Birds and mammals in polar regions
Sea birds and mammals are predators in the open seas and coastal regions of the polar regions, and are mainly of different species north and south. Birds and mammals are visible on top of the sea ice and they have evolved foraging techniques adapted to the physical nature of the ice and also make use of it as a comparatively safe breeding ground. This chapter discusses how bird and mammal life histories have adapted to the sea-ice environment in the Arctic and Antarctic. It covers sea birds, seals, whales, bears, and foxes.
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