Quantum computing and entanglement
Les Houches School Singapore, June 29th–July 24th 2009
This chapter contains an introduction to the main concepts in quantum computation and entanglement. It starts with a brief introduction to computational complexity and then introduces quantum gates and quantum networks, discussing the universality issue in quantum computation. A review on the main known quantum algorithms follows, including Deutsch's, Deutsch-Jozsa's, Grover's and Shor's algorithms. The basic concepts in the theory of quantum error correction are then reviewed. The second part of the chapter is devoted to entanglement. It starts by reminding the basic definitions of entanglement and entanglement criteria for bipartite and multipartite systems, and then discusses the role that entanglement plays in the quantum algorithms described before. The chapter ends with short descriptions of NMR quantum computing, the computational model DQC1, and one-way quantum computing.
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