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Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification$
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Robert J. Fogelin

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780195089875

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195089871.001.0001

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Gettier Problems

Gettier Problems

(p.15) 1 Gettier Problems
Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification

Robert J. Fogelin (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines Gettier's objections to defining knowledge as justified true belief – the so‐called Gettier problems. In response to these objections, a distinction is drawn between two kinds of justification. A person can be justified in coming to believe that p if he has been epistemically responsible in doing so. This is how Gettier understands justification. A person can also be justified in the sense that he commands grounds or reasons that establish the truth of p. Knowledge claims are, however, sensitive to levels of scrutiny. What counts as adequate grounds in one context may not in another because of its nonstandard features. Gettier problems in all their forms arise when a person, S, responsibly judges that p, but in a context where we, who are privy to information S lacks, see that his grounds do not meet the standards appropriate for the situation he in fact is in.

Keywords:   adequate grounds, belief, epistemic responsibility, Gettier, Gettier problem, justification, knowledge, scrutiny

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