The basic difference between nanoferroelectrics and bulk ferroelectrics is the increased role of the surface and the inherent bulk symmetry breaking present in the vicinity of the surface. This gives rise to spontaneous piezomagnetic, piezoelectric and magnetoelectric effects that are absent in the bulk. Size‐induced phase transitions may appear as well as spontaneous flexoelectric effects. It is further shown that before the ferroelectric state vanishes with decreasing size the system may undergo a phase transition to a ferroelectric vortex state that does not exist in the bulk. This state persists down to very small dimensions where it finally vanishes and ferroelectricity disappears.
Keywords: surface to volume ratio, , surface symmetry effects, piezoelectric, piezomagnetic tensors, magnetoelectric tensors, size‐induced phase transitions, spontaneous flexoelectric effect, ferroelectric vortex states
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