So what happens when you defocus?
The first edition of Acoustic Microscopy ended with a chapter emphasizing the need to understand the contrast in terms of the variation of signal with defocus, V(z). This is a fundamental concept in the contrast from surfaces of stiff materials, and is dominated by excitation of Rayleigh waves in the surface of the sample. The second edition contains a major new chapter on acoustically excited probe microscopy, which changes everything. In ultrasonic force microscopy there is no V(z), no defocus, and no Rayleigh waves. Instead the contrast is dominated by the non‐linear mechanical contact between the tip of an atomic force microscope and the surface of the sample, with its underlying elastic nanostructure.
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