European Liberalization, National Varieties of Capitalism, and Re-regulation
This chapter examines the practical and very concrete impact of Europeanization, and the way in which a sample of diverse organized European varieties of capitalism may respond to and cope with top-down EU-led economic liberalization by devising national response strategies. ‘Europeanization’ is conceptualized as ‘a process reorienting the direction and shape of politics to the degree that EU political and economic dynamics become part of the organizational logic of national politics and policy making’. In analyzing the way in which attempts are made to re-regulate the EU liberalization of service provision, liberal models of politico-economic governance are questioned. National responses to top-down Europeanization are colored by the internal institutional and organizational characteristics of unions and employers, embedded in national systems of political economy and industrial relations.
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