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Shifting Grounds$

Paul Quigley

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199735488

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735488.001.0001

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(p.309) Index

Source:
Shifting Grounds
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
active nationalism, 11, 52, 56, 65, 89
Acton, Lord, 243n32
Adams, J. H., 61
Address to Christians throughout the World (pamphlet), 185
affective national community, 95–106
African Americans. See also race; slavery
citizenship and, 31–32, 157, 217, 227n27
inferiority of, 143
during U.S. Civil War, 197
Albanians and Serbians, 270n41
alien enemy, 157–58
aliens, 22, 31, 157–58, 160, 189
Ambler, Lucy Johnston, 182–83
American exceptionalism, 21–30
American federalism. See federalism
American national identity, 145–47, 156–58, 174
American nationalism
Caruthers on, 16–17, 22
Confederate nationalism and, 5, 6, 9, 15, 178
European nationalism and, 6–9, 18, 30–35
groups with competing visions of, 37
Madison on, 22
Porter, D., on, 19–20, 228n7
religious foundation of, 18–20, 37–41
secession and, 8, 9
southern nationalism and, 51–52, 73, 87, 214–17
Sparrow on, 19, 20
Washington as central figure of, 39–40
Americanos, 31
American Revolution
Ayer on, 79–80
civic model of nationalism and, 6
commemoration of, 13, 16, 35–37, 50, 94
Confederacy and, 148–51, 175–77
European revolutions and, 23–30, 81
North-South relations and, 81–82
principle of nationality and, 18
Richmond Examiner on, 148–49
secession and, 77–83
Simms on, 80, 81–82
slavery and, 151, 261n41
Trescot on, 80
U.S. Civil War compared to, 172, 212–13
The American Loyalists (Sabine), 81–82
Anderson, Benedict, 36, 252n19, 264n68
Anticipations of the Future (Ruffin), 85
Armitage, David, 247n64
associations
Southern Rights, 55, 77, 90, 91, 104
women’s, 40, 196
atrocity stories, during U.S. Civil War, 183–85, 268n20
Avery, W. W., 43–44
Ayer, Lewis
on American Revolution, 79–80
(p.310) on Cuba, 85
on southern nationalism, 50–52
on sovereignty, 66
Balibar, Etienne, 245n54
Bancroft, George, 34–35
Barbour, B. J., 42
Beechenbrook: A Rhyme of the War (Preston), 203
Bell, Elizay, 168–69
Bender, Thomas, 47–48
Benjamin, Judah, 186
Bensel, Richard, 270n34
Bingham, William, 210–11
Bluffton Boys, 77
border states
North-South relations and, 130–31, 153–56, 262n47
during U.S. Civil War, 158–59, 189–90
box approach to nationalism, 5
Bracewell, Wendy, 270n41
Breckinridge, Robert J., 119, 179
Britain
relations with, 129, 133, 135, 186–87, 262n55
slavery and, 129, 135
Brooks, Preston, 61–62, 82, 241n22
Brown, John, raid of, 88, 103–6, 110
Brown, Joseph, 188
Brownlow, William “Parson,” 94, 121, 199
Brownlow’s Knoxville Whig and Independent Journal, 94
Bull Run, battle of, 129
Burke, Edmund, 3–4, 7
Butler, Andrew, 82
Butler, Lucy, 174
Butler, Waddy, 108, 163, 165, 167
C. B. J., “Sons of the South!”, 112
Cabell, Nathaniel, 103–6
Cadwallader, Anna, 124–25
Calhoun, John C.
on John Brown’s raid, 103
nullification movement and, 45, 57
on two-president system, 57
on Washington, 82
Carroll, Bartholomew Rivers, 35
Caruthers, E. W., 16–17, 22
Central Southern Rights Association of Virginia, 91, 104
“A Century Hence” (Rutherfoord), 84
Charleston Courier, 137
Charleston Mercury
on Fourth of July celebrations, 177
on history, 141–42
on literature, 137
male bravado and, 108
Rhett, R., and, 77
Chesnut, James
on slavery and southern national identity, 52, 55–56
on southern nationalism, 69–70
Cheves, Langdon, 89–90
Choate, Rufus, 44
chosen peoples, 10, 207, 263n62
citizenship. See also Confederate citizenship
African Americans and, 31–32, 157, 217, 227n27
citizen and alien categories, 22, 31, 157–58, 160, 189
definition of, 12
democratic, 21–30, 48
Johnson, H., on, 23
national identity and, 10
race and, 31–32, 233n34
U.S., 23, 157–60
women and, 12, 194–97, 272n52
citizenship responsibilities, 3, 8, 17. See also Confederate citizenship
as divinely ordained, 19
during U.S. Civil War, 191–98, 208
virtue and, 20–21
civic model of nationalism, 6, 30, 80–81, 232n30
(p.311) Civil War, English, 139–40
Civil War, U.S., 171–213
African Americans during, 197
American Revolution compared to, 172, 212–13
atrocity stories during, 183–85, 268n20
border states during, 158–59, 189–90
as brothers’ war, 154
citizenship responsibilities during, 191–98, 208
Confederacy after, 216–17
Confederate nationalism during, 5, 15, 173–74, 265n2
Davis, J., and, 176, 184, 187–88, 195, 197, 199–200, 209, 212–13
desertion during, 180, 191, 199
enduring bonds of Union during, 174–81
era, beginning of, 16
Europe and, 186–87, 269nn2829
masculinity during, 191–94
northern barbarity and, 181–87, 213, 268n20
North-South relations during, 181–87, 213, 268n20
Reynolds on, 226n19
Richmond Enquirer on, 161, 186
Richmond Examiner on, 176, 181–82, 185–86, 211
rivers of blood image and, 172, 181, 184, 200, 213, 265n1
sacrifice and, 15, 198–204, 207, 211–13, 216–17, 273n75
shifting and ambiguous loyalties during, 173–74
southern unionists during, 178–81, 178 f, 190–91
suffering during, 198–213
Trescot on, 171–73, 181, 184, 200–201, 213, 265n1
Wadley on, 196, 202
women during, 193–97
Wood, L., on, 184, 202–3
Clark, William, 20–21
Cobb, Howell, 132
Collier, Elizabeth, 193, 211
colonialism, internal, 240n13
Compromise of 1850, 89, 93, 95, 252n18
conditional unionism, 156
Fourth of July celebrations and, 95
secession and, 8, 14, 87, 89, 91, 106
Confederacy (Confederate States of America)
American Revolution and, 148–51, 175–77
commissioners to Europe, 128–29, 133–36, 186
creation of, 8, 14, 50, 145, 215–16
dissent in, 6, 124, 130, 159, 180, 188
flag of, 124, 146, 168
internal conflicts within, 155–56, 159–60
national anthem for, 136–37, 206 f
national legitimacy and, 131–39, 158, 215–16, 262n55
national loan and, 162–63
as nation-state, 128–32, 139, 158, 169
principle of nationality and, 129, 131, 133–34, 139, 187, 200
religion and, 203, 206–13
textbooks, 176, 267n9
U.S. recognition of, 134
U.S. relationship with, 145–57
after U.S. Civil War, 216–17
Wood, L., on, 165–67
Confederate Bureau of Conscription, 194
Confederate citizenship, 15
centralization, conscription and, 187–98
creating, 157–70
definition of, 163, 166, 169, 189
gender and, 163–70, 191–97, 263n65
morality and, 162
Confederate diplomacy, 131–36, 181, 186
Confederate government
formation of, 132
power and authority of, 173, 187–98, 270n34, 271n47
(p.312) Confederate national identity, 9–12, 128–70
American national identity and, 145–47, 156–58, 174
definition of, 130
distinctiveness of, 9, 14–15, 49, 131, 136–39, 141, 169, 181–84, 187, 216, 267n17
literature and, 136–38, 259n14
postcolonial insecurity of, 138
slavery and, 143–45
Confederate nationalism
American nationalism and, 5, 6, 9, 15, 178
constructionist approach to, 258n3
definition of, 9
dismissal of, 125
emotional dimensions of, 221n3
failure of, 6, 222n4
problems of, 130–31
slavery and, 7, 12, 222n4
during U.S. Civil War, 5, 15, 173–74, 265n2
Confederate Soldiers Aid Society, 195
Confederate State Department, 133–35
confederation
problem of, 46–47
Tucker, N., on, 80
Conrad, Robert Young, 121, 190–91
conscription, 6
centralization, Confederate citizenship and, 187–98
economy and, 189
exemption from, 188, 189, 194
in France, 188
Constitution, U.S., 44
Confederate constitution compared to, 145, 188
slavery and, 78, 246n61
Constitution of the Confederate States of America, Provisional, 128, 145, 188
Cooper, Thomas, 57
cooperationists, 89–90
Cornwall, Susan, 143, 147
cotton, 85, 249n77
Cox, Leander, 28
Craik, James, 105
Crittenden, John J., 116–18, 117 f, 153
Crittenden Compromise, 116
Cuba, 85, 249n78
culture
European nationalism, ethnicity and, 68–69, 76
national identity and, 136–38
nationalism and, 30–33, 49, 233n37
southern nationalism, ethnicity and, 68–70
Cunningham, Ann Pamela, 40, 82
Cunningham, Louisa, 62, 83
Curd, Samuella Hart, 154
Curry, Jabez L. M., 107
customs collection, 189–90
dancing, 4
Davidson, Allen Turner, 124
Davis, Jefferson
inauguration of, 174–75, 184
on national fast day, 168, 207
as provisional president, 132, 152, 165
on slavery, 143
U.S. Civil War and, 176, 184, 187–88, 195, 197, 199–200, 209, 212–13
Washington comparisons to, 146–47, 260n33
Davis, Thomas, 68, 203, 208–9
Day of National Humiliation, 119
death and suffering, 10–11
death sacrifice, 216
De Bow’s Review on, 201
immortality and, 37–38, 201–2, 207
justifications of, 274n77
Petigru on, 202
De Bow’s Review
on death sacrifice, 201
on gender, 142
on national legitimacy, 113–14, 131–32, 137
on secession, 113–14
(p.313) Declaration of Independence
global significance of, 26
interpretation of, 78–79, 247n64
reading aloud of, 38
rights second paragraph of, 79, 261n41
Ruffin on, 79, 177
Degler, Carl, 245n51
democracy, religion and, 16
democratic citizenship, 21–30, 48
Democratic Party, 101–2
desertion, during U.S. Civil War, 180, 191, 199
Dew, Charles, 255n43
diplomacy, Confederate, 131–36, 181, 186
dissent
in Confederacy, 6, 124, 130, 159, 180, 188
nationalism compared to, 272n61
disunionism, 8, 49, 91–92
draft. See conscription
Dred Scott decision, 32
Duncan, Stephen, 104–5
Dunkin, Alfred, 149–50
duties
honor and, 61, 191
men’s and women’s, 4, 111–12
Early, Jubal, 190–91
economy
conscription and, 189
free trade, cotton and, 85, 249n77
national legitimacy and, 133
North-South relations and, 53–56, 84–86, 90, 102
slavery and, 53–56, 102, 239n8
education
McCrady on, 70
morality and, 195
Tucker, N., on, 70–71
women and, 71
1860 Association, 77
Elliott, Stephen, 212
Elmore, Grace, 132, 207
emancipation, 25, 187, 197, 217, 269n29
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 33
English Civil War, 139–40
Eötvös, József, 7
equality, race and, 54–55, 76, 102
Ethel Somers; or, The Fate of the Union (Smythe), 97–98
ethnicity
Balibar on, 245n54
European nationalism, culture and, 68–69, 76
separatist movements and, 68–69, 76, 244n39
southern nationalism, culture and, 68–70
ethnic model of nationalism, 6, 30, 32, 80–81, 232n30
Europe. See also specific countries
Confederate commissioners to, 128–29, 133–36, 186
Jones, S., on, 245n50
multiple allegiances in, 47–48, 237n68
national legitimacy and, 132–36
regionalism in, 41
revolutions in, American Revolution and, 23–30, 81
U.S. citizenship compared to, 23
U.S. Civil War and, 186–87, 269nn2829
European nationalism
American nationalism and, 6–9, 18, 30–35
ethnicity, culture and, 68–69, 76
Rhett, R., on, 64
secession comparisons to, 63–70, 74–77
southern nationalism and, 50–52, 63–77, 201
exceptionalism, American, 21–30
families, North-South relations and, 152–56
Farleigh, R. M., 115–16
fascism, 6
fast days, national, 168, 207, 208
(p.314) Faust, Drew Gilpin, 274n77
federalism, 33
balance of power in, 45
Craik on, 105
definition of, 41
interest-driven union of, 96
Jefferson on, 42
multiple allegiances and, 42–46
Onuf on, 42
problems of, 13, 41–49, 188
Rives on, 43
states and, 43–47, 66
states’ rights and, 45–47
tariff policies and, 45
federative crisis, 47–48
Fehrenbacher, Don, 246n61
Fichte, Johann, 6, 30
The First Flag of Independence Raised in the South, by the Citizens of Savannah, 123 f
Fishback, Susan, 153–54
Fitzhugh, George, 79, 138
flags
Confederate, 124, 146, 168
The First Flag of Independence Raised in the South, by the Citizens of Savannah, 123 f
Miles on, 146
“Our Homes we Guard” motto on, 111
U.S., 124, 146
Force Bill, 45
foreign policy
slavery and, 53, 55
U.S. foreign influence, 23–30, 36, 93, 101, 118
Fort Moultrie, Battle of, 94
Fort Sumter, 106, 120–21, 167
Foster, Kate, 204, 206, 211–12
Fourth of July celebrations, 16, 36–38, 94–95, 149–54, 176–79
Charleston Mercury on, 177
conditional unionism and, 95
Wadley on, 151–52
France
conscription in, 188
French emancipation, 25
French nationalism, 9, 65
French Revolution, 6, 18
relations with, 133, 140, 186–87
Franco-Prussian War, 9, 65
Frankfurt Assembly (1848–49), 77
Freehling, William, 256n61, 262n47
free labor, slavery compared to, 53–56, 98–99, 143
freeman, 21
free trade, cotton and, 85, 249n77
French emancipation, 25
French nationalism, 9, 65
French Revolution, 6, 18
Fugitive Slave Law, 95, 115
Fuller, Margaret, 33
Gantt, Edward W., 199
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 74–75, 74 f, 77
Garrison, William Lloyd, 27
gender. See also masculinity
Confederate citizenship and, 163–70, 191–97, 263n65
De Bow’s Review on, 142
men’s and women’s duties, 4, 111–12
national identity and, 10
nationalism and, 163–64, 264n68, 265n74
North-South relations and, 98–100, 142–43, 184–85, 252n22
Genovese, Eugene, 238n4
Germany, 63, 76, 77
Gillis, Margaret Josephine, 168
Gilman, Caroline Howard, 195–96
“God in the War” (Tucker, H.), 207
golden age, 36, 83, 125
Gordon, George, 188–89
Gould, William Proctor, 152
Gourdin, Henry, 135
government, Confederate. See Confederate government
(p.315) government, nations compared to, 65–66, 80, 243n33
Graves, Charles Iverson, 122–24
Grayson, William J.
“The Hireling and the Slave,” 53
on secession, 92–93
Gregory, William, 135
Guerrant, Edward, 176–77
Hamilton, D. H., 104
Hammil, George, 160
Hammond, James Henry
Miles and, 87
on secession, 87
Simms’ letters to, 58–59, 82
on slavery and southern national identity, 53–54
on unionism, 95, 125
Hanckel, Thomas, 21, 81
Haughton, Thomas, 191
Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 192
Hayne, Robert, 45. See also Webster-Hayne debates
Hedrick, John, 190
Herder, Johann, 6, 30, 32, 68
heroes and history, ownership of, 146–48, 174–76
Hetcher, Michael, 240n13
“The Hireling and the Slave” (Grayson), 53
historical societies, 35
history, 34–35, 68–69, 72–73
as adhesive of national community, 35
ancient, North-South relations comparisons to, 141–42
Charleston Mercury on, 141–42
Degler on, 245n51
heroes and, ownership of, 146–48, 174–76
Porcher on, 72
Simms on, 72
History of the United States (Bancroft), 34–35
The History of the Czech Nation (Palacký), 68
Holcombe, James P., 35
Holden, William Woods, 18
holidays, national, 36–38. See also Fourth of July celebrations
honor
duties and, 61, 191
masculinity and, 61–62, 109
Perry on, 61
southern nationalism and, 60–62
Hudson, James G., 166
Huger, Alfred, 46, 237n68
Huger, M. E., 146
Hungarian nationalist movement, 48
Acton on, 243n32
Kossuth and, 18, 27–28, 30, 65, 76
Hunter, R. M. T., 113–14
Hutchinson, John, 68
immortality, death sacrifice and, 37–38, 201–2, 207
Confederacy and, 149–54, 176–79
during U.S. Civil War, 176–79
independence movement in Italy, 28–29, 34, 65, 212, 232n28
intellectual independence, southern, 70–72
internal colonialism, 240n13
international law, 129, 262n55
Ireland
South compared to, 76
United Kingdom and, 48, 64
Israelites, 19–20
Italy
independence movement in, 28–29, 34, 65, 212, 232n28
Italian nationalists, 74, 77
unification movement in, 63, 76, 125–26
Jackson, Andrew, 45
Jamaica, 85, 249n78
James, Charles Fenton, 3–5, 7–8, 10, 210
(p.316) Jamison, David F., 78
Jaques, Richard E., 204
Jefferson, Thomas
on federalism, 42
on Union, 96
Johnson, Andrew, 121
Johnson, Herschel V.
on citizenship, 23
on French emancipation, 25
on nationalism compared to dissent, 272n61
on politics, 101–2
on secession, 115, 118, 122, 179–80
Jones, Roland, 140–41
Jones, Stuart, 245n50
Joynes, Edward, 195
Keitt, Lawrence M., 61, 82
Kendrick, H. C., 160–61, 208, 212
Kerber, Linda, 272n52
Kilpatrick, James, 177
Kinyoun, John Hendricks, 209
Kornprobst, Markus, 244n38
Kossuth, Lajos
Hungary and, 18, 27–28, 30, 65, 76
romantic nationalism and, 34
Ladies’ Calhoun Monument Association, 196
Ladies’ Mount Vernon Association, 40, 196
Ladies Relief Association of Charleston, 196
Ladies Volunteer Aid Society of the Pine Hills, 166
Lamar, L. Q. C., 263n65
Latin America, 18, 31, 47
League of United Southerners, 77
Lee, Robert E., 122, 197, 260n33
Leerssen, Joep, 227n25
Lelewel, Joachim, 65, 68
Lenoir, Walter, 210
Lewis, Harry, 193
Lewis, John, 203
Liberty Our Aim! Washington Our Example!, 24 f
Lincoln, Abraham
election of, 106, 116, 122
Fort Sumter and, 106, 120–21
inauguration of, 168
secession and, 106, 122
“List of Political and State Prisoners, for Governor Harris,” 159
literature
Charleston Mercury on, 137
Confederate national identity and, 136–38, 259n14
Meek and, 33, 42, 71–72
in U.S., 33–34, 42–43
loan, national, 162–63
Lomax, Lunsford Lindsay, 122
Looker, Thos. H., 119
Lost Cause mythology, 213, 217
Lyon, Theodoric C., 119–20
Macaulay, Thomas, 81
Madison, James
on American nationalism, 22
on Union, 96
Magyar people, 65
male bravado, 108
Manassas, Battle of, 181
manifest destiny, 32
Mann, A. Dudley, 128–29, 133, 136
martyrs, 37, 61–62, 207, 241n22
masculinity
honor and, 61–62, 109
North-South relations and, 61–62, 109, 142, 260n24
three pillars of southern manhood, 269n24
during U.S. Civil War, 191–94
Mason, James M., 135
Mason-Dixon Line, 149–50
Mayer, Brantz, 65
Mazzini, Giuseppe, 18, 30, 65, 75, 77
(p.317) McCaslin, Richard, 260n33
McCrady, John, 70
Meek, Alexander Beaufort
literature and, 33, 42, 71–72
Songs and Poems of the South, 72
“Wouldst Thou Have Me Love Thee?”, 192
melting pot, 31
Memminger, Christopher G., 162
men. See gender
Mercer, Robert F., 100
Mexican War
slavery and, 8, 46, 89, 215
southern resentment after, 58, 90–91
toasts to heroes of, 37
Mexico
Nuevo León, 134–35
outcomism in Mexican independence, 250n2
Michelet, Jules, 30, 70
Middle Confederacy, 120
Miles, William Porcher
on flags, 146
Hammond and, 87
on morality, 57
on slavery, 58, 59
military
resignations, secession and, 122–24, 153
women’s support for, 166–68, 265n74
minute men, 108
Missouri Compromise, 58
Mitchel, John, 64–65, 75 f, 76
Mitchell, Nelson, 24
Mobile Register, 150
Montgomery Advertiser, 161, 162–63, 185
morality
Confederate citizenship and, 162
education and, 195
Miles on, 57
North-South relations and, 99–100, 182, 208–10
Simms on, 56–57
Mount Vernon, 40, 82–83
mud-sill class, 54
“My Mother-Land” (Hayne, P.), 192
Nagel, Joane, 11
Napoleon III, 186, 187
Nashville Conventions (1850), 59, 77
national anthem, for Confederacy, 136–37, 206 f
national community
affective, 95–106
history as adhesive of, 35
perceptions of, 14
whiteness and, 32
women’s roles in, 12
national culture, 30–33, 49
national fast days, 168, 207, 208
national identity. See also American national identity; Confederate national identity
citizenship and, 10
components of, 12
culture and, 136–38
gender and, 10
southern, 50, 52–56, 238n4
white, 32
nationalism. See also active nationalism; American nationalism; European nationalism; romantic nationalism; southern nationalism; unification nationalism; specific countries
as absolute form of allegiance, 5–6, 10
Anderson on, 36, 252n19, 264n68
box approach to, 5
civic model of, 6, 30, 80–81, 232n30
culture and, 30–32, 33, 49, 233n37
definition of, 11
dissent compared to, 272n61
ethnic model of, 6, 30, 32, 80–81, 232n30
French, 9, 65
gender and, 163–64, 264n68, 265n74
Holden on, 18
oppression and, 9, 64
Potter on, 222nn45
(p.318) problems of, 3, 5, 13, 15, 48, 126, 217
as process, 5, 6, 8, 13
sacrifice and, 13, 15, 37, 171, 198–204, 207, 211–13
three directions in understanding, 5
national legitimacy
Confederacy and, 131–39, 158, 215–16, 262n55
De Bow’s Review on, 113–14, 131–32, 137
economy and, 133
Europe and, 132–36
slavery and, 135–36
national loan, 162–63
“National Stability dependant on National Virtue” (speech), 20
national thought, 227n25
nationhood, shifting grounds of, 3, 6, 49, 131
nations
as artificially created artifacts, 224n9
definitions of, 6, 243n33
government compared to, 65–66, 80, 243n33
relationship between individuals and, 4, 10, 12, 17, 33–34, 41, 160–65, 210, 229n8
nation-state, 11
Confederacy as, 128–32, 139, 158, 169
Native Americans, 32
Naturalization Act (1790), 31
Nero, 3–4, 7
New Orleans Bee, 182
New York Times, 32
Nightingale, Florence, 40
“North Carolina: A Call to Arms,” 164
northern barbarity and U.S. Civil War, 181–87, 213, 268n20
North-South relations, 9, 139–45. See also Yankees
American Revolution and, 81–82
border states and, 130–31, 153–56, 262n47
comparisons to ancient history, 141–42
differences and, 15, 50–60, 69–72, 169–70
economy and, 53–56, 84–86, 90, 102
families and, 152–56
masculinity and, 61–62, 109, 142, 260n24
media on, 109
morality and, 99–100, 182, 208–10
northern barbarity and U.S. Civil War, 181–87, 213, 268n20
oppression and, 14, 50–51, 78, 90, 92, 129, 133, 200
politics and, 101–2
race and, 102–6, 139–41, 182, 185
religion and, 100–101
Richmond Enquirer on, 109–10
romance and, 96–98, 252n22
shared characteristics and, 139
during U.S. Civil War, 181–87, 213, 268n20
victimhood and, 15, 53, 56–63, 91, 126
Nourse, Margaret, 179
Nuevo León, Mexican state of, 134–35
nullification movement
Calhoun and, 45, 57
in South Carolina, 45–46, 55
Webster-Hayne debates and, 45, 64
O’Brien, Michael, 32, 60
O’Connell, Daniel, 75
“Oh, the sweet South!” (Simms), 60, 163
Onuf, Peter, 42
oppression
nationalism and, 9, 64
North-South relations and, 14, 50–51, 78, 90, 92, 129, 133, 200
others, 157–58
“Our Cause” (Montgomery Advertiser), 161
“Our Father, Washington” (Butler, L.), 174
(p.319) “Our Homes, Our Wives, Out Children,” 165 f
“Our Homes we Guard” motto, on flag, 111
outcomism in Mexican independence, 250n2
Outlaw, David, 99–100
Palacký, František, 65, 68
Palmer, Benjamin Morgan, 65–66, 100, 201, 204
Palmetto Day, 94
Paris, John, 207, 212
The Partisan Leader (Tucker, N.), 85
Patriotic Prayer for the Southern Cause (pamphlet), 207
patriotism
finite quantity of, 43
place and, 34
Ramsay on, 19, 94
peace movements, 159, 180, 216
Pegram, John C., 155–56
Peirce, William, 96–97
Pelham, John, 146
Perry, Benjamin F.
on honor, 61
on slavery, 103
personal and national victimhood, 56–63
personal liberty laws, 115
personal trauma, 59–60
Petigru, James L.
on death sacrifice, 202
on unionism, 45, 116
Pettigrew, James Johnston, 28 f, 29, 34, 47
Phillips, Jason, 268n20, 268n24
Pierce, George F., 208
place, patriotism and, 34
Poland, 65, 68, 186
political activism, 77
politics, 101–2
Polk, Leonidas, 70
popular sovereignty, 22, 48
Porcher, Frederick A.
on history, 72
on relationship between individual and nation, 23
on southern nationalism, 52, 84
Porter, David, 19–20, 228n7
Porter, William, 66–67
Potter, David
on Compromise of 1850, 252n18
on nationalism, 222nn45
Pratt, N. A., 101
Preston, Margaret, 203
principle of nationality, 18–21, 65
American Revolution and, 18
Confederacy and, 129, 131, 133–34, 139, 187, 200
definition of, 11–12
Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America, 128, 145, 188
race. See also ethnicity; slavery
citizenship and, 31–32, 233n34
equality and, 54–55, 76, 102
fears of racial turmoil, 102–6, 255n43
North-South relations and, 102–6, 139–41, 182, 185
“The Rally of the South” (poem), 109
Ramsay, James G.
on patriotism, 19, 94
on unionism, 116
regionalism in Europe, 41
religion, 10–11
American nationalism and, 18–20, 37–41
Confederacy and, 203, 206–13
democracy and, 16
North-South relations and, 100–101
slavery and, 100
Renan, Ernest
on Franco-Prussian War, 9
on suffering, 200
republicanism
slavery as foundation of, 53
virtue and, 228n8
republican motherhood, 21, 229n11
Republican Party, 107, 110
(p.320) Reynolds, Scott, 226n19
Rhett, Elizabeth, 62
Rhett, Robert Barnwell, 14
Charleston Mercury and, 77
on European nationalism, 64
on territories, 85
on Union, 57
Richardson, John, 78
Richmond Enquirer
on national anthem, 136–37
on North-South relations, 109–10
on U.S. Civil War, 161, 186
Richmond Examiner
on American Revolution, 148–49
on slavery, 144–45
on U.S. Civil War, 176, 181–82, 185–86, 211
rivers of blood image, 172, 181, 184, 200, 213, 265n1
Rives, William C.
on economy and slavery, 102
on federalism, 43
on unionism, 93, 105–6, 117–19, 121–22
romance, North-South relations and, 96–98, 252n22
romantic nationalism, 13, 30–41, 68
Kossuth and, 34
Simms on, 33–34, 42–43
Towers on, 242n26
Rome, fall of, 3–4, 21
Rost, Pierre, 128–29, 133
Ruffin, Edmund, 73 f
Anticipations of the Future, 85
on Declaration of Independence, 79, 177
on secession, 60, 74–75
Rumbough, George, 99
Russell, Lord John, 129
Russia, 186
Rutherfoord, John C.
“A Century Hence,” 84
on John Brown’s raid, 103–6
on territories, 85
Sabbatarianism, 162
Sabine, Lorenzo, 81–82
sacred trust, 9, 21
sacrifice. See also death sacrifice
nationalism and, 13, 15, 37, 171, 198–204, 207, 211–13
U.S. Civil War and, 15, 198–204, 207, 211–13, 216–17, 273n75
St. Paul, Henry, 186, 267n17
Schoen, Brian, 239n8
Seabrook, Whitemarsh, 90
seal, national, 192
Searle-White, Joshua, 9–10
secession
American nationalism and, 8, 9
American Revolution and, 77–83
associations, 77
conditional unionism and, 8, 14, 87, 89, 91, 106
De Bow’s Review on, 113–14
European nationalism comparisons to, 63–70, 74–77
feelings fueling, 90, 107
first secession crisis, 14, 78, 89–95
Grayson on, 92–93
Hammond on, 87
Johnson, H., on, 115, 118, 122, 179–80
Lincoln and, 106, 122
military resignations and, 122–24, 153
mixed feelings about, 114–27, 256n61
opposition to, 92–93, 159
Peirce on, 96–97
Ruffin on, 60, 74–75
slavery and, 7, 8, 14, 46, 50, 52–55, 74–76, 106–7, 112–13, 144, 250n4
South Carolina and, 89, 118, 149
southern unionists on, 96, 101, 116, 118–19, 121, 125
state-by-state, 89
Trescot on, 83
Tucker, N., on, 57
of upper and lower South, 113–14
Virginia and, 121–22, 124–25
Wadley on, 106–7
(p.321) Second Party System, 101
self-government, 36, 79, 81, 129, 134–35, 170
separatist movements, 8, 9, 14, 63. See also secession
ethnicity and, 68–69, 76, 244n39
Sequestration Act, 158
Serbians and Albanians, 270n41
Simms, William Gilmore, 14
on affective national community, 96
on American Revolution, 80, 81–82
on history, 72
letters to Hammond, 58–59, 82
male bravado of, 108
on morality, 56–57
on nationalism and gender, 163–64
“Oh, the sweet South!”, 60, 163
personal trauma of, 60
on romantic nationalism, 33–34, 42–43
on U.S. foreign influence, 27–28
on virtue and citizenship responsibilities, 20
slavery. See also emancipation
American Revolution and, 151, 261n41
Britain and, 129, 135
Compromise of 1850, 89, 93, 95, 252n18
Confederate national identity and, 143–45
Confederate nationalism and, 7, 12, 222n4
Davis, J., on, 143
Dred Scott decision and, 32
economy and, 53–56, 102, 239n8
fears of slave insurrection and uprisings, 105, 107, 110–11
foreign policy and, 53, 55
as foundation of republicanism, 53
free labor compared to, 53–56, 98–99, 143
Fugitive Slave Law, 95, 115
Garrison on, 27
Mexican War and, 8, 46, 89, 215
Miles on, 58, 59
national legitimacy and, 135–36
North-South relations and, 50–56, 102–6, 141, 143–44, 214–17
Perry on, 103
religion and, 100
Richmond Examiner on, 144–45
secession and, 7, 8, 14, 46, 50, 52–55, 74–76, 106–7, 112–13, 144, 250n4
southern national identity and, 50, 52–56, 238n4
southern unionists on, 116
territories and, 58–59, 85–86, 103, 105
Tucker, N., on, 56, 249n78
U.S. Constitution and, 78, 246n61
Washington and, 147–48, 148 f
Slidell, John, 134, 186
Smith, Anthony, 200, 224n9, 263n62
Smith, Robert H., 145
Smythe, James M., 97–98
Snowden, Mary Amarinthia, 196
Society for the Promotion of the Cessation of Hostilities in America, 187
Songs and Poems of the South (Meek), 72
“Sons of the South!” (C. B. J.), 112
South. See also North-South relations
Ireland compared to, 76
secession of upper and lower, 113–14
unity of, 84, 89
South Carolina
John Brown’s raid and, 103–6
nullification movement in, 45–46, 55
Palmetto Day, 94
secession and, 89, 118, 149
Southern Citizen, 76
Southern Education Society, 71
southern intellectual independence, 70–72
Southern Literary Messenger, 27, 137
“A Southern Man with Union Principles,” 149 f
(p.322) “The Southern Marseillaise” (poem), 109
southern national identity, slavery and, 50, 52–56, 238n4
southern nationalism, 6–10, 13, 50–86
American nationalism and, 51–52, 73, 87, 214–17
Ayer on, 50–52
Chesnut on, 69–70
ethnicity, culture and, 68–70
European nationalism and, 50–52, 63–77, 201
future of, 83–86
honor and, 60–62
Porcher on, 52, 84
Tucker, N., on, 86
watchwords of, 62
women and, 57, 62
Southern Quarterly Review, 71
on confederation, 46–47
on U.S. foreign influence, 27
Southern Rights associations, 77
Central Southern Rights Association of Virginia, 91, 104
University of Virginia, 55, 90
“Southern Song of Freedom,” 136–37
southern unionists
on secession, 96, 101, 116, 118–19, 121, 125
on slavery, 116
during U.S. Civil War, 178–81, 178 f, 190–91
“The Southern War Song,” 164
sovereignty
Ayer on, 66
popular, 22, 48
Spain, 34, 47, 248n70
Sparrow, William, 19, 20
speculators, 199
Spratt, Leonidas, 54–55
states. See also nation-state; secession
federalism and, 43–47, 66
Porter, D., on, 228n7
states’ rights, 13
federalism and, 45–47
Porter, W., on, 66–67
Trescot on, 67
Stephens, Alexander, 122, 143–44, 152
Story, Elliot, 103–4
Strong, George Templeton, 35
suffering
death and, 10–11
Renan on, 200
during U.S. Civil War, 198–213
Sumner, Charles, 61–62, 82, 241n22
Sunday mail delivery, 209
Sutherland, Dan, 199
Swift, Helen, 152–53
Switzerland, 121, 232n31
tariff policies, 45
Terrell, Alexander, 150
territories, slavery and, 58–59, 85–86, 103, 105
textbooks, Confederate, 176, 267n9
Thurman, John, 198–99
Toombs, Robert, 133–34
Towers, Frank, 242n26
treason, 190
Treitschke, Heinrich von, 70
Trescot, William
on American Revolution, 80
on cotton, 85
on history, 72
on national legitimacy, 132
on secession, 83
on slavery and southern national identity, 52, 55
on states’ rights, 67
on U.S. Civil War, 171–73, 181, 184, 200–201, 213, 265n1
Tucker, Henry H., 207
Tucker, Nathaniel Beverley
on confederation, 80
on education, 70–71
on Missouri Compromise, 58
The Partisan Leader, 85
personal trauma of, 60
on secession, 57
on slavery, 56, 249n78
on southern nationalism, 86
(p.323) two-president system, 57
Tysinger, William, 204, 205 f
unification movement in Italy, 63, 76, 125–26
unification nationalism, 63, 76
Union
attachments to, 88, 89, 215–16
benefits of, 93
clinging to, 114–27
collapse of, 106–14
enduring bonds of, 174–81
Jefferson on, 96
Madison on, 96
pinch of, 87, 88, 125
Rhett, R., on, 57
unionism
conditional, 8, 14, 87, 89, 91, 95, 106, 156
Hammond on, 95, 125
Petigru on, 45, 116
Ramsay on, 116
unionists. See also southern unionists
labeling as, 159–60
nullifiers against, 45
United Kingdom, 48, 64
United States (U.S.)
citizenship, 23, 157–60
Confederacy recognition by, 134
Confederacy relationship with, 145–57
as example to other nations, 17
flag of, 124, 146
global influence of, 23–30, 36, 93, 101, 118
literature in, 33–34, 42–43
University of the South, 70
U.S. See United States
us and them, 10, 11, 12
U.S.S.R., 126
Vance, Zebulon Baird, 193
Van Young, Eric, 250n2
Varon, Elizabeth, 248n69
victimhood
North-South relations and, 15, 53, 56–63, 91, 126
personal and national, 56–63
shared, 9–10, 15, 53, 56, 200
Vidaurri, Santiago, 134–35
Virginia
Central Southern Rights Association of, 91, 104
secession and, 121–22, 124–25
virtue
citizenship responsibilities and, 20–21
republicanism and, 228n8
Wadley, Sarah Lois
on Fourth of July celebrations, 151–52
on secession, 106–7
on U.S. Civil War, 196, 202
on Washington, 147, 176
war, 171–213. See also specific wars
Ward, John, 34
Washington, George
birthday of, 36, 38, 147, 174–76
Calhoun on, 82
as central figure of American nationalism, 39–40
comparisons to, 146–47, 260n33
on national seal, 192
slavery and, 147–48, 148 f
statue of, 175 f
Wadley on, 147, 176
Washington National Monument, 39 f
Webster, Daniel, 9, 21
Webster-Hayne debates, 45, 64
westward expansion
manifest destiny, Native Americans and, 32
territories, slavery and, 58–59, 85–86
“What the Yankee Nation Has Come To,” 152
(p.324) Whig Party, 101
white national identity, 32
whiteness, 32
white supremacy, 32, 69, 102, 217
Wigfall, Louis, 59, 61, 145
Wilcox, W. M., 115
Wilmot, David, 89
Wise, Henry A., 109
women. See also gender
associations and, 40, 196
citizenship and, 12, 194–97, 272n52
during Civil War, 193–97
education and, 71
republican motherhood and, 21, 229n11
roles as mediators, 248n69
roles in national community, 12
southern nationalism and, 57, 62
support for military, 166–68, 265n74
Wood, John Taylor, 23
Wood, John W., 178
Wood, Lucy, 108
on Confederacy, 165–67
on U.S. Civil War, 184, 202–3
“The Word of God a Nation’s Life” (Pierce), 208
“Wouldst Thou Have Me Love Thee?” (Meek), 192
Yancey, William, 14
as commissioner to Europe, 128–29, 133, 136
on political activism, 77
on southern nationalism and honor, 60–61
Yandell, L. P., 154–55
Yankees, 141
barbarity of, 182–87, 213
characteristics of, 141
Phillips on, 268n20, 268n24
Yulee, David Levy, 132