900, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Williams, John H. (1922), “German Foreign Trade and Reparations Payments,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 482–503.

Williams, John H. (1930), “Reparations and the Flow of Capital,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 20, pp. 71–79.

Willis, Henry Parker (1936), The Theory and Practice of Central Banking, New York: Harper and Brothers.

Wilson, Joan Hoff (1971), American Business and Foreign Policy 1920–1933, Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.

Wirth, Max (1893), “The Crisis of 1890,” Journal of Political Economy 1, pp. 214–235.

Withers, Hartley (1919), War‐Time Financial Problems, New York: Dutton and Company.

Witt, Peter‐Christian (1983), “Tax Policies, Tax Assessment and Inflation: Toward a Sociology of Public Finance in the German Inflation, 1914–1923” in Wealth and Taxation in Central Europe, Leamington Spa: Berg, pp. 137–160.

Wolfe, A. J. (1910), The German Great Banks, Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Wolfe, Martin (1951), The French Franc Between the Wars, 1919–1939, New York: Columbia University Press.

Wright, Gordon (1955), “Peasant Politics in the Third French Republic,” Political Science Quarterly LXX, pp. 75–86.

Wright, Gordon (1964), Rural Revolution in France, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Wright, J. F. (1981), “Britain's Interwar Experience,” in W. A. Eltis and P. J. N. Sinclair (eds.), The Money Supply and the Exchange Rate, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 282–305.

Wythe, George (1949), Industry in Latin America, New York: Columbia University Press.

Yeager, Leland and Associates (1981), Experiences with Stopping Inflation, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute.

Young, John Parke (1925a), Central American Currency and Finance, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Young, John Parke (1925b), European Currency and Finance, Commission of Gold and Silver Inquiry, United States Senate, Foreign Currency and Exchange Investigation, Serial 9 (Vol. I), Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Zaalberg, C. J. P. (1928), The Netherlands and the World War, Vol. 2: The Manufacturing Industry, New Haven: Yale University Press. (p.426)