Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Forest Ecology and Conservation$

Adrian Newton

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198567448

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567448.001.0001

(p.379) References

Forest Ecology and Conservation
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abbitt, R. J. F., Scott, J. M., and Wilcove, D. S. (2000). The geography of vulnerability: incorporating species geography and human development patterns into conservation planning. Biological Conservation, 96, 169–175.

Acevedo, M. F., Urban, D. L., and Ablan, M. (1995). Transition and gap models of forest dynamics. Ecological Applications, 5(4), 1040–1055.

Acevedo, M. F., Urban, D. L., and Ablan, M. (1996a). Landscape scale forest dynamics: GIS, gap and transition models. In GIS and environmental modeling: Progress and research issues, eds. M. F. Goodchild, L. T. Steyaert, and B. O. Parks, pp. 181–185. GIS World Books, Fort Collins, CO.

Acevedo, M. F., Urban, D. L., and Shugart, H. H. (1996b). Models of forest dynamics based on roles of tree species. Ecological Modelling, 87, 267–284.

Adams, J. B., Sabol, D. E., Kapos, V., Filho, R. A., Roberts, D., Smith, M. O., and Gillespie, A. R. (1995). Classification of multispectral images based on fractions of endmembers: applications to land-cover change in the Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing of Environment, 52, 137–152.

Adams, W. T., Strauss, S. H., Copes, D. L., and Griffin, A. R. (eds.) (1992). Population genetics of forest trees. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Agee, J. K. (1993). Fire ecology in Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Washington DC.

Agyeman, V. K., Swaine, M. D., and Thompson, J. (1999). Responses of tropical forest tree seedlings to irradiance and the derivation of a light response index. Journal of Ecology, 87, 815–827.

Akçakaya, H. R. and Root, W. (2002). RAMAS Metapop: Viability analysis for stage-structured metapopulations (ver. 4.0). Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY.

Akçakaya, H. R. and Sjögren-Gulve, P. (2000). Population viability analysis in conservation planning: an overview. Ecological Bulletins, 48, 9–21.

Akçakaya, H. R., Radeloff, V. C., Mladenoff, D. J., and He, H. S. (2004). Integrating landscape and metapopulation modelling approaches: viability of the sharp-tailed grouse in a dynamic landscape. Conservation Biology, 18, 526–537.

Alder, D. and Synnott, T. J. (1992). Permanent sample plot techniques for mixed tropical forest. Tropical Forestry Papers 25, Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford.

Aldred, A. H. and Alemdag, I. S. (1988). Guidelines for forest biomass inventory. Petawawa National Forestry Institute Report PI-X-77. Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa.

Aldrich, P. R., Parker, G. R., Ward, J. S., and Michler, C. H. (2003). Spatial dispersion of trees in an old-growth temperate hardwood forest over 60 years of succession. Forest Ecology and Management, 180(1–3), 475–491.

Allen, J. and Barnes, D. (1985). The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 75, 163–184.

Allnutt, T. R., Thomas, P., Newton, A. C., and Gardner, M. F. (1998). Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides cultivated in the British Isles, assessed using RAPDs. Botanical Journal of Edinburgh, 55(3), 329–341.

Allnutt, T. R., Newton, A. C., Lara, A., Premoli, A., Armesto, J. J., Vergara, R., and Gardner, M. (1999). Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce), a threatened South American conifer. Molecular Ecology, 8, 975–987.

Alonso, D. and Sole, R. V. (2000). The DivGame Simulator: a stochastic cellular automata model of rainforest dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 133(1–2), 131–141.

(p.380) Alvarez-Aquino, C., Williams-Linera, G., and Newton, A. C. (2005). Composition of the seed bank in disturbed fragments of Mexican cloud forest. Biotropica, 37(3), 337–342.

Alvarez-Buylla, E. R. and Slatkin, M. (1991). Finding confidence limits on population growth rates. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 221–224.

Alves, D. S., Pereira, J. L. G., De Sousa, C. L., Soares, J. V., and Yamaguchi, F. (1999). Characterising landscape changes in central Rondonia using Landsat TM imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20, 2877–2882.

Amarnath, G., Murthy, M. S. R., Britto, S. J., Rajashekar, G., and Dutt, C. B. S. (2003). Diagnostic analysis of conservation zones using remote sensing and GIS techniques in wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats—an ecological hotspot, Tamil Nadu, India. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12(12), 2331–2359.

Amaro, A., Reed, D., and Saores, P. (eds.) (2003). Modelling forest systems. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Andelman, S., Ball, I., Davis, F., and Stoms, D. (1999). Sites 1.0: An analytical toolbox for designing ecoregional conservation portfolios. Manual prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

Andersen, M. (1991). Mechanistic models for the seed shadows of wind-dispersed plants. American Naturalist, 137, 476–497.

Anderson, M. C. (1964). Studies of the woodland light climate. I. The photographic computation of light conditions. Journal of Ecology, 52, 27–41.

Anderson, R. P., Lew, D., and Peterson, A. T. (2003). Evaluating predictive models of species' distributions: criteria for selecting optimal models. Ecological Modelling, 162, 211–232.

Angelstam, P. and Dönz-Breuss, M. (2004). Measuring forest biodiversity at the stand scale—an evaluation of indicators in European forest history gradients. Ecological Bulletins, 51, 305–332.

Angelstam, P., Dönz-Breuss, M., and Roberge, J.-M. (2004a). Targets and tools for the maintenance of forest biodiversity. (Ecological Bulletins No. 51) Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Angelstam, P., Roberge, J.-M., Dönz-Breuss, M., Burfield, I. J., and Ståhl, G. (2004b). Monitoring forest biodiversity—from the policy level to the management unit. Ecological Bulletins, 51, 295–304.

Armenteras, D., Gast, F., and Villareal, H. (2003). Andean forest fragmentation and the representativeness of protected natural areas in the eastern Andes, Colombia. Biological Conservation, 113, 245–256.

Arno, S. F. and Sneck, K. M. (1977). A method for determining fire history in coniferous forests of the Mountain West. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-42.

Ashley, C. and Carney, D. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods: Lessons from early experience. DFID, London.

Ashton, P. M. S. (1995). Seedling growth of co-occurring Shorea species in the simulated light environments of a rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 72, 1–12.

Ashton, P. M. S., Gunatilleke, C. V. S., and Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N. (1995). Seedling survival and growth of four Shorea species in Sri Lankan rainforest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 263–279.

Ashton, P. S. and Hall, P. (1992). Comparisons of structure among mixed dipterocarp forests of north-western Borneo. Journal of Ecology, 80, 459–481.

Asner, G. P., Hicke, J. A. and Lobell, D. B. (2003). Per-pixel analysis of forest structure. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 209–254. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Attiwill, P. M. (1994). The disturbance of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. Forest Ecology and Management, 63, 247–300.

Augspurger, C. K. (1983). Seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Platypodium elegans, and the escape of its seedlings from fungal pathogens. Journal of Ecology, 71, 759–771.

(p.381) Augspurger, C. K. (1984). Light requirements of neotropical tree seedlings: a comparative study of growth and survival. Journal of Ecology, 72, 777–795.

Augspurger, C. K. and Hogan, K. P. (1983). Wind dispersal of fruits with variable seed number in a tropical tree (Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus, Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany, 70, 1031–1037.

Augspurger, C. K. and Kelly, C. K. (1984). Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions. Oecologia, 61, 211–217.

Austin, M. P. and Heyligers, P. C. (1989). Vegetation survey design for conservation: gradsect sampling of forests in Northeast New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 50, 13–32.

Austin, M. P. and Heyligers, P. C. (1991). New approach to vegetation survey design: gradsect sampling. In Nature conservation: Cost effective biological surveys and data analysis, eds. C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin, pp. 31–36. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia.

Avery, T. E. (1968). Interpretation of aerial photographs, 2nd edition. Burgess, Minneapolis, MN.

Avery, T. E. (1978). Forester's guide to aerial photo interpretation. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook no. 308. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Avery, T. E. and Berlin, G. L. (1992). Fundamentals of remote sensing and airphoto interpretation, 5th edition. Macmillan, NY.

Avery, T. E. and Burkhart, H. E. (2002). Forest measurements, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill, NY.

Bachmann, P., Köhl, M., and Päivinen, R. (eds.). (1998). Assessment of biodiversity for improved forest planning. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Bacles, C. F. E., Lowe, A. J., and Ennos, R. A. (2004). Genetic effects of chronic habitat fragmentation on tree species: the case of Sorbus aucuparia in a deforested Scottish landscape. Molecular Ecology, 13, 573–584.

Bacles, C. F. E., Lowe, A. J., and Ennos, R. A. (2006). Effective seed dispersal across a fragmented landscape. Science, 311, 628.

Baguette, M. (2004). The classical metapopulation theory and the real, natural world: a critical appraisal. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 213–224.

Bajracharya, S. B., Furley, P. A., and Newton, A. C. (2005). Effectiveness of community involvement in delivering conservation benefits to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 32(3), 239–247.

Baker, A. (ed.) (2000). Molecular methods in ecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Baker, P. J. and Wilson, J. S. (2000). A quantitative technique for the identification of canopy stratification in tropical and temperate forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 127, 77–86.

Baker, T. R., Swaine, M. D., and Burslem, D. F. R. P. (2003). Variation in tropical forest growth rates: combined effects of functional group composition and resource availability. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 6/1(2), 21–36.

Baldocchi, D. and Collineau, S. (1994). The physical nature of solar radiation in heterogeneous canopies: spatial and temporal attributes. In Exploitation of environmental heterogeneity by plants, eds. M. M. Caldwell and R. W. Pearcy, pp. 21–71. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Ball, I. R. and Possingham, H. P. (2000). MARXAN (V1.8.2): Marine reserve design using spatially explicit annealing, a manual. University of Queensland, Australia.

Ball, I. R., Lindenmayer, D. B., and Possingham, H. P. (1999). A tree hollow dynamics simulation model. Forest Ecology and Management, 123(2–3), 179–194.

Balmford, A., Bennun, L., ten Brink, B. et al. (2005). The Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 target. Science, 307(5707), 212–213.

Balzter, H., Braun, P. W., and Kohler, W. (1998). Cellular automata models for vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 107(2–3), 113–125.

Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. (1995). Kernel plant density estimation by a ranked set sampling of point-to-plant distances. In The Monte Verita conference on forest survey designs, eds. M. Köhl, P. Bachmann, P. Brassel, and G. Preto, pp. 71–80. WSL/ETHZ, Birmensdorf, Switzerland

(p.382) Bardon, R. E., Countryman, D. W., and Hall, R. B. (1995). A reassessment of using light-sensitive diazo paper for measuring integrated light in the field. Ecology, 76, 1013–1016.

Barnes, B. V., Zak, D. R., Denton, S. R., and Spurr, S. H. (1998). Forest ecology, 4th edition. Wiley, New York.

Barot, S., Gignoux, J., and Menaut, J.-C. (1999). Demography of a savanna palm tree: predictions from comprehensive spatial pattern analyses. Ecology, 80, 1987–2005.

Baskent, E. (1999). Controlling spatial structure of forested landscapes: a case study towards landscape management. Landscape Ecology, 14, 83–97.

Baskent, E. Z. and Jordan, G. A. (1995). Characterizing spatial structure of forest landscapes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 1830–1849.

Baskin, C. C. and Baskin, J. M. (1998). Seeds: Ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Bass, B., Hansell, R., and Choi, J. (1998). Towards a simple indicator of biodiversity. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 49, 337–347.

Batista, W. B., Platt, W. J., and Macchiavelli, R. E. (1998). Demography of a shade-tolerant tree (Fagus grandifolia) in a hurricane-disturbed forest. Ecology, 79, 38–53.

Bawa, K. S. and Hadley, M. (eds.) (1990). Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants. Man and the Biosphere Series vol. 7. UNESCO, Paris.

Bebber, D., Brown, N., Speight, M., Moura-Costa, P., and Sau Wai, Y. (2002). Spatial structure of light and dipterocarp seedling growth in a tropical secondary forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 157(1–3), 65–75.

Bebi, P., Kienast, F., and Schonenberger, W. (2001). Assessing structures in mountain forests as a basis for investigating the forest's dynamics and protective function. Forest Ecology and Management, 145, 3–14.

Becker, M. (1971). Une technique nouvelle d'utilization des photographies hémisphériques pour la mesure du climat lumineux en forêt. Annales des Sciences Forestières, 28, 425–442.

Beers, T. W. (1969). Slope correction in horizontal point sampling. Journal of Forestry, 67, 188–192.

Begon, M. and Mortimer, M. (1981). Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Begon, M., Harper, J. L., and Rownsend, C. R. (1996). Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Behera, M. D., Kushwaha, S. P. S., and Roy, P. S. (2005). Rapid assessment of biological richness in a part of Eastern Himalaya: an integrated three-tier approach. Forest Ecology and Management, 207(3), 363–384.

Bekessy, S. A., Allnutt, T. R., Premoli, A. C. et al. (2002a). Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs. Heredity, 88, 243–249.

Bekessy, S. A., Sleep, D., Stott, A. et al. (2002b). Adaptation of Monkey Puzzle to arid environments reflected by regional differences in stable carbon isotope ratio and allocation to root biomass. Forest Genetics, 9(1), 63–70.

Bekessy, S. A., Ennos, R. A., Ades, P. K., Burgman, M. A., and Newton, A. C. (2003). Neutral DNA markers fail to detect divergence in an ecologically important trait. Biological Conservation, 110, 267–275.

Bekessy, S. A., Newton, A. C., Fox, J. C. et al. (2004). The monkey puzzle tree in southern Chile. In Species conservation and management: Case studies using RAMAS GIS, eds. H. R. Açkakaya, M. A. Burgman, O. Kindval, P. Sjögren-Gulve, J. Hatfield and M. McCarthy, pp. 48–63. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bellingham, P. J., Tanner, E. V. J., and Healey, J. R. (1994). Sprouting of trees in Jamaican montane forests after a hurricane. Journal of Ecology, 82, 747–758.

(p.383) Bellingham, P. J., Tanner, E. V. J., and Healey, J. R. (1995). Damage and responsiveness of Jamaican montane tree species after disturbance by a hurricane. Ecology, 76, 2562–2580.

Bertault, J. G. and Sist, P. (1997). An experimental comparison of different harvesting intensities with reduced-impact and conventional logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 94(1–3), 209–218.

Bhadresa, R. (1986). Faecal analysis and exclosure studies. In Methods in plant ecology, 2nd edition, eds. P. D. Moore and S. B. Chapman, pp. 61–71. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Bierzychudek, P. (1999). Looking backwards: assessing the projections of a transition matrix model. Ecological Applications, 9, 1278–1287.

Blasco, F., Whitmore, T. C., and Gers, C. (2000). A framework for the worldwide comparison of tropical woody vegetation types. Biological Conservation, 95, 175–189.

Bond, W. J. (1997). Functional types for predicting changes in biodiversity: a case study in Cape fynbos. In Plant functional types, eds. T. M. Smith, H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward, pp. 174–194. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bond, W. J. (1998). Ecological and evolutionary importance of disturbance and catastrophes in plant conservation. In Conservation in a changing world, eds. G. M. Mace, A. Balmford, and J. R. Ginsberg, pp. 87–106. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Boose, E. R., Chamberlin, K. E., and Foster, D. R. (2001). Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in New England. Ecological Monographs, 71, 27–48.

Boot, R. G. A. and Gullison, R. E. (1995). Approaches to developing sustainable extraction systems for tropical forest products. Ecological Applications, 5(4), 896–903.

Borrough, P. A. and McDonnell, R. (1998). Principles of geographical information systems (spatial information systems). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Boshier, D. H., Chase, M. R., and Bawa, K. S. (1995). Population genetics of Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), a neotropical tree. 2. Mating system. American Journal of Botany, 82, 476–483.

Bossard, C. C. (1990). Tracing of ant-dispersed seeds: a new technique. Ecology, 71, 2370–2371.

Botkin, D. B. (1993). Forest dynamics: An ecological model. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Botkin, D. B., Janak, J. R., and Wallis, J. R. (1972a). Rationale, limitations and assumptions of a northeast forest growth simulator. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 16, 101–116.

Botkin, D. B., Janak J. F., and Wallis, J. R. (1972b). Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth. Journal of Ecology, 60, 849–872.

Boucher, D. H. and Mallona, M. A. (1997). Recovery of the rain forest tree Vochysia ferruginea over 5 years following Hurricane Joan in Nicaragua: a preliminary population projection matrix. Forest Ecology and Management, 91, 195–204.

Bower, D. R. and Blocker, W. W. (1966). Accuracy of bands and tape for measuring diameter increments. Journal of Forestry, 64, 21–22.

Bradbeer, J. W. (1988). Seed dormancy and germination. Blackie, Glasgow.

Bradstock, R. A. and Kenny, B. J. (2003). Application of plant functional traits to fire management in a conservation reserve in southeastern Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 345–354.

Brändli, U. B., Kaufmann, E., and Stierlin, H. R. (1995). Survey of biodiversity at the forest margin in the second Swiss NFI. In The Monte Verita conference on forest survey designs, eds. M. Köhl, P. Bachmann, P. Brassel, and G. Preto, pp. 141–150. WSL/ETHZ, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Brandon, K., Redford, K. H., and Sanderson, S. E. (eds.) (1998). Parks in peril. People, politics and protected areas. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Bréda, N. J. J. (2003). Ground-based measurements of leaf area index: a review of methods, instruments and current controversies. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54(392), 2403–2417.

Briers, R. A. (2002). Incorporating connectivity in reserve selection procedures. Biological Conservation, 103, 77–83.

Briggs, D. and Walters, S. M. (1997). Plant variation and evolution, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

(p.384) Brigham, C. A. and Schwartz, M. A. (eds.) (2003). Population viability in plants. Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants. Ecological Studies 165, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Brigham, C. A. and Thomson, D. M. (2003). Approaches to modeling population viability in plants: an overview. In Population viability in plants. Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants, eds. C. A. Brigham and M. A. Schwartz, pp. 145–171. Ecological Studies 165, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Brockhaus, J. A., Khorram, S., Bruck, R., Campbell, M. V., and Stallings, C. (1992). A comparison of Landsat TM and SPOT HRV data for use in the development of forest defoliation models. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 13, 3235–3240.

Brokaw, N. V. (1985). Treefalls, regrowth, and community structure in tropical forests. In The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, eds. S. T. A. Pickett and P. S. White, pp. 53–69. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.

Brokaw, N. V. L. and Lent, R. A. (1999). Vertical structure. In Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, ed. M. L. Hunter, pp. 373–399. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Brommit, A., Charbonneau, N., Contreras, T. A., and Fahrig, L. (2004). Crown loss and subsequent branch sprouting of forest trees in response to a major ice storm. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 131, 169–176.

Brook, B. W., O'Grady, J. J., Chapman, A. P., Burgman, M. A., Akçakaya, H. R., and Frankham, R. (2000). Predictive accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation biology. Nature, 404, 385–387.

Brook, B. W., Burgman, M. A., Akçakaya, H. R., O'Grady, J. J., and Frankham, R. (2002). Critiques of PVA as the wrong questions: throwing the heuristic baby out with the numerical bath water. Conservation Biology, 16(1), 262–263.

Brooks, R. P. (1997). Improving habitat suitability index models. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25, 163–167.

Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Fjeldså, J., Hansen, L. A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C., and Williams, P. (2001). Toward a blueprint for conservation in Africa. Bioscience, 51, 613–624.

Brown, A. H. D. (1990). Genetic characterization of plant mating systems. In Plant Population genetics, breeding and genetic resources, eds. A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler, and B. S. Weir, pp. 145–162. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Brown, N. D. and Jennings, S. (1998). Gap-size niche differentiation by tropical rainforest trees: a testable hypothesis or a broken-down bandwagon? In Dynamics of tropical communities, eds. D. M. Newbery, H. H. T. Prins, and N. Brown, pp. 79–94. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Brown, N., Jennings, S., Wheeler, P., and Nabe-Nielson, J. (2000). An improved method for the rapid assessment of forest understorey light environments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 1044–1053.

Brown, S. L., Schroeder, P., and Kern, J. S. (1999). Spatial distribution of biomass in forests of the eastern USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 123, 81–90.

Brown, V. K. and Gange, A. C. (1989). Differential effects of above- and below-ground insect herbivory during early plant succession. Oikos, 54, 67–76.

Brown, V. K., Gange, A. C., Evans, I. M., and Storr, A. L. (1987). The effect of insect herbivory on the growth and reproduction of two annual Vicia species at different stages in plant succession. Journal of Ecology, 75, 1173–1189.

Bruner, A. G., Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E., and da Fonseca, G. A. B. (2001). Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science, 291(5501), 125–128.

Bryant, D., Nielsen, D., and Tangley, L. (1997). The last frontier forests. Ecosystems and economies on the edge. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., Laake, J. L., Borchers, D. L., and Thomas, L. (2001). Introduction to distance sampling: Estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

(p.385) Bucur, V. (2003). Nondestructive characterization and imaging of wood. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Bugmann, H. (2001). A review of forest gap models. Climatic Change, 51(3–4), 259–305.

Bugmann, H. (2003). Predicting the ecosystem effects of climate change. In Models in ecosystem science, eds. C. D. Canham, J. J. Cole, and W. K. Lauenroth, pp. 385–409. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Bullock, J. (1996). Plants. In Ecological census techniques. A handbook, ed. W. J. Sutherland, pp. 111–138. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bullock, J. M. and Clarke, R. T. (2000). Long distance seed dispersal by wind: measuring and modelling the tail of the curve. Oecologia, 124, 506–521.

Bunnell, F. L. and Vales, D. J. (1990). Comparison of methods for estimating forest overstory cover: differences among techniques. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 101–107.

Bunyavejchewin, S., LaFrankie, J. V., Baker, P. J., Kanzaki, M., Ashton, P. S., and Yamakura, T. (2003). Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant canopy dipterocarp species in a seasonal dry evergreen forest in western Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management, 175(1–3), 87–101.

Burgess, N., D'Amico Hales, J., Underwood, E. et al. (2005). The terrestrial ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Burgman, M. (2005). Risks and decisions for conservation and environmental management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Burgman, M. A., Breininger, D. R., Duncan, B. W., and Ferson, S. (2001). Setting reliability bounds on habitat suitability indices. Ecological Applications, 11, 70–78.

Burk, T. E. and Newberry, J. D. (1984). A simple algorithm for moment-based recovery of Weibull distribution parameters. Forest Science, 30, 329–332.

Burkhart, H. E. (2003). Suggestions for choosing an appropriatge level for modelling forest stands. In Modelling forest systems, eds. A. Amaro, D. Reed, and P. Saores, pp. 3–10. CABI Publishing, Walligford.

Burslem, D. F. R. P., Turner, I. M., and Grubb, P. J. (1994). Mineral nutrient status of coastal hill dipterocarp forest and adinandra belukar in Singapore: bioassays of nutrient limitation. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 10, 579–599.

Burslem, D. F. R. P., Whitmore, T. C., and Brown, G. C. (2000). Short-term effects of cyclone impact and long-term recovery of tropical rain forest on Kolombangara, Solomon Islands. Journal of Ecology, 88(6), 1063–1078.

Busby, J. R. (1991). BIOCLIM—a bioclimate analysis and prediction system. In Nature conservation: Cost-effective biological surveys and data analysis, eds. C. R. Margules, and M. P. Austin, pp. 64–68. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia.

Busing, R. T. and Mailly, D. (2004). Advances in spatial, individual-based modelling of forest dynamics. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15(6), 831–842.

Butin, H. (1995). Tree diseases and disorders: Causes, biology, and control in forest and amenity trees. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Byram, G. M. (1959). Combustion of forest fuels. In Forest fire: Control and use, ed. K. P. Davis, pp. 61–89. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Cadenasso, M. L., Traynor, M. M., and Pickett, S. T. A. (1997). Functional location of forest edges: gradients of multiple physical factors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 774–782.

Cahill, J. F., Castelli, J. P., and Casper, B. B. (2001). The herbivore uncertainty principle: visiting plants can alter herbivory. Ecology, 82, 307–312.

Cailliez, F. (1980). Forest volume estimation and yield prediction. Vol. 1. Volume estimation. FAO Forestry Paper 22/1. FAO, Rome.

Cain, M. L., Milligan, B. G., and Strand, A. E. (2000). Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations. American Journal of Botany, 87, 1217–1227.

Cain, S. A. and de Oliveira Castro, G. M. (1959). Manual of vegetation analysis. Harper & Row, New York.

(p.386) Calcote, R. R. (1995). Pollen source area and pollen productivity: evidence from forest hollows. Journal of Ecology, 83, 591–602.

Caldecott, J. and Miles, L. (eds.) (2005). World atlas of great apes and their conservation. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Campbell, D. R. and Waser, N. M. (1989). Variation in pollen flow within and among populations of Ipomopsis aggregata. Evolution, 43, 1444–1455.

Campbell, J. E. and Gibson, D. J. (2001). The effect of seeds of exotic species transported via horse dung on vegetation along trail corridors. Vegetatio, 157(1), 23–35.

Campbell, J. B. (1996). Introduction to remote sensing, 2nd edition. Taylor and Francis, London.

Campbell, P., Comiskey, J., Alonso, A. et al. (2002). Modified Whittaker plots as an assessment and monitoring tool for vegetation in a lowland tropical rainforest. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 76(1), 19–41.

Canham, C. D., Finzi, A. C., Pacala, S. W., and Burbank, D. H. (1994a). Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: Interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 337–349.

Canham, C. D., McAninch, J. B., and Wood, D. W. (1994b). Effects of the frequency, timing, and intensity of simulated browsing on growth and mortality of tree seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24(4), 817–825.

Canham, C. D., Cole, J. J., and Lauenroth, W. K. (eds.) (2003). Models in ecosystem science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Cannas, S. A., Paes, S. A., and Marco, D. E. (1999). Modeling plant spread in forest ecology using cellular automata. Computer Physics Communications, 122, 131–135.

Cannell, M. G. R. and Grace, J. (1993). Competition for light: detection, measurement, and quantification. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 1969–1979.

Cant, E. T., Smith, A. D., Reynolds, D. R., and Osborne, J. L. (2005). Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B272, 785–790.

Cantarello, E. (2006). Towards cost-effective indicators to maintain Natura 2000 sites in a favourable conservation status. PhD thesis, University of Parma, Italy.

Carey, P. D. (1996). DISPERSE: a cellular automaton for predicting the distribution of species in a changed climate. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 5, 217–226.

Carle, J. and Holmgren, P. (2003). Definitions related to planted forests. Forest Resources Assessment Programme Working Paper 79. FAO, Rome.

Carney, D. (2002). Sustainable livelihoods approaches: Progress and possibilities for change. DFID, London.

Carpenter, G., Gillison, A. N., and Winter, J. (1993). DOMAIN: a flexible modelling procedure for mapping potential distributions of plants and animals. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 667–680.

Carpenter, G. A., Gopal, S., Macomber, S., Martens, S., Woodcock, C. E., and Franklin, J. (1999). A neural network method for efficient vegetation mapping. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70, 326–338.

Carpenter, S. R., Pingali, P. L., Bennett, E. M., and Zurek, M. B. (eds.) (2006). Millennium ecosystem assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: scenarios. Findings of the scenarios working group. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series, Island Press, Washington, DC. Available at 〈www.maweb.org/〉.

Carter, R. E., MacKenzie, M. D., and Gjerstad, D. H. (1999). Ecological land classification in the Southern Loam Hills of south Alabama. Forest Ecology and Management, 114, 395–404.

Castañeda, F. (2001). Collaborative action and technology transfer as means of strengthening the implementation of national-level criteria and indicators. In Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management, ed. R. J. Raison, A. G. Brown, and D. W. Flinn, pp. 145–163. IUFRO Research Series No. 7. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

(p.387) Castley, J. G. and Kerley, G. I. H. (1996). The paradox of forest conservation in South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 85, 35–46.

Caswell, H. (1989). Matrix population models: Construction, analysis and interpretation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Caswell, H. (2000). Prospective and retrospective analyses: their roles in conservation biology. Ecology, 81, 619–627.

Caswell, H. (2001). Matrix population models: Construction, analysis and interpretation, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Cavers, S., Navarro, C., and Lowe, A. J. (2003). Chloroplast DNA phylogeography reveals colonization history of a Neotropical tree, Cedrela odorata L., in Mesoamerica. Molecular Ecology, 12, 1451–1460.

Cavers, S., Navarro, C., and Lowe, A. J. (2004). A combination of molecular markers (cpDNA, PCR-RFLP, AFLP) identifies evolutionarily significant units in Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) in Costa Rica. Conservation Genetics, 4, 571–580.

Cavers, S., Degen, B., Caron, H., Hardy, O., Lemes, M., and Gribel, R. (2005). Optimal sampling strategy for estimation of spatial genetic structure in tree populations. Heredity, 95, 281–289.

Cayuela, L., Golicher, D. J., Salas Rey, J., and Rey Benayas, J. M. (2006). Classification of a complex landscape using Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(10), 1951–1971.

Chambers, J. Q. and Trumbore, S. E. (1999). An age old problem. Trends in Plant Sciences, 4, 385–386.

Chambers, R. (1992). Rural appraisal: Rapid, relaxed, and participatory. Discussion Paper 311, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.

Chambers, R. (2002). Participatory workshops: A sourcebook of 21 sets of ideas and activities. Earthscan, London.

Chambers, R. and Conway, G. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. Discussion Paper 296, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.

Chao, A., Hwang, W.-H., Chen, Y.-C., and Kuo, C. Y. (2000). Estimating the number of shared species in two communities. Statistica Sinica, 10, 227–246.

Chape, S., Harrison, J., Spalding, M., and Lysenko, I. (2005). Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B360, 443–455.

Chapin, F. S., Sala, O. E., and Huber-Sannwald, E. (eds.) (2001). Global biodiversity in a changing environment. Scenarios for the 21st century. Ecological Studies 152, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J., Wangham, R., Hunt, R., Gebo, D., and Gardner, L. (1992). Estimators of fruit abundance of tropical trees. Biotropica, 24(4), 527–531.

Chapman, C. A., Wangham, R., Chapman, L. J., Kennard, D. K., and Zanne, A. E. (1999). Fruit and flower phenology at two sites in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 189–211.

Charlesworth, D. (1988). A method for estimating outcrossing rates in natural populations of plants. Heredity, 61, 469–471.

Chase, M. W. and Hills, H. H. (1991). Silica gel: an ideal material for field preservation of leaf samples for DNA studies. Taxon, 40, 215–220.

Chason, J. W., Baldocchi, D. D., and Huston, M. A. (1991). A comparison of direct and indirect methods for estimating forest canopy leaf area. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 57, 107–128.

Chazdon, R. L., Colwell, R. K., Denslow, J. S., and Guariguata, M. R. (1998). Statistical methods for estimating species richness of woody regeneration in primary and secondary rain forests of NE Costa Rica. In Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies, eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey, pp. 285–309. Parthenon, Paris.

(p.388) Chazdon, R. L. and Field, C. B. (1987). Photographic estimation of photosynthetically active radiation: evaluation of a computerized technique. Oecologia, 73, 525–532.

Chen, J. M. and Cihlar, J. (1995). Quantifying the effect of canopy architecture on optical measurements of leaf area index using two gap size analysis methods. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 33, 777–787.

Chiariello, N. R., Mooney, H. A., and Williams, K. (1989). Growth, carbon allocation and cost of plant tissues. In Plant physiological ecology, eds. R. W. Pearcy, J. R. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney, and P. W. Rundel, pp. 327–365. Chapman & Hall, London.

Chirici, G., Corona, P., Marchetti, M., and Travaglini, D. (2003). Testing Ikonos and Landsat 7 ETM+ potential for stand-level forest type mapping by soft supervised approaches. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 71–86. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Chuvieco, E. (ed.) (1999). Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Clark, D. A. and Clark, D. B. (1992). Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rainforest. Ecological Monographs, 62, 314–344.

Clark, D. F., Kneeshaw, D. D., Burton, P. J., and Antos, J. A. (1998a). Coarse woody debris in sub-boreal spruce forests of west-central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 284–290.

Clark, J. S. and Royall, P. S. (1995). Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The Holocene, 5, 1–9.

Clark, J. S., Macklin, E., and Wood, L. (1998b). Stages and spatial scales of recruitment limitation in southern Appalachian forests. Ecological Monographs, 68, 213–235.

Clark, J. S., Beckage, B., Camill, P. et al. (1999a). Interpreting recruitment limitation in forests. American Journal of Botany, 86, 1–16.

Clark, J. S., Silman, M., Kern, R., Macklin, E., and Hillerislambers, J. (1999b). Seed dispersal near and far: patterns across temperate and tropical forests. Ecology, 80, 1475–1494.

Clark, J. S., Ladeau, S., and Ibanez, I. (2004). Fecundity of trees and the colonization–competition hypothesis. Ecological Monographs, 74(3), 415–442.

Clark, N. A., Wayne, R. H., and Schmidt, D. L. (2000). A review of past research on dendrometers. Forest Science, 46, 570–576.

Clark, P. J. and Evans, F. C. (1954). Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology, 35, 445–453.

Clark, T. L., Radke, L., Coen, J., and Middleton, D. (1999c). Analysis of small-scale convective dynamics in a crown fire using infrared video camera imagery. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38, 1401–1420.

Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M. (2001). Change in marine communities: An approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edition. Primer-E, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth.

Clewell, A. and Rieger, J. (1997). What practitioners need from restoration ecologists. Restoration Ecology, 5(4), 350–354.

Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques, 3rd edition. Wiley, New York.

Cohen, W. B., Fiorella, M., Gray, J., Helmer, E., and Anderson, K. (1998). An efficient and accurate method for mapping forest clearcuts in the Pacific Northwest using Landsat imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64, 293–300.

Cohen, W. B. and Goward, S. N. (2004). Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing. BioScience, 54(6), 535–545.

(p.389) Cohen, W. B. and Spies, T. A. (1992). Estimating structural attributes of Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest stands from Landsat and SPOT imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 41, 1–17.

Cohen, W. B., Spies, T. A., and Fiorella, M. (1995). Estimating the age and structure of forests in a multiownership landscape of western Oregon, USA. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16, 721–746.

Colpaert, N., Cavers, S., Bandou, E., Caron, H., Gheysen, G., and Lowe, A. J. (2005). Sampling tissue for DNA analysis of trees: trunk cambium as an alternative to canopy leaves. Silvae Genetica, 54(6), 265–269.

Colwell, R. K. (2004a). EstimateS 7 User's Guide (online). University of Connecticut, Storrs, 〈http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/EstimateS7Pages/EstS7UsersGuide/EstimateS7UsersGuide.htm〉.

Colwell, R. K. (2004b). EstimateS 7.00: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. 〈http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/EstimateS〉.

Colwell, R. K. and Coddington, J. A. (1994). Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B345, 101–118.

Colwell, R. K., Mao, C. X., and Chang, J. (2004). Interpolating, extrapolating, and comparing incidence-based species accumulation curves. Ecology, 85 (10), 2717–2727.

Comeau, P. G., Gendron, F., and Letchford, T. (1998). A comparison of several methods for estimating light under a paper birch mixed-wood stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 1843–1850.

Condit, R. (1998). Tropical forest census plots. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Condit, R., Hubbell, S. P., Lafrankie, J. V. et al. (1996a). Species-area and species-individual relationships for tropical trees: A comparison of three 50-ha plots. Journal of Ecology, 84(4), 549–562.

Condit, R., Hubbell, S. P., and Foster, R. B. (1996b). Assessing the response of plant functional types to climatic change in tropical forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7(3), 405–416.

Condit, R., Foster, R., Hubbell, S. P. et al. (1998). Assessing forest diversity on small plots: calibration using species-individual curves from 50-ha plots. In Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies, eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey, pp. 247–268. UNESCO/Parthenon, Paris.

Condit, R., Ashton, P. S., Baker, P. et al. (2000). Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science, 288, 1414–1418.

Connell, J. H. (1971). On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In Dynamics of populations, eds. P. J. dem Boer and G. R. Gradwell, pp. 298–312. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.

Cook, E. R. and Kairiukstis, L. A. (1990). Methods of dendrochronology: Applications in the environmental sciences. Kluwer, New York.

Cook, J. G., Stutzman, T. W., Bowers, C. W., Brenner, K. A., and Irwin, L. L. (1995). Spherical densiometers produce biased estimates of forest canopy cover. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23, 711–717.

Coombs, J., Hall, D. O., Long, S. P., and Scurlock, J. M. O. (eds.) (1985). Techniques in bioproductivity and photosynthesis, 2nd edition. Pergamon, Oxford.

Coomes, D. A. and Grubb, P. J. (1998). Responses of juvenile trees to above- and belowground competition in nutrient-starved Amazonian rain forest. Ecology, 79, 768–782.

Cooney, R. (2004). The precautionary principle in biodiversity conservation and natural resource management. An issue paper for policy-makers, researchers and practitioners. Policy and Global Change Series, IUCN, Gland.

Corona, P., Köhl, M., and Marchetti, M. (eds.) (2003). Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

(p.390) Comeau, P. G., Gendron, F., and Letchford, T. (1998). A comparison of several methods for estimating light under a paper birch mixedwood stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 1843–1850.

Cornelissen, J. H. C., Lavorel, S., Garnier, E. et al. (2003). A handbook of protocols for standardized and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 51, 335–380.

Cornelius, J. (1994). Heritabilities and additive genetic coefficients of variation in forest trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 372–379.

Cottrell, T. R. (2004). Seed rain traps for forest lands: Considerations for trap construction and study design. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 5(1). 〈www.forrex.org/jem/2004/vol5/no1/art1.pdf〉.

Coulson, T., Mace, G. M., Hudson, E., and Possingham, H. (2001). The use and abuse of population viability analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, 219–221.

Coutts, M. P. and Grace, J. (eds.) (1995). Wind and trees. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Crandall, K. A., Bininda-Edmonds, O. R. P., Mace, G. M., and Wayne, R. K. (2000). Considering evolutionaty processes in conservation biology: an alternative to ‘evolutionary significant units’. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 290–295.

Crawley, M. J. (1993). GLIM for ecologists. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Crawley, M. J. (1997). Plant-herbivore dynamics. In Plant ecology, ed. M. J. Crawley, 2nd edition, pp.401–474. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Croker, B. H. (1959). A method for estimating the botanical composition of the diet of sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 72–85.

Csuti, B., Polaski, S., Williams, P. H. et al. (1997). A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biological Conservation, 80(1), 83–97.

Cumming, S. and Vernier, P. (2002). Statistical models of landscape pattern metrics, with applications to regional scale dynamic forest simulations. Landscape Ecology, 17, 433–444.

Cumming, S. G., Schmiegelow, F. K. A., and Burton, P. J. (2000). Gap dynamics in boreal aspen stands: is the forest older than we think? Ecological Applications, 10(3), 744–759.

Curran, P. J. and Williamson, H. D. (1985). The accuracy of ground data used in remote sensing investigations. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 6, 1637–1651.

Curran, P. J., Dungan, J., and Gholz, H. L. (1992). Seasonal LAI measurements in slash pine using Landsat TM. Remote Sensing of Environment, 39, 3–13.

Cushman, S. A. and Wallin, D. O. (2000). Rates and patterns of landscape change in the Central Sikhote-alin Mountains, Russian Far East. Landscape Ecology, 15(7), 643–659.

Czaplewski, R. L. (2003). Accuracy assessment of maps of forest condition. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 115–140. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Dafni, A. (1992). Pollination ecology. A practical approach. IRL Press/Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dale, M. R. T. (1999). Spatial pattern analysis in plant ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Dale, V. H. and Pearson, S. M. (1997). Quantifying habitat fragmentation due to land use change in Amazonia. In Tropical forest remnants, eds. W. Laurance and R. Bierregaard, pp. 400–414. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Dallmeier, F. and Comiskey, J. (eds.) (1998a). Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 20. UNESCO/Parthenon, Paris.

Dallmeier, F. and Comiskey, J. (eds.) (1998b). Forest biodiversity in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and monitoring. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 21. UNESCO/Parthenon, Paris.

(p.391) Danson, F. M. and Curran, P. J. (1993). Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 43, 55–65.

D'eca-Neves, F. F. and Morellato, L. P. C. (2004). Methods applied for sampling and estimate tropical forest phenology. Acta Botanica Brasiliana, 18(1), 99–108.

DeFries, R., Hansen, A., Newton, A. C., and Hansen, M. C. (2005). Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecological Applications, 15(1), 19–26.

Degen, B., Gregorius, H.-R., and Scholtz, F. (1996). ECO-GENE, a model for simulation studies on the spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic structure of tree populations. Silvae Genetica, 45, 323–329.

Degen, B., Petit, R. J., and Kremer, A. (2001). SGS—Spatial Genetic Software: a computer program for analysis of spatial genetic and phenotypic structures of individuals and populations. Journal of Heredity, 92, 447–448.

De Kroon, H., Plaiser, A., van Groenendael, J. M., and Caswell, H. (1986). Elasticity as a measure of the relative contribution of demographic parameters to population growth rate. Ecology, 67, 1427–1431.

De Kroon, H., van Groenendael, J. M., and Ehrlen, J. (2000). Elasticities: a review of methods and model limitations. Ecology, 81, 607–618.

Del Tredici, P. (2001). Sprouting in temperate trees: A morphological and ecological review. Botanical Reviews, 67, 21–140.

DeMers, M. N. (2005). Fundamentals of geographic information systems. Wiley, New York.

Dennis, B. (1996). Discussion: should ecologists become Bayesians? Ecological Applications, 6(4), 1095–1103.

Denslow, J. S. (1980). Gap partitioning among tropical rainforest trees. Biotropica, 12(Suppl.), 47–55.

Dettmers, R. and Bart, J. (1999). A GIS modeling method applied to predicting forest songbird habitat. Ecological Applications, 9, 152–163.

de Vries, P. G. (1986). Sampling theory for forest inventory: A teach yourself course. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Diamond, J. (1986). Overview: laboratory experiments, field experiments, and natural experiments. In Community Ecology, eds. J. Diamond and T. K. Case, pp. 3–22. Harper & Row, New York.

Diaz, N. M. (1996). Landscape metrics: a new tool for forest ecologists. Journal of Forestry, 94, 12–16.

Digby, P. G. N. and Kempton, R. A. (1987). Multivariate analysis of ecological communities. Chapman & Hall, London.

Diggle, P. J. (1979). On parameter estimation and goodness-of- fit testing for spatial point patterns. Biometrics, 35, 87–101.

Diggle, P. J. (1983). Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. Academic Press, New York.

Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. J., Graham, D. M. et al. (1995). A conservation assessment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Donovan, M. L., Rabe, D. L., and Olson, C. E. (1987). Use of Geographic Information Systems to develop habitat suitability models. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 15, 574–579.

Dow, B. D. and Ashley, M. V. (1996). Microsatellite analysis of seed dispersal and parentage of saplings in bur oak. Quercus macrocarpa. Molecular Ecology, 5, 615–627.

Drechsler, M., Lamont, B. B., Burgman, M. A., Akçakaya, H. R., Witkowski, E. T. F., and Supriyadi (1999). Modelling the persistence of an apparently immortal Banksia species after fire and land clearing. Biological Conservation, 88, 249–259.

Droege, S., Cyr, A., and Larivée, J. (1998). Checklists: an under-used tool for the inventory and monitoring of plants and animals. Conservation Biology, 12, 1134–1138.

(p.392) Dubayah, R. O. and Drake, J. B. (2000). Lidar remote sensing for forestry. Journal of Forestry, 98, 44–46.

Ducey, M. J., Gove, J. H., Ståhl, G., and Ringvall, A. (2001). Clarification of the mirage method for boundary correction, with possible bias in plot and point sampling. Forest Science, 47, 242–245.

Dudley, N. and Phillips, A. (2006). Forests and protected areas. Guidance on the use of the IUCN protected area management categories. World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 12. IUCN, Gland.

Durrett, R. and Levin, S. A. (1994). Stochastic spatial models: a user's guide to ecological applications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B343, 329–350.

Dyck, W. J., Cole, D. W., and Comerford, N. B. (1994). Impacts of forest harvesting on long-term site productivity. Chapman & Hall, London.

Dytham, C. (2003). Choosing and using statistics. A biologist's guide, 2nd edition. Blackwell, Oxford.

Easter, M. J. and Spies, T. A. (1994). Using hemispherical photography for estimating photosynthetic photon flux density under canopies and in gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 2050–2058.

Eberhardt, L. L. (1978). Transect methods for population studies. Journal of Wildlife Management, 42, 1–31.

Ebert, T. A. (1999). Plant and animal populations: Methods in demography. Academic Press, New York.

Echeverría, C. M. (2003). Deforestation and forest fragmentation of temperate forests in Chile. MPhil thesis, University of Cambridge.

Echeverría, C. M. (2005). Fragmentation of temperate rain forests in Chile: patterns, causes, and impacts. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.

EEA (1998). Europe's environment—The 2nd assessment. European Environment Agency, Office for Publications of the European Communities, Brussels.

Ehtisham-Ul-Haq, M., Allnutt, T. R., Armesto, J. J., Smith, C, Gardner, M., and Newton, A. C. (2001). Patterns of genetic variation in the threatened Chilean vine Berberidopsis corallina Hook. f. sampled in and ex situ, detected using RAPD markers. Annals of Botany, 87(6), 813–821.

Ejrnæs, R., Aude, E., Nygaard, B., and Münier, B. (2002). Prediction of habitat quality using ordination and neural networks. Ecological Applications, 12(4), 1180–1187.

Ek, A. R., Shifley, S. R., and Burk, T. E. (eds.) (1988). Forest growth modelling and prediction. General Technical Report NC-120. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Elderd, B. D., Shahani, P., and Doak, D. F. (2003). The problems and potential of count-based population viability analyses. In Population viability in plants. Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants, eds. C. A. Brigham and M. A. Schwartz, pp. 173–202. Ecological Studies 165, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Elith, J. and Burgman, M. A. (2003). Habitat models for population viability analysis. In Population viability in plants. Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants, eds. C. A. Brigham and M. A. Schwartz, pp. 203–235. Ecological Studies 165, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Ellison, A. M. (1996). An introduction to Bayesian inference for ecological research and environmental decision-making. Ecological Applications, 6(4), 1036–1046.

Ellner, S. P., Fieberg, J., Ludwig, D., and Wilcox, C. (2002). Precision of population viability analysis. Conservation Biology, 16(1), 258–261.

Engeman, R. M. and Sugihara, R. T (1998). Optimization of variable area transect sampling using Monte Carlo simulation. Ecology, 79(4), 1425–1434.

Engeman, R. M., Sugihara, R. T, Pank, L. F, and Dusenberry, W E. (1994). A comparison of plotless density estimators using Monte Carlo simulation. Ecology, 75(6), 1769–1779.

(p.393) Englund, S. R., O'Brien, J. J., and Clark, D. B. (2000). Evaluation of digital and film hemispherical photography and spherical densiometry for measuring forest light environments. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 1999–2005.

Ennos, A. R. (1997). Wind as an ecological factor. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12(3), 108–111.

Ennos, R. A. (1994). Estimating the relative rates of pollen and seed migration among plant populations. Heredity, 72, 250–259.

Ennos, R. A. (1996). Utilising genetic information in plant conservation programmes. In Aspects of the genesis and maintenance of biological diversity, eds. M. E. Hochberg, J. Clobert, and R. Barbault, pp. 278–291. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ennos, R. (1998). Genetic constraints on native woodland restoration. In Native Woodland restoration in southern Scotland: Principles and practice, eds. A. C. Newton and P. Ashmole, pp. 27–34. Borders Forest Trust, Ancrum, Jedburgh.

Ennos, R. A., Worrell, R., and Malcolm, D. C. (1998). The genetic management of native species in Scotland. Forestry, 71, 1–23.

Enright, N. J. and Ogden, J. (1979). Application of transition matrix models in forest dynamics: Araucaria in Papua New Guinea and Nothofagus in New Zealand. Australian Journal of Ecology, 4, 3–23.

Erdelen, M. (1984). Bird communities and vegetation structure: I. Correlations and comparisons of simple diversity indices. Oecologia, 61, 277–284.

Erickson, A. A., Saltis, M., Bell, S. S., and Dawes, C. J. (2003). Herbivore feeding preferences as measured by leaf damage and stomatal ingestion: a mangrove crab example. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 289(1), 123–138.

Ervin, J. (2003a). WWF: Rapid assessment and prioritization of protected area management (RAPPAM) methodology. WWF, Gland.

Ervin, J. (2003b). Protected area assessments in perspective. BioScience, 53(9), 819–822.

Estabrook, G. F., Winsor, J. A., Stephenson, A. G., and Howe, H. F. (1982). When are two phenological patterns different? Botanical Gazette, 143(3), 374–378.

Eva, H. and Lambin, E. F. (2002). Fires and land-cover change in the tropics: a remote sensing analysis at the landscape scale. Journal of Biogeography, 27, 765–776.

Evans, G. C. (1972). The quantitative analysis of plant growth. Studies in Ecology, vol. 1. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Evans, G. C. and Coombe, D. E. (1959). Hemispherical and woodland canopy photography and the light climate. Journal of Ecology, 47, 103–113.

Fahrig, L. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 34, 487–515.

Fairbanks, D. H. K. and McGwire, K. C. (2004). Patterns of floristic richness in vegetation communities of California: regional scale analysis with multi-temporal NDVI. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13(3), 221–235.

Faith, D. P., Nix, H. A., Margules, C. R. et al. (2001). The BioRap biodiversity assessment and planning study for Papua New Guinea. Pacific Conservation Biology, 6, 279–288.

FAO (1995). Forest Resources Assessment 1990. Global Synthesis. FAO, Rome.

FAO (2001a). Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: a compendium. Forest Management Working Papers no. 5, FAO, Rome.

FAO (2001b). Global forest resources assessment. Main report. FAO, Rome.

FAO (2003). Workshop on the FAO approach to National Forest Resources Assessment and ongoing projects. Forest Resources Assessment WP 70, FAO, Rome.

FAO (2005). Proceedings of the third expert meeting on harmonizing forest-related definitions for use by various stakeholders, 17–19 January 2005. FAO, Rome.

Fassnacht, K. S., Gower, S. T., MacKenzie, M. D., Nordheim, E. V., and Lillesand, T. M. (1997). Estimating the leaf area index of north central Wisconsin forests using Landsat Thematic Mapper. Remote Sensing of Environment, 61, 229–245.

(p.394) Fazakas, Z. and Nilsson, M. (1996). Volume and forest cover estimation over southern Sweden using AVHRR data calibrated with TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 1701–1709.

Fazakas, Z., Nilsson, M., and Olsson, H. (1999). Regional forest biomass estimation by use of satellite data and ancilliary data. Agriculture and Forest Metereology, 98/99, 417–425.

Feinsinger, P. and Busby, W. H. (1987). Pollen carryover: experimental comparisons between morphs of Palicourea lasiorrachis (Rubiaceae), a distylous, bird-pollinated, tropical treelet. Oecologia, 73(3), 231–235.

Feldpausch, T. R., Jirka, S., Passos, C. A. M., Jasper, F., and Riha, S. J. (2005). When big trees fall: damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 219(2–3), 199–215.

Fenner, M. (Ed.) (2000). Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities. CABI, Wallingford.

Ferment, A., Picard, N., Gourlet-Fleury, S., and Baraloto, C. (2001). A comparison of five indirect methods for characterizing the light environment in a tropical forest. Annals of Forest Science, 58, 877–891.

Ferris-Kaan, R., Peace, A. J., and Humphrey, J. W. (1998). Assessing structural diversity in managed forests. In Assessment of forest biodiversity for improved forest management, eds. P. Bachmann, M. Köhl and R. Päivinnen, pp. 331–342. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Fieberg, J. and Ellner, S. P. (2000). When is it meaningful to estimate an extinction probability? Ecology, 81(7), 2040–2047.

Fieberg, J. and Ellner, S. P. (2001). Stochastic matrix models for conservation and management: a comparative review of methods. Ecology Letters, 4, 244–266.

Fieldings, A. H. and Bell, J. F. (1997). A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence: absence models. Environmental Conservation, 24(1), 38–49.

Feinsinger, P. (2001). Designing field studies for biodiversity conservation. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Fiorella, M. and Ripple, W. J. (1993). Determining the successional stage of temperate coniferous forest with Landsat satellite data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 59, 239–246.

Fischer, D. T. and Church, R. L. (2005). The SITES reserve selection system: A critical review. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10(3), 215–228.

Fisher, B. L., Howe, H. F., and Wright, S. J. (1991). Survival and growth of Virola surinamensis yearlings: water augmentation in gap and understorey. Oecologia, 86, 292–297.

Flinn, K. M. and Vellend, M. (2005). Recovery of forest plant communities in post-agricultural landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 243–250.

Foody, G. M. (1996). Fuzzy modeling of vegetation from remotely sensed imagery. Ecological Modelling, 85, 3–12.

Foody, G. M. (2003). Remote sensing of tropical forest environments: towards the monitoring of environmental resources for sustainable development. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(20), 4035–4046.

Foody, G. M. and Cutler, M. E. J. (2003). Tree biodiversity in protected and logged Bornean tropical rain forests and its measurement by satellite remote sensing. Journal of Biogeography, 30(7), 1053–1066.

Foody, G. M., Boyd, D. S., and Cutler, M. E. J. (2003). Predictive relations of tropical forest biomass from Landsat TM data and their transferability between regions. Remote Sensing of Environment, 85(4), 463–474.

Foody, G., Palubinskas, G., Lucas, R. M., Curran, P. J., and Honzak, M. (1996). Identifying terrestrial carbon sinks: classification of successional stages in regenerating tropical forests from Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 55, 205–216.

(p.395) Ford, E. D. (2000). Scientific method for ecological research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Forget, P.-M. and Wenny, D. (2005). How to elucidate seed fate? A review of methods used to study seed removal and secondary seed dispersal. In Seed fate. Predation, dispersal and seedling establishment, eds. P.-M. Forget, J. E. Lambert, P. E. Hulme, and S. B. Vander Wall, pp. 379–393. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxford.

Forman, R. T. T. and Godron, M. (1986). Landscape ecology. Wiley, New York.

Fortin, M. J. and Dale, M. R. T. (2005). Spatial analysis: a guide for ecologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fournier, R. A., Mailly, D., Walter, J.-M. N., and Soudani, K. (2003). Indirect measurement of forest canopy structure from in situ optical sensors. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 77–113. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Frank, K., Lorek, H., Köster, F., Sonnenschein, M., Wissel, C., and Grimm, V. (2003). META-X—Software for metapopulation viability analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Frankham, R., Ballou, J. D., and Briscoe, D. A. (2002). Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Franklin, J., Phinn, S. R., Woodcock, C. E., and Rogan, J. (2003). Rationale and conceptual framework for classification approaches to assess forest resources and properties. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 279–300. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Franklin, S. E. (2001). Remote sensing for sustainable forest management. Lewis Publishers/CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Franklin, S. E. (2006). Forest disturbance and spatial pattern: Remote sensing and GIS approaches. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Franklin, S. E. and Raske, A. (1994). Satellite remote sensing of spruce budworm defoliation in western Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 299–308.

Fransson, J. E. S., Walter, F., and Olsson, H. (1999). Identification of clear-felled areas using SPOT P and Almaz-1 SAR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20, 3583–3593.

Fraser, D. J. and Bernatchez, L. (2001). Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Molecular Ecology, 10, 2741–2752.

Fraver, S. (1994). Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River basin, North Carolina. Conservation Biology, 8, 822–832.

Frazer, G. W., Canham, C. D., and Lertzman, K. P. (1999). Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), Version 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs, users manual and program documentation. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY.

Frazer, G. W., Fournier, R. A., Trofymow, J. A., and Hall, R. J. (2001). A comparison of digital and film fisheye photography for analysis of forest canopy structure and gap light transmission. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 109, 249–263.

Freckleton, R. P., Silva Matos, D. M., Bovi, M. L. A., and Watkinson, A. R. (2003). Predicting the impacts of harvesting using structured population models: the importance of density-dependence and timing of harvest for a tropical palm tree. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 846–858.

Frelich, L. E. (2002). Forest dynamics and disturbance regimes. Studies from temperate evergreen-deciduous forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Frelich, L. E. and Lorimer, C. G. (1991). A simulation of landscape-level stand dynamics in the northern hardwood region. Journal of Ecology, 79, 223–233.

Frelich, L. E., Sugita, S., Reich, P. B., Davis, M. B., and Friedman, S. K. (1998). Neighbourhood effect in forests: implication for within patch structure. Journal of Ecology, 86, 149–161.

(p.396) Fridman, J. and Walheim, M. (2000). Amount, structure, and dynamics of dead wood on managed forestland in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 131, 23–36.

Friend, A. and Rapaport, D. (1979). Towards a comprehensive framework for environment statistics: A stress-response approach. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada.

Friend, A. D., Shugart, H. H., and Running, S. W. (1993). A physiology-based model of forest dynamics. Ecology, 74, 792–797.

Friend, A. D., Stevens, A. K., Knox, R. G., and Cannell, M. G. R. (1997). A process-based, terrestrial biosphere model of ecosystem dynamics (Hybrid v3.0). Ecological Modelling, 95, 249–287.

Friend, D. T. C. (1961). A simple method of measuring integrated light values in the field. Ecology, 42, 577–580.

Fritts, H. C. (1976). Tree rings and climate. Academic Press, New York.

Fritts, N. C. and Fritts, E. C. (1955). A new dendrograph for recording radial changes of a tree. Forest Science, 1, 271–276.

Fujita, T., Itaya, A., Miura, M., Manabe, T., and Yamamoto, S. (2003a). Canopy structure in a temperate old-growth evergreen forest analyzed by using aerial photographs. Plant Ecology, 168(1), 23–29.

Fujita, T., Itaya, A., Miura, M., Manabe, T., and Yamamoto, S. (2003b). Long-term canopy dynamics analysed by aerial photographs in a temperate old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest. Journal of Ecology, 91(4), 686–693.

Fuller, R. J. (1995). Bird life of woodland and forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Furusawa, T., Pahari, K., Umezaki, M., and Ohtsuka, R. (2004). Impacts of selective logging on New Georgia Island, Solomon Islands evaluated using very-high-resolution satellite (IKONOS) data. Environmental Conservation, 31(4), 349–355.

Galiano, E. F. (1982). Pattern detection in plant populations through the analysis of plant- to-all-plants distances. Vegetatio, 49, 39–43.

Gardiner, B., Peltola, H., and Kellomaki, S. (2000). Comparison of two models for predicting the critical wind speeds required to damage coniferous trees. Ecological Modelling, 129, 1–23.

Gardiner, B., Suárez, J., Achim, A., Hale, S., and Nicoll, B. (2004). ForestGALES. A PC-based wind risk model for British forests. User's Guide version 2.0. Forestry Commission, Cambridge.

Gardner, R. H. and Urban, D. L. (2003). Model validation and testing: past lessons, present concerns, future prospects. In Models in ecosystem science, eds. C. D. Canham, J. J. Cole, and W. K. Lauenroth, pp. 185–203. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Garrison, G. A. (1949). Uses and modifications for the ‘Moosehorn’ crown closure estimator. Journal of Forestry, 47, 733–735.

Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Sarkar, S. (2002). ResNet Manual Ver. 1.2. University of Texas at Austin, TX.

Gendron, F., Messier, C., and Comeau, P. G. (1998). Comparison of various methods for estimating the mean growing season percent photosynthetic photon flux density in forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 92, 55–70.

Gentry, A. H. (1982). Patterns of neotropical plant species diversity. Evolutionary Biology, 15, 1–84.

Gentry, A. H. (1988). Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75, 1–34.

Ghazoul, J. and McAllister, M. (2003). Communicating complexity and uncertainty in decision making contexts: Bayesian approaches to forest research. International Forestry Review, 5(1), 9–19.

Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D. B., Barry, S. C., and Tanton, M. T. (2002). Hollow selection by vertebrate fauna in forests of southeastern Australia and implications for forest management. Biological Conservation, 103, 1–12.

(p.397) Gibson, D. J. (2002). Methods in comparative plant population ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gill, F. B., Mack, A. L., and Ray, R. T. (1982). Competition beween hermit hummingbirds Phaethorninae and insects for nectar in a Costa Rican rain forest. Ibis, 124, 44–49.

Gill, R. M. A. (1992). A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests 3. Impact on trees and forests. Forestry, 65(4), 363–388.

Gillet, E. and Gregorius, H. R. (2000). Qualified testing of single-locus codominant inheritance using single tree progenies. Biometrics, 56, 801–807.

Gillies, A. C. M., Navarro, C., Lowe, A. J. et al. (1999). Genetic diversity in Mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs. Heredity, 83, 722–732.

Gillison, A. (2002). A generic, computer-assisted method for rapid vegetation classification and survey: tropical and temperate case studies. Conservation Ecology, 6(2), 3 〈www.consecol.org/vol6/iss2/art3〉.

Gillison, A. N. and Brewer, K. R. W. (1985). The use of gradient directed transects or gradsects in natural resource surveys. Journal of Environmental Management, 20, 103–127.

Ginzburg, L. R., Ferson, S., and Akçakaya, H. R. (1990). Reconstructability of density dependence and the conservative assessment of extinction risks. Conservation Biology, 4, 63–70.

Gitay, H. and Noble, I. R. (1997). What are functional types and how should we seek them? In Plant functional types, eds. T. M. Smith, H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward, pp. 3–19. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Glaubitz, J. C. and Moran, G. F. (2000). Genetic tools: the use of biochemical and molecular markers. In Forest conservation genetics. Principles and practice, eds. A. Young, D. Boshier, and T. Boyle, pp. 39–59. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia and CABI, Wallingford.

Goldingay, R. L., Carthew, S. M., and Whelan, R. J. (1991). The importance of non-flying mammals in pollination. Oikos, 61(1), 79–87.

Goldsmith, F. B., Harrison, C. M., and Morton, A. J. (1986). Description and analysis of vegetation. In Methods in plant ecology, eds. P. D. Moore and S. B. Chapman, pp. 437–524. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Golicher, D. J., O'Hara, R. B., Ruíz-Montoya, L., and Cayuela, L. (2006). Lifting a veil on diversity: a Bayesian approach to fitting relative-abundance models. Ecological Applications, 16(1), 202–212.

Gong, P. and Xu, B. (2003). Remote sensing of forests over time. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 301–333. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Goovaerts, P. (1997). Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gordon, J. E. (2005). Biodiversity conservation and non-governmental organisations in Oaxaca, Mexico. PhD thesis, University of Durham.

Gordon, J. E., Hawthorne, W. D., Reyes-García, A., Sandoval, G., and Barrance, A. J. (2004). Assessing landscapes: a case study of tree and shrub diversity in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Oaxaca, Mexico and southern Honduras. Biological Conservation, 117, 429–442.

Gotelli, N. J. and Colwell, R. K. (2001). Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters, 4, 379–391.

Gould, W. (2000). Remote sensing of vegetation, plant species richness, and regional biodiversity hotspots. Ecological Applications, 10(6), 1861–1870.

Gove, J. H., Ringvall, A., Ståhl, G., and Ducey, M. J. (1999). Point relascope sampling of coarse woody debris. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29(11), 1718–1726.

Gove, J. H., Ducey, M. J., Ståhl, G., and Ringvall, A. (2001). Point relascope sampling: a new way to assess downed coarse woody debris. Journal of Forestry, 99, 4–11.

Gove, J. H., Ducey, M. J., and Valentine, H. T. (2002). Multistage point relascope and randomized branch sampling for downed coarsewoody debris estimation. Forest Ecology and Management, 155, 153–162.

(p.398) Grabe, D. F. (ed.) (1970). Tetrazolium testing handbook for agricultural seeds. Association of Official Seed Analysts, Stillwater, OK.

Grace, J. (1977). Plant responses to wind. Academic Press, London.

Grace, S. L. and Platt, W. J. (1995). Effects of adult tree density and fire on the demography of pregrass stage juvenile longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Journal of Ecology, 83, 75–86.

Grainger, A. (1999). Constraints on modelling the deforestation and degradation of tropical open woodlands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8, 179–190.

Gray, A. (2003). Monitoring stand structure in mature coastal Douglas-fir forests: effect of plot size. Forest Ecology and Management, 175(1–3), 1–16.

Greene, D. F. and Calogeropoulos, C. (2002). Measuring and modelling seed dispersal of terrestrial plants. In Dispersal ecology, eds. J. M. Bullock, R. E. Kenward, and R. S. Hails, pp. 3–23. Blackwell, Oxford.

Greene, D. F. and Johnson, E. A. (1989). A model of wind dispersal of winged or plumed seeds. Ecology, 70, 339–347.

Greene, D. F. and Johnson, E. A. (1994). Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees. Ecology, 75, (3), 642–647.

Greene, D. F. and Johnson, E. A. (1997). Secondary dispersal of tree seeds on snow. Journal of Ecology, 85, 329–340.

Greenpeace International (2002). The last of the world's ancient forests. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam.

Greenwood, J. J. D. (1996). Basic techniques. In: Ecological census techniques. A handbook, ed. W. J. Sutherland, pp. 11–110. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gregoire, T. C. (1982). The unbiasedness of the mirage correction procedure for boundary overlap. Forest Science, 28, 504–508.

Grieg-Smith, P. (1957). Quantitative plant ecology. Academic Press, New York.

Grimm, V., Lorek, H., Finke, J. et al. (2004). META-X: generic software for metapopulation viability analysis. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 165–188.

Grove, S. J. (2001). Extent and composition of dead wood in Australian lowland tropical rainforest with different management histories. Forest Ecology and Management, 154, 35–53.

Guisan, A. and Zimmermann, N. E. (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147–186.

Guisan, A., Weiss, S. B., and Weiss, A. D. (1999). GLM versus CCA spatial modeling of plant species distribution. Plant Ecology, 143, 107–122.

Gutzwiller, K. J. (ed.) (2002). Applying landscape ecology in biological conservation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Haig, S. M. (1998). Molecular contributions to conservation. Ecology, 79, 413–425.

Hale, S. E. and Brown, N. (2005). Use of the canopy-scope for assessing canopy openness in plantation forests. Forestry, 78(4), 365–371.

Hall, D. O., Scurlock J. M. O., Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H. R., Leegood, R., and Long, S. P. (eds.) (1992). Photosynthesis and production in a changing environment: A field and laboratory manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Hall, J. B. (1991). Multiple-nearest-tree sampling in an ecological survey of Afromontane catchment forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 42, 245–266.

Hall, P. and Bawa, K. (1993). Methods to assess the impact of extraction of non-timber tropical forest products on plant-populations. Economic Botany, 47(3), 234–247.

Hall, P., Ashton, P. S., Condit, R., Manokaran, N., and Hubbell, S. P. (1998). Signal and noise in sampling tropical forest structure and dynamics. In Forest Biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies, eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey, pp. 63–77. UNESCO/Parthenon Paris.

(p.399) Hall, R. J. (2003). The roles of aerial photographs in forestry remote sensing image analysis. In Remote sensing of forest environments, eds. M. A. Wulder and S. E. Franklin, pp. 47–76. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Hall, R. J., Kruger, A. R., Scheffer, J., Titus, S. J., and Moore, W. C. (1989a). A statistical evaluation of Landsat TM and MSS data for mapping forest cutovers. Forestry Chronicle, 65, 441–449.

Hall, R. J., Morton, R., and Nesby, R. (1989b). A comparison of existing models for dbh estimation from large-scale photos. Forestry Chronicle, 65, 114–120.

Hall, R. J., Dams, R. V., and Lyseng, L. N. (1991). Forest cutover mapping from SPOT satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12, 2193–2204.

Hamrick, J. L. and Godt, M. J. W. (1990). Allozyme diversity in plant species. In Plant population genetics, breeding and genetic resources, eds. A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler, and B. S. Weir, pp. 43–63. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Hamrick, J. L. and Nason, J. D. (2000). Gene flow in forest trees. In Forest conservation genetics. Principles and practice, eds. A. Young, D. Boshier, and T. Boyle, pp. 81–90. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia and CABI, Wallingford.

Hamrick, J. L., Godt, M. J. W., Murawski, D. A., and Loveless, M. D. (1991). Correlations between species traits and allozyme diversity: implications for conservation biology. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, eds. D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger, pp. 75–86. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hamrick, J. L., Godt, M. J. W., and Sherman-Broyles, S. L. (1992). Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests, 6, 95–124.

Hanan, N. P. and Bégué, A. (1995). A method to estimate instantaneous and daily intercepted photosynthetically active radiation using a hemispherical sensor. Agriculture Forest Meteorology, 74, 155–168.

Hansen, A. J., Spies, T. A., Swanson, F. J., and Ohmann, J. L. (1991). Conserving biodiversity in managed forests. BioScience, 41, 382–392.

Hansen, M. J., Franklin, S. E., Woudsma, C. G., and Peterson, M. (2001). Caribou habitat mapping and fragmentation analysis using Landsat MSS, TM, and GIS data in the North Columbia Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment, 77, 50–65.

Hanski, I. (1994). A practical model of metapopulation dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 151–162.

Hanski, I. (1999). Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hanski, I. (2004). Metapopulation theory, its use and misuse. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 225–229.

Hargis, C. D., Bissonette, J. A., and David, J. L. (1998). The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation. Landscape Ecology, 13, 167–186.

Haridasan, M. and de Araújo, G. M. (1988). Aluminium-accumulating species in two forest communities in the cerrado region of central Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 24, 15–26.

Harmon, M. E. and Sexton, J. (1996). Guidelines for measurements of woody detritus in forest ecosystems. Publication No. 20, US Long-term Ecological Research Network Office, University of Washington 〈http://old.lternet.edu/research/pubs/woodydetritus/〉.

Harmon, M. E., Franklin, J. F., Swanson, F. J. et al. (1986). Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 15, 133–302.

Harper, K. A. and MacDonald, S. E. (2001). Structure and composition of riparian boreal forest: new methods for analyzing edge influence. Ecology, 82, 649–659.

Harrison, S. and Ray, C. (2002). Plant population viability and metapopulation-level processes. In Population viability analysis, eds. S. Beissinger and D. McCullogh, pp. 109–122. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

(p.400) Hawthorne, W. D. (1995). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Tropical Forestry Paper 29, Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford.

Hawthorne, W. D. (1996). Holes in sums of parts in Ghanaian forest: regeneration scale and sustainable use. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 104(B), 75–176.

Hawthorne, W. D. and Abu-Juam, M. (1995). Forest protection in Ghana. IUCN, Gland.

Hayes, D. J. and Sader, S. A. (2001). Comparison of change-detection techniques for monitoring tropical forest clearing and vegetation regrowth in a time series. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 67(9), 1067–1075.

He, F. L. and Duncan, R. P. (2000). Density-dependent effects on tree survival in an old-growth Douglas fir forest. Journal of Ecology, 88, 676–688.

He, H. S. and Mladenoff, D. J. (1999). Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest landscape fire disturbance and succession. Ecology, 80, 81–99.

He, H. S., Mladenoff, D. J., and Boeder, J. (1999). Object-oriented design of LANDIS, a spatially explicit and stochastic landscape model. Ecological Modelling, 119, 1–19.

Hemingway, C. A. and Overdorff, D. J. (1999). Sampling effects on food availability estimates phenological method, sample size, and species comparition. Biotropica, 31(2), 354–364.

Henderson, P. A. (2003). Practical methods in ecology. Blackwell, Oxford.

Hendricks, W. A. (1956). The mathematical theory of sampling. Scarecrow Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Henle, K., Sarre, S., and Wiegand, K. (2004). The role of density regulation in extinction processes and population viability analysis. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 9–52.

Henry, J. D. and Swan, J. M. A. (1974). Reconstruction of forest history from live and dead plant material: an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology, 55, 772–783.

Heslop-Harrison, J. (1964). Forty years of genecology. Advances of Ecological Research, 2, 159–247.

Higgs, E. S. (1997). What is good ecological restoration? Conservation Biology, 11(2), 338–348.

Higman, S., Mayers, J., Bass, S., Judd, N., and Nussbaum, R. (2005). Sustainable forestry handbook, 2nd edition. Earthscan, London.

Hilborn, R. and Mangel, M. (1997). The ecological detective: Confronting models with data. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Hill, D., Fasham, M., Tucker, G., Shewry, M., and Shaw, P. (eds.) (2005). Handbook of biodiversity methods. Survey, evaluation and monitoring. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hill, M. O. (1979). TWINSPAN—A FORTRAN programme for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of individuals and attributes. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Hill, M. O., Bunce, R. G. H., and Shaw, M. W. (1975). Indicator species analysis, a divisive polythetic method of classification and its application to a survey of native pinewoods in Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 63, 597–613.

Hill, R. A. (1999). Image segmentation for humid tropical forest classification in Landsat TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20, 1039–1044.

Hill, R. A. and Foody, G. M. (1994). Separability of rain-forest types in Tambopata-Candamo reserved zone, Peru. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 2687–2693.

Hinckley, T. M., Sprugel, D. G., Batista, J. L. F. et al. (1996). Use of the JABOWA family of individual-tree based models for exploration of forest responses to global climate change. NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 717, II1–II54.

Hinsley, S. A., Hill, R. A., Gaveau, D. L. A., and Bellamy, P. E. (2002). Quantifying woodland structure and habitat quality for birds using airborne laser scanning. Functional Ecology, 16, 851–857.

Hirata, Y., Akimaya, Y., Saito, H., Miyamoto, A., Fukuda, M., and Nishizono, T. (2003). Estimating forest canopy structure using helicopter-borne Lidar measurement. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 125–134. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

(p.401) Hirzel, A. H., Hausser, J., and Perrin, N. (2001a). BIOMAPPER 1.0—A new software to compute habitat-suitability maps. Laboratory for Conservation Biology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland 〈www.unil.ch/biomapper〉.

Hirzel, A. H., Helfer, V., and Metral, F. (2001b). Assessing habitat suitability models with a virtual species. Ecological Modelling, 145, 111–121.

Hirzel, A., Hausser, J., and Perrin, N. (2002). Ecological-niche factor analysis: How to compute habitat-suitability maps without absence data? Ecology, 83(7), 2027–2036.

Hobbs, J. E., Currall, J. E., and Gimingham, C. H. (1984). The use of ‘thermocolor’ pyrometers in the study of heath fire behaviour. Journal of Ecology, 72, 241–250.

Hobbs, R. J. and Norton D. A. (1996). Towards a conceptual framework for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology, 4(2), 93–110.

Hochberg, M. E., Menaut, J. C., and Gignoux, J. (1994). The influences of tree biology and fire in the spatial structure of the West African savannah. Journal of Ecology, 82, 217–226.

Hockings, M., Stolton, S., and Dudley, N. (2000). Evaluating effectiveness. A framework for assessing the management of protected areas. World Commission on Protected Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines no. 6. IUCN, Gland.

Hodgson, J. G., Wilson, P. J., Hunt, R., Grime, J. P., and Thompson, K. (1999). Allocating C-S-R plant functional types: a soft approach to a hard problem. Oikos, 85, 282–294.

Hohn, M. E., Liebhold, A. M., and Gribko, L. S. (1993). A geostatistical model for forecasting the spatial dynamics of defoliation caused by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology, 22, 1066–1077.

Holland, J. and Campbell, J. (eds.) (2005). Methods in development research. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. ITDG, Rugby.

Holmgren, J., Joyce, S., Nilsson, M., and Olsson, H. (1999). Estimating stem volume and basal area in forest compartments by combining satellite image data with field data. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 15, 103–111.

Holmgren, P. and Thuresson, T. (1998). Satellite remote sensing for forestry planning—a review. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 13S, 90–110.

Holvoet, B. and Muys, B. (2004). Sustainable forest management worldwide: a comparative assessment of standards. International Forestry Review, 6(2), 99–122.

Hope, J. C. E. (2003). Modelling forest landscape dynamics in Glen Affric, northern Scotland. PhD thesis, University of Stirling.

Horler, C. N. H. and Ahern, F. J. (1986). Forestry information content of Thematic Mapper data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7, 405–428.

Horn, D. J. (1988). Ecological approach to pest management. Elsevier, London.

Horn, H. S. (1975). Markovian properties of forest succession. In Ecology and evolution of communities, eds. M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond, pp. 196–211. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Horn, H. S. (1976). Succession. In Theoretical ecology, ed. R. M. May, pp. 187–204. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Horn, H. S., Nathan, R., and Kaplan, S. R. (2001). Long-distance dispersal of tree seeds by wind. Ecological Research, 16, 877–885.

Horning, N. (2004). Remote sensing guides. Center for Biodiversity and Conservation. American Museum of Natural History 〈http://cbc.rs-gis.amnh.org/guides/〉.

Houle, A. C., Chapman, C., and Vickery, W. L. (2004). Tree climbing strategies for primate ecological studies. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 237–260.

House, S. M. (1989). Pollen movement to flowering canopies of pistillate individuals of three rain forest tree species in tropical Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14(1), 77–93.

(p.402) Hubbell, S. P. (2001). The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Hubbell, S. P. and Foster, R. B. (1986). Biology, chance and history, and the structure of tropical tree communities. In Community ecology, ed. J. M. Diamond and T. J. Case, pp. 314–324. Harper & Row, New York.

Hubbell, S.P., Foster, R.B., O'Brien, S.T. et al. (1999). Light-gap disturbances, recruitment limitation, and tree diversity in a neotropical forest. Science, 283(5401), 554–557.

Hudson, W. D. (1991). Photo interpretation of montane forests in the Dominican Republic. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57, 79–84.

Hughes, J. W., Fahey, T. J., and Brown, B. (1987). A better seed and litter trap. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17, 1623–1624.

Humphrey, J., Ferris, R., and Peace, A. (2003a). The biodiversity assessment project: objectives, site selection and survey methods. In Biodiversity in Britain's planted forests. Results from the Forestry Commission's Biodiversity Assessment Project, eds. J. Humphrey, R. Ferris, and C. Quine, pp. 11–18. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Humphrey, J., Ferris, R., and Quine, C. (eds.) (2003b). Biodiversity in Britain's planted forests. Results from the Forestry Commission's Biodiversity Assessment Project, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Humphrey, J., Newton, A., Latham, J. et al. (eds.) (2003c). The restoration of wooded landscapes. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Hurlbert, S. H. (1984). Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs, 54, 187–211.

Hunt, R. (1978). Plant growth analysis. Edward Arnold, London.

Hunt, R. and Parsons, I. T. (1974). A computer program for deriving growth functions in plant growth-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11, 297–307.

Hunter, M. L. (ed.) (1999). Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hurford, C. and Schneider, M. (2006). Monitoring nature conservation in cultural habitats: a practical guide and case studies. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Husch, B., Beers, T. W., and Kershaw, J. A. (2003). Forest mensuration. Wiley, New York.

Hutchings, M. J. (1986). Plant population biology. In Methods in plant ecology, eds. P. D. Moore and S. B. Chapman, pp. 377–435. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Hutchings, M. J., Booth, K. D., and Waite, S. (1991). Comparison of survivorship by the logrank test: criticisms and alternatives. Ecology, 72, 2290–2293.

Huth, A. and Ditzer, T. (2000). Simulation of the growth of a lowland Dipterocarp rain forest with FORMIX3. Ecological Modelling, 134(1), 1–25.

Huth, A., Ditzer, T., and Bossel, H. (1998). The rain forest growth model FORMIX3—Model description and analysis of forest growth and logging scenarios for the Deramakot forest reserve (Malaysia), Erich Goltze, Göttingen.

Hyman, J. B. and Leibowitz, S. G. (2001). JSEM: a framework for identifying and evaluating indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 66, 207–232.

Hyyppä, J., Hyyppä, H., Inkinen, M., Engdahl, M., Linko, S., and Zhu, Y. H. (2000). Accuracy comparison of various remote sensing data sources in the retrieval of forest stand attributes. Forest Ecology and Management, 128, 109–120.

Imbernon, J. and Branthomme, A. (2001). Characterization of landscape patterns of deforestation in tropical rain forests. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22, 1753–1765.

Ingram, J. C., Dawson, T. P., and Whittaker, R. J. (2005). Mapping tropical forest structure in southeastern Madagascar using remote sensing and artificial neural networks. Remote Sensing of Environment, 94(4), 491–507.

Innes, J. L. (1993). Forest health: Its assessment and status. CABI, Wallingford.

(p.403) Isaaks, E. H. and Srivastava, R. M. (1989). Applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

ITTO (1990). Guidelines for the sustainable management of natural tropical forests. Policy Development Series No.1, ITTO, Yokohama.

ITTO (1992). Criteria for the measurement of sustainable tropical forest management. Policy Development Series No.3, ITTO, Yokohama.

IUCN (1994). Guidelines for protected area management categories. IUCN and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Gland.

IUCN (2001). Red List categories and criteria. Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland.

IUCN, PROFOR, and World Bank (2004). Ecosystem approaches and sustainable forest management. A discussion paper for the UNFF Secretariat, 28 February 2004. IUCN, Gland.

IUCN/WWF International. (1999). Forest Quality. An Introductory Booklet. IUCN/WWF International, Gland.

Iverson, L. R., Yaussy, D. A., Rebbeck, J., Hutchinson, T. F., Long, R. P., and Prasad, A. M. (2004). A comparison of thermocouples and temperature paints to monitor spatial and temporal characteristics of landscape-scale prescribed fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 13(3), 1–12.

Izhaki, I., Walton, P. B., and Safriel, U. N. (1991). Seed shadows generated by frugivorous birds in an eastern Mediterranean scrub. Journal of Ecology, 79, 575–590.

Jack, W. H. and Saville, P. S. (1973). The causes of tattering of flags under natural conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology, 17, 185–192.

Jackson, L. J., Trebitz, A. S., and Cottingham, K. L. (2000). A simulation primer for ecological modelling. BioScience, 50, 694–706.

Jacoby, P. W., Ainsley, R. J., and Trevino, B. A. (1992). An improved method for measuring temperatures during range fires. Journal of Range Management, 45, 216–220.

Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist, 104, 501–528.

Jennings, M. D. (2000). Gap analysis: concepts, methods, and recent results. Landscape Ecology, 15, 5–20.

Jennings, S. B., Brown, A. G., and Sheil, D. (1999). Assessing forest canopies and understorey illumination: canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures. Forestry, 72(1), 59–73.

Jennings, S. B., Brown, N. D., Boshier, D. H., Whitmore, T. C., and Lopes, J. do. C. A. (2001). Ecology provides a pragmatic solution to the maintenance of genetic diversity in sustainably managed tropical rain forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 154, 1–10.

Jennings, S., Nussbaum, R., Judd, N., and Evans, T. (2003). The high conservation value forest toolkit. Edition 1. Proforest, Oxford.

Jermy, A. C., Long, D., Sands, M. J. S., Stork, N. E., and Winser, S. (eds.) (1995). Biodiversity assessment: A guide to good practice. Department of the Environment/HMSO, London.

Johansson, T. (1985). Estimating canopy density by the vertical tube method. Forest Ecology and Management, 11, 139–144.

Johns, A. D. (1992). Species conservation in managed tropical forests. In Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction, eds. T. C. Whitmore and J. A. Sayer, pp. 15–53. IUCN Forest Conservation Programme, Chapman & Hall, London.

Johnsen, K. L., Johnsen, K., Samuelson, L., Teskey, R., McNulty, S., and Fox, T. (2001). Process models as tools in forestry research and management. Forest Science, 47(1), 2–8.

Johnson, E. A. (1992). Fire and vegetation dynamics: Studies from the North American boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Johnson, E. W. (2001). Forest sampling desk reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Johnson, N. C., Milk, A. J., Sari R. C., and Sexton, W. T. (1999). Ecological stewardship: a common reference for ecosystem management. Elsevier Science, Oxford.

(p.404) Johnston, C. A. (1998). Geographic information systems in ecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Jongman, R. H. G., ter Braak, C. J. F., and van Tongeren, O. F. R. (eds.) (1995). Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jones, F. A., Chen, J., Weng, J., and Hubbell, S. P. (2005). A genetic evaluation of seed dispersal in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia (Bignoniaceae). American Naturalist, 166(5), 543–555.

Jordan, G. J., Ducey, M. J., and Gove, J. H. (2004). Comparing line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for dead and downed coarse woody material in a managed northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34(8), 1766–1775.

Jordan, W. R. (1994). ‘Sunflower Forest’: ecological restoration as the basis for a new environmental paradigm. In Beyond preservation: Restoring and inventing landscapes, eds. A. D. Baldwin, J. de Luce, and C. Pletsch, pp. 17–34. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Jordan, W., Gilpin, M., and Aber, J. (eds.) (1987). Restoration ecology: A synthetic approach to ecological research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jorge, L. A. B. and Garcia, G. J. (1997). A study of habitat fragmentation in Southern Brazil using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Forest Ecology and Management, 98, 35–47.

Jorgensen, A. F. and Nohr, H. (1996). The use of satellite images for mapping landscape and biological diversity. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 99–109.

Kammesheidt, L., Köhler, P., and Huth, A. (2001). Sustainable timber harvesting in Venezuela: a modelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 756–770.

Katul, G. G., Porporato, A., Nathan, R. et al. (2005). Mechanistic analytical models for long-distance seed dispersal by wind. American Naturalist, 166(3), 368–381.

Kearns, C. A. and Inouye, D. W. (1993). Techniques for pollination biologists. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO.

Keddy, P. A. and Drummond, C. G. (1996). Ecological properties for the evaluation, management, and restoration of temperate deciduous forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 6(3), 748–762.

Keeley, J. E. and Fotheringham, C. J. (2005). Plot shape effects on plant species diversity measurements. Journal of Vegetation Science, 16(2), 249–256.

Kellomäki, S. and Väisänen, H. (1991). Application of a gap model for the simulation of forest ground vegetation in boreal conditions. Forest Ecology and Management, 42, 35–47.

Kenkel, N. C., Juhász-Nagy, P., and Podani, J. (1989). On sampling procedures in population and community ecology. Vegetatio, 83, 195–207.

Kent, M. and Coker, P. (1992). Vegetation description and analysis. Wiley, Chichester.

Kerr, J. T. and Ostrovsky, M. (2003). From space to species: ecological applications for remote sensing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(6), 299–305.

Kershaw, K. A. and Looney, J. H. H. (1985). Quantitative and dynamic plant ecology, 3rd edition. Edward Arnold, London.

Kesteven, J. L., Brack, C. L., and Furby, S. L. (2003). Using remote sensing and a spatial plant productivity model to assess biomass change. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 33–56. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Kilkki, P. and Päivinen, R. (1987). Reference sample plots to combine field measurements and satellite data in forest inventories. University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Research Notes, 19, 209–215.

Kimmins, J. P. (1997). Forest ecology. A foundation for sustainable management. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Kindt, R. and Coe, R. (2005). Tree diversity analysis. A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi.

(p.405) Kint, V., Robert, D. W., and Noel, L. (2004). Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands. Ecological Modelling, 180(4), 461–476.

Kleinn, C. (2003). New technologies and methodologies for national forest inventories. Unasylva, 53, 10–15.

Kleinn, C. and Traub, B. (2003). Describing landscape pattern by sampling methods. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 175–189. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Knight, F. B. and Heikkenen, H. J. (1980). Principles of forest entomology, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kobe, R. K. (1999). Light gradient partitioning among tropical tree species through differential seedling mortality and growth. Ecology, 80, 187–201.

Kobe, R. K., Pacala, S. W., Silander, J. A., and Canham, C. D. (1995). Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecological Applications, 5, 517–532.

Koenig, W. D., Knops, J. M. H., Carmen, W. J., Stanback, M. T., and Mumme, R. L. (1994a). Estimating acorn crops using visual surveys. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 2105–2112.

Koenig, W. D., Mumme, R. L., Carmen, W. J., and Stanback, M. T. (1994b). Acorn production by oaks in central coastal California: variation within and among years. Ecology, 75, 99–109.

Köhl, M. and Gertner, G. Z. (1997). Geostatistics in evaluating forest damage surveys: considerations on methods for describing spatial distributions. Forest Ecology and Management, 95, 131–140.

Köhl, M. and Lautner, M. (2001). Erfassung von Waldökosystemen durch Hyperspektraldaten, Photogrammetrie-Fernerkundung. Geoinformation, 2, 107–117.

Köhler, P. and Huth, A. (1998). The effect of tree species grouping in tropical rain forest modelling—simulation with the individual based model Formind. Ecological Modelling, 109, 301–321.

Kohyama, T. (1993). Size-structured tree populations in gap-dynamic forest: the forest architecture hypothesis for the stable coexistence of species. Journal of Ecology, 81, 131–143.

Kohyama, T. (2005). Scaling up from shifting gap mosaic to geographic distribution in the modeling of forest dynamics. Ecological Research, 20, 302–312.

Kohyama, T. and Shigesada, N. (1995). A size-distribution-based model of forest dynamics along a latitudinal environmental gradient. Vegetatio, 121, 117–126.

Kollmann, J. and Goetze, D. (1998). Notes on seed traps in terrestrial plant communities. Flora, 193, 31–40.

Koukal, T. and Schneider, W. (2003). Mapping and monitoring of tree resources outside the forest in Central America. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 313–323. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Koutsias, N. and Karteris, M. (2000). Burned area mapping using logistic regression modeling of a single post-fire Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 673–687.

Krebs, C. J. (1999). Ecological methodology, 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA.

Kremer, A., Caron, H., Cavers, S. et al. (2005). Monitoring genetic diversity in tropical trees with multilocus dominant markers. Heredity, 95, 274–280.

Kushla, J. D. and Ripple, W. J. (1998). Assessing wildfire effects with Landsat Thematic Mapper data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2493–2507.

Kwit, C., Horvitz, C. C., and Platt, W. J. (2004). Conserving slow-growing, long-lived tree species: input from the demography of a rare understory conifer. Taxus floridana. Conservation Biology, 18(2), 432–443.

Lachowski, H., Maus, P., and Roller, N. (2000). From pixels to decisions: digital remote sensing technologies for public land managers. Journal of Forestry, 98, 13–15.

(p.406) Lacy, R. C. (1993). VORTEX: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis. Wildlife Research, 20(1), 45–65.

LaDeau, S. and Clark, J. S. (2001). Rising CO2 and the fecundity of forest trees. Science, 292, 95–98.

Laffan, M., Jordan, G., and Duhig, N. (2001). Impacts on soils from cable-logging steep slopes in northeastern Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 144(1–3), 91–99.

Lamb, D. and Gilmour, D. (2003). Rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forests. IUCN/WWF, Gland.

Lambers, H. and Poorter, H. (1992). Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences. Advances in Ecological Research, 23, 187–261.

Lambert, R. C., Lang, G. E., and Reiners, W. A. (1980). Loss of mass and chemical change in decaying boles of a subalpine balsam fir forest. Ecology, 61, 1460–1473.

Lambin, E. F. (1999). Monitoring forest degradation in tropical regions by remote sensing: some methodological issues. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8(3–4), 191–198.

Lambin, E., Turner, B., Geist, H. et al. (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change, 11, 261–269.

Lambin, E. F., Gesit, H. J., and Lepers, E. (2003). Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, 205–241.

Landsberg, J. (2003). Modelling forest ecosystems: state of the art, challenges, and future directions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33(3), 385–397.

Landsberg, J. J. and Gower, S. T. (1997). Applications of physiological ecology to forest management. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Langlet, O. (1971). Two hundred years of genecology. Taxon, 20, 653–722.

Lanquaye-Opoku, N. and Mitchell, S. J. (2005). Portability of stand-level empirical windthrow risk models. Forest Ecology and Management, 216, 134–148.

Larsen, D. R. and Kershaw, J. A. (1990). The measurement of leaf area. In Techniques in forest tree ecophysiology, eds. J. Lassoie and T. Hinkley, pp. 465–475. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Larson, A. L. (1971). Two-way thermogradient plates for seed germination research: construction plans and procedures. USDA Agricultural Research Service Report 51–41. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

Larsson, B., Bengtsson, B., and Gustafsson, M. (2004). Nondestructive detection of decay in living trees. Tree Physiology, 24, 853–858.

Latham, P. A., Zuuring, H. R., and Coble, D. W. (1998). A method for quantifying vertical forest structure. Forest Ecology and Management, 104, 157–170.

Laurance, W. F. and Yensen, E. (1991). Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats. Biological Conservation, 55, 77–92.

Laurance, W. F., Ferreira, L. V., Rankin-de Merona, J. M., and Hutchings, R. W. (1998a). Influence of plot shape on estimates of tree diversity and community composition in central Amazonia. Biotropica, 30(4), 662–665.

Laurance, W. F., Ferreira, L. V., Rankin-De Merona, J. M., and Laurance, S. G. (1998b). Rain forest fragmentation and the dynamics of Amazonian tree communities. Ecology, 79, 2032–2040.

Leck, M. A., Parker, V. T., and Simpson, R. L. (eds.) (1989). Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Leckie, D. G., Yuan, X., Ostaff, D. P., Piene, H., and MacLean, D. A. (1992). Analysis of high resolution multispectral MEIS imagery for spruce budworm damage assessment on a single tree basis. Remote Sensing of Environment, 40, 125–136.

Ledig, F. T. (1988). The conservation of diversity in forest trees: why and how should genes be conserved? BioScience, 38, 471–479.

(p.407) Lee, E. T. (1992). Statistical methods for survival data analysis. Wiley, New York.

Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Acker, S. A., Parker, G. G., Spies, T. A., and Harding, D. (1999a). Lidar remote sensing of canopy structure and biophysical properties of Douglas-fir western hemlock forests. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70, 339–361.

Lefsky, M. A., Harding, D., Cohen, W. B., Parker, G., and Shugart, H. H. (1999b). Surface lidar remote sensing of basal area and biomass in deciduous forests of eastern Maryland, USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 67, 83–98.

Lefsky, M. A., Cohen, W. B., Parker, G. G., and Harding, D. J. (2002). Lidar remote sensing for ecosystem studies. BioScience, 52, 19–30.

Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical ecology, 2nd edition. Developments in Environmental Modelling. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Legg, C. J. and Nagy, L. (2006). Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management, 78, 194–199.

Leishman, M. R. and Westoby, M. (1992). Classifying plants into groups on the basis of associations of individual traits—evidence from Australian semi-arid woodlands. Journal of Ecology, 80, 417–424.

Lemmon, P. E. (1956). A spherical densiometer for estimating overstorey density. Forest Science, 2, 314–320.

Leslie, A. D. (2004). The impacts and mechanics of certification. International Forestry Review, 6(1), 30–39.

Levin, S. A., Muller-Landau, H. C., Nathan, R., and Chave, J. (2003). The ecology and evolution of seed dispersal: a theoretical perspective. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 575–604.

Lewis, S. L., Phillips, O. L., Sheil, D. et al. (2004). Tropical forest tree mortality, recruitment and turnover rates: calculation, interpretation and comparison when census intervals vary. Journal of Ecology, 92(6), 929–944.

Lewontin, R. C. (1972). The apportionment of human diversity. Evolutionary Biology, 6, 381–398.

Li, H. and Reynolds, J. F. (1993). A new contagion index to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 8, 155–162.

LI-COR Inc. (1992). LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer operating manual. LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE.

Lieberman, D., Lieberman, M., Peralta, R., and Hartshorn, G. S. (1985). Mortality patterns and stand turnover rates in a wet tropical forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology, 73, 915–924.

Lieberman, M., Lieberman, D., and Peralta, R. (1989). Forests are not just Swiss cheese: canopy stereogeometry of non-gaps in tropical forests. Ecology, 70(3), 550–552.

Lillesand, T. M. and Kiefer, R. W. (1994). Remote sensing and image interpretation, 3rd edition. Wiley, New York.

Lindenmayer, D. B. and Franklin, J. F. (2002). Conserving forest biodiversity. A comprehensive multiscaled approach. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Lindenmayer, D. B., Burgman, M. A., Akçakaya, H. R., Lacy, R. C., and Possingham, H. P. (1995). A review of the generic computer programmes ALEX, RAMAS/space and VORTEX for modeling the viability of wildlife populations. Ecological Modelling, 82, 161–174.

Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., Pope, M. L., Gibbons, P., and Donnelly, C. F. (2000). Cavity sizes and types in Australian eucalypts from wet and dry forest types—a simple rule of thumb for estimating size and number of cavities. Forest Ecology and Management, 137, 139–150.

Lindner, M., Sievänen, R., and Pretzsch, H. (1997). Improving the simulation of stand structure in a forest gap model. Forest Ecology and Management, 95, 183–195.

Lines, R. and Howell, R. S. (1963). The use of flags to estimate the relative exposure of trial plantations. Forestry Commission Forest Record 51. HMSO, London.

(p.408) Liu, J. G. and Ashton, P. S. (1995). Individual-based simulation-models for forest succession and management. Forest Ecology and Management, 73(1–3), 157–175.

Liu, J. and Ashton, P. S. (1998). FORMOSAIC: an individual-based spatially explicit model for simulating forest dynamics in landscape mosaics. Ecological Modelling, 106, 177–200.

Liu, Q.-H. and Hytteborn, H. (1991). Gap structure, disturbance and regeneration in a primeval Picea abies forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2(3), 391–402.

Lobo, A. (1997). Image segmentation and discriminant analysis for the identification of land cover units in ecology. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 35, 1136–1145.

Lockwood, M., Warboys, G., and Kothari, A. (2006). Managing protected areas. A global guide. IUCN/Earthscan, London.

Löfstrand, R., Folving, S., Kennedy, P. et al. (2003). Habitat characterization and mapping for umbrella species—an integrated approach using satellite and field data. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 191–204. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Longino, J. T., Coddington, J., and Colwell, R. K. (2002). The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology, 83, 689–702.

Longley, P. A., Goodchild, M. F., Maguire, D. J., and Rhind, D. W. (2005). Geographical information systems and science, 2nd edition. Wiley, New York.

López-Barrera, F. and Newton, A. C. (2005). Edge type effect on germination of oak tree species in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(1), 67–79.

López-Barrera, F., Newton, A. C., and Manson, R. (2005). Edge effects in a tropical montane forest mosaic: experimental tests of post-dispersal acorn removal. Ecological Research, 20(1), 31–40.

López-Barrera, F., Manson, R. H., Gonzalez-Espinosa, M., and Newton, A. C. (2006a). Effects of varying forest edge permeability on seed dispersal in a neotropical montane forest. Landscape Ecology. In press.

López-Barrera, F., Manson, R. H., Gonzalez-Espinosa, M., and Newton, A. C. (2006b). Effects of the type of montane forests edge on oak seedling establishment along forest–edge–exterior gradients. Forest Ecology and Management, 225(1–3), 234–244.

Lorimer, C. G. (1985). Methodological considerations in the analysis of forest disturbance history. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 15, 200–213.

Loveless, M. D. (1992). Isozyme variation in tropical trees: patterns of genetic organisation. New Forests, 6, 67–94.

Lowe, A., Harris, S., and Ashton, P. (2004). Ecological genetics. Design, analysis and application. Blackwell, Oxford.

Lowe, A. J., Boshier, D., Ward, M., Bacles, C. F. E., and Navarro, C. (2005). Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for neotropical trees. Heredity, 95, 255–273.

Lowell, K. E., Edwards, G., and Kucera, G. (1996). Modelling the heterogeneity and change of natural forests. Geomatica, 50, 425–440.

Lowman, M. D. and Wittman, P. K. (1996). Forest canopies: methods, hypotheses, and future directions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 27, 55–81.

Lü, Y., Chen, L., Fu, B., and Liu, S. (2003). A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve. Landscape and Urban Planning, 63(4), 213–223.

Ludwig, D. (1999). Is it meaningful to estimate a probability of extinction?. Ecology, 80(1), 298–310.

Lynch, M. and Milligan, B. G. (1994). Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markers. Molecular Ecology, 3, 91–99.

MacArthur, R. H. and MacArthur, J. W. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42(3), 594–598.

(p.409) Mace, G. M., Balmford, A., Boitani, L. et al. (2000). It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts. Nature, 405, 393.

Machado, J.-L. and Reich, P. B. (1999). Evaluation of several measures of canopy openness as predictors of photosynthetic photon flux density in deeply shaded conifer-dominated forest understory. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29, 1438–1444.

Mack, A. L. (1995). Distance and non-randomness of seed dispersal by the dwarf cassowary Casuarius bennetti. Ecography, 18, 286–295.

Madany, M. H., Swetnam, T. W., and West, N. E. (1982). Comparison of two approaches for determining fire dates from tree scars. Forest Science, 28, 856–861.

Magurran, A. E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell, Oxford.

Mäkelä, A., Landsberg, J., Ek, A. R. et al. (2000). Process-based models for forest ecosystem management: current state of the art and challenges for practical implementation. Tree Physiology, 20(5–6), 289–298.

Mancke, R. G. and Gavin, T. A. (2000). Breeding bird density in woodlots: effects of depth and buildings at the edges. Ecological Applications, 10, 598–611.

Manel, S., Dias, J.-M., and Ormerod, S. J. (1999). Comparing discriminant analysis, neural networks and logistic regression for predicting species distributions: a case study with a Himalayan river bird. Ecological Modelling, 120, 337–347.

Manley, B. F. J. (1992). The design and analysis of research studies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mansourian, S. (2005). Overview of forest restoration strategies and terms. In Forest restoration in landscapes. Beyond planting trees, eds. S. Mansourian, D. Vallauri, and N. Dudley, pp. 8–13. Springer, New York.

Mansourian, S., Vallauri, D., and Dudley, N. (eds.) (2005). Forest restoration in landscapes. Beyond planting trees. Springer, New York.

Margoluis, R. and Salafsky, N. (1998). Measures of success: Designing, managing, and monitoring conservation and development projects. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Margules, C. R. and Pressey, R. L. (2000). Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 405, 243–253.

Marren, P. (2002). Nature conservation. HarperCollins, London

Marshall, E., Schreckenberg, K., and Newton, A. C. (eds.) (2006). Commercialization of non-timber forest products: Factors influencing success. Lessons learned from Mexico and Bolivia and policy implications for decision-makers. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.

Martínez-Ramos, M. and Alvarez-Buylla, E. R. (1999). How old are tropical forest trees? Trends in Plant Sciences, 3, 400–405.

Maser, C., Anderson, R. G., Cromack, K. Jr., Williams, J. T., and Martin, R. E. (1979). Dead and down woody material. In Wildlife habitats in managed forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington, ed. J. W. Thomas, pp. 79–85. USDA Forest Service and Agriculture Handbook 553, Washington, DC.

Matlack, G. R. (1989). Secondary dispersal of seed across snow in Betula lenta, a gap-colonising tree species. Journal of Ecology, 77, 858–869.

Matlack, G. R. and Litvaitis, J. A. (1999). Forest edges. In Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, ed. M. L. Hunter, pp. 210–233. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Matthews, E. (2001). Understanding the FRA 2000. Forest Briefing No. 1. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

Matthews, J. D. (1989). Silvicultural systems. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Mayaux, P., Holmgren, P., Achard, F., Eva, H., and Stibig, H. (2005). Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B360(1454), 373–384.

(p.410) Mayers, J. and Bass, S. (2004). Policy that works for forests and people: Real prospects for governance and livelihoods. Earthscan, Sterling, VA.

Mayhew, J. and Newton, A. C. (1998). Silviculture of mahogany. CABI Bioscience, Wallingford.

McCallum, H. (2000). Population parameters. Estimation for ecological models. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

McCarthy, M. A., Possingham, H. P., Day, J. R., and Tyre, A. J. (2001). Testing the accuracy of population viability analysis. Conservation Biology, 15, 1030–1038.

McComb, W. and Lindenmayer, D. (1999). Dying, dead, and down trees. In Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, ed. M. L. Hunter, pp. 335–372. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McCracken, J. A., Pretty, J. N., and Conway, G. R. (1988). An introduction to rapid rural appraisal for agricultural development. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

McDonald, R. I., Peet, R. K., and Urban, D. L. (2003). Spatial pattern of Quercus regeneration limitation and Acer rubrum invasion in a Piedmont forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 441–450.

McElhinny, C., Gibbons, P., Brack, C., and Bauhus, J. (2005). Forest and woodland stand structural complexity: its definition and measurement. Forest Ecology and Management, 218, 1–24.

McEuen, A. B. and Curran, L. M. (2005). Plant recruitment bottlenecks in temperate forest fragments: seed limitation and insect herbivory. Plant Ecology, 184(2), 297–309.

McGarigal, K. (2002). Landscape pattern metrics. In Encyclopedia of environmetrics, Volume 2A, eds. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch, pp. 1135–1142. Wiley, Chichester.

McGarigal, K. and Marks, B. (1995). Fragstats: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure (Fragstats NT Version 2.0). USDA Forest Service General Technical report PNW-GTR-351, Portland, OR.

McGarigal, K., Cushman, S. A., Neel, M. C., and Ene, E. (2002). Fragstats: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. University of Massachusetts, Landscape Ecology Program 〈www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html

McKenzie, D. H., Hyatt, D. E., and McDonald, V. J. (eds.) (1992). Ecological indicators. Vols. 1, 2. Elsevier Applied Science, London.

McNab, W. H., Browning, S. A., Simon, S. A., and Fouts, P. E. (1999). An unconventional approach to ecosystem unit classification in western North Carolina, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 114, 405–420.

McPeek, M. A. and Kalisz, S. (1993). Population sampling and bootstrapping in complex designs: demographic analysis. In Design and analysis of ecological experiments, 2nd edition, eds. S. M. Scheiner and J. Gurevitch, pp. 232–252. Oxford University Press, New York.

McRoberts, N., Finch, R. P., Sinclair, W. et al. (1999). Assessing the ecological significance of molecular diversity data in natural plant populations. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 1635–1655.

Medhurst, J. L. and Beadle, C. L. (2002). Sapwood hydraulic conductivity and leaf area-sapwood area relationships following thinning of a Eucalyptus nitens plantation. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 1011–1019.

Meir, E., Andelman, S., and Possingham, H. P. (2004). Does conservation planning matter in a dynamic and uncertain world? Ecology Letters, 7, 615–622.

Menges, E. S. (1990). Population viability analysis for an endangered plant. Conservation Biology, 4(1), 52–62.

Menges, E. S. (2000). Population viability analyses in plants: challenges and opportunities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 51–56.

Mergen, F. (1954). Mechanical aspects of windbreak and windfirmness. Journal of Forestry, 52, 119–125.

(p.411) Mertens, B. and Lambin, E. F. (1997). Spatial modelling of deforestation in southern Cameroon: spatial disaggregation of diverse deforestation processes. Applied Geography, 17, 143–162.

Messier, C. and Puttonen, P. (1995). Spatial and temporal variation in the light environment of developing Scots pine stands: the basis for a quick and efficient method of characterizing light. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 343–354

Michener, W. K. and Houhoulis, P. F. (1997). Detection of vegetation changes associated with extensive flooding in a forested ecosystem. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63, 1363–1374.

Middleton, B. A. (1995). Sampling devices for the measurement of seed rain and hydrochory in rivers. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 122, 152–155.

Miles, L., Newton, A. C., DeFries, R., Kapos, V., Blyth, S., and Gordon, J. (2006). A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 491–505.

Millar, C. I. and Libby, W. J. (1991). Strategies for conserving clinal, ecotypic and disjunct population diversity in widespread species. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, eds. D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger, pp. 149–170. Oxford University Press, New York.

Millington, A. C., Velez-Liendo, X. M., and Bradley, A. V. (2003). Scale dependence in multi-temporal mapping of forest fragmentation in Bolivia: implications for explaining temporal trends in landscape ecology and applications to biodiversity conservation. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57, 289–299.

Mills, L. S., Doak, D. F., and Wisdom, M. J. (1999). Reliability of conservation actions based on elasticity analysis of matrix models. Conservation Biology, 13, 815–829

Mitchell, A. W. (1982). Reaching the rain forest roof. A handbook on techniques of access and study in the canopy. Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society, Leeds.

Mitchell, A. W. (1986). The enchanted canopy. Collins, Glasgow.

Mitchell, D. (2004). Cloud atlas. Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Mittermeier, R. A., Gil, P. R., Hoffman, M. et al. (2004). Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most threatened terrestrial ecoregions. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Mladenoff, D. J. (2004). LANDIS and forest landscape models. Ecological Modelling, 180, 7–19.

Mladenoff, D. J. and Baker, W. L. (1999). Development of forest modeling approaches. In Spatial modelling of forest landscape change: Approaches and applications, eds. D. J. Mladenoff and W. L. Baker, pp.1–13. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mladenoff, D. J. and He, H. S. (1999). Design and behavior of LANDIS, an object-oriented model of forest landscape disturbance and succession. In Spatial modelling of forest landscape change: Approaches and applications, eds. D. J. Mladenoff and W. L. Baker, pp. 125–162. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mladenoff, D. J. and Pastor, J. (1993). Sustainable forest ecosystems in the northern hardwood and conifer forest region: concepts and management. In Defining sustainable forestry, eds. G. H. Aplet, N. Johnson, J. T. Olson, and V. A. Sample, pp. 145–180. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Moffett, M. W. (1993). The High Frontier. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Moilanen, A., Franco, A. M. A., Eary, R. I., Fox, R., Wintle, B., and Thomas, C. D. (2005). Prioritizing multiple-use landscapes for conservation: methods for large multi-species planning problems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B272(1575), 1885–1891.

Moisen, G. G. and Frescino, T. S. (2002). Comparing five modeling techniques for predicting forest characteristics. Ecological Modelling, 157, 209–225.

Molofsky, J. and Fisher, B. L. (1993). Habitat and predation effects on seedling survival and growth in shade-tolerant tropical trees. Ecology, 74, 261–265.

Moloney, K. (1986). A generalised algorithm for determining category size. Oecologia, 69, 176–180.

(p.412) Monserud, R. A. (2003). Evaluating forest models in a sustainable forest management context. Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences, 1, 35–47.

Monteil, C., Deconchat, M., and Balent, G. (2005). Simple neural network reveals unexpected patterns of bird species richness in forest fragments. Landscape Ecology, 20(5), 513–527.

Moore, A. D. and Noble, I. R. (1990). An individualistic model of vegetation stand dynamics. Environmental Management, 31, 61–81.

Moore, J. L., Folkmann, M., Balmford, A. et al. (2003). Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biology. Ecography, 26(5), 595–601.

Moore, M. M., Covington, W. W., and Fulé, P. Z. (1999). Reference conditions and ecological restoration: a southwestern ponderosa pine perspective. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1266–1277.

Moore, P. D. and Chapman, S. B. (eds.) (1986). Methods in plant ecology, 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Morisita, M. (1954). Estimation of population density by spacing method. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series E 1, 187–197.

Morisita, M. (1957). A new method for the estimation of density by the spacing method applicable to nonrandomly distributed populations. Physiology and Ecology, 7, 134–144.

Moritz, C. (1994). Applications of mitochondrial DNA analysis in conservation: a critical review. Molecular Ecology, 3, 401–411.

Moritz, C. (1995). Uses of molecular phylogenies for conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B349, 113–118.

Morrison, M. L., Marcot, B. G., and Mannan, R. W. (1992). Wildlife-habitat relationships: Concepts and applications. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Wiley, New York.

Mukai, Y. and Hasegawa, I. (2000). Extraction of damaged areas of windfall trees by typhoons using Landsat TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20, 2703–2721.

Munro, D. D. (1974). Forest growth models: A prognosis. In Growth models for tree and stand simulation, ed. J. Fries, pp. 7–21. Research Notes 30, Department of Forest Yield Research, Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm.

Myers, N. (1988). Threatened biotas: ‘Hotspots’ in tropical forests. The Environmentalist, 8, 1–20.

Myers, N. (1990). The biodiversity challenge: Expanded hot-spots analysis. The Environmentalist, 10, 243–256.

Myers, N. (2003). Biodiversity hotspots revisited. BioScience, 53, 916–917.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B., and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.

Naef-Daenzer, B., Früh, D., Stalder, M., Wetli, P., and Weise, E. (2005). Miniaturization (0.2g) and evaluation of attachment techniques of telemetry transmitters. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 4063–4068.

Naesset, E. (1997). Estimating timber volume of forest stands using airborne laser scanner data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 61, 246–253.

Naesset, E. and Bjerknes, K.-O. (2001). Estimating tree heights and number of stems in young stands using airborne laser scanner data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 78, 328–340.

Nagendra, H. (2001). Using remote sensing to assess biodiversity. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(12), 2377–2400.

Nagendra, H. and Gadgil, M. (1999). Biodiversity assessment at multiple scales: Linking remotely sensed data with field information. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96(16), 9154–9158.

Namkoong, G., Boyle, T., Gregorius, H.-R. et al. (1996). Testing criteria and indicators for assessing the sustainability of forest management: genetic criteria and indicators. Working Paper No. 10, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

(p.413) Nanos, N., Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C., and Bravo, F. (2004). Studying within-stand structure and dynamics with geostatistical and molecular marker tools. Forest Ecology and Management, 189(1–3), 223–240.

Nathan, R., Perry, G., Cronin, J. T., Strand, A. E., and Cain, M. L. (2003). Methods for estimating long-distance dispersal. Oikos, 103, 261–273.

National Research Council (1991). Managing global genetic resources. Forest trees. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Nei, M. (1973). Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 70, 3321–3323.

Nelson, B. W., Ferreira, C., Da Silva, M., and Kawasaki, M. (1990). Endemism centers, refugia and botanical collection density in Brazilian Amazonia. Nature, 345, 714–716.

Newbery, D. M., Alexander, I. J., Thomas, D. W., and Gartlan, J. S. (1988). Ectomycorrhizal rainforest legumes and soil phosphorus in Korup National Park, Cameroon. New Phytologist, 109, 433–450.

Newstrom, L. E., Frankie, G. W., and Baker, H. G. (1994). A new classification for plant phenology based on flowering patterns in lowland tropical rain forest trees at La Selva, Costa Rica. Biotropica, 26(2), 141–159.

Newton, A. C. (1998). Restoration of native woodland in southern Scotland: the Carrifran Wildwood project. Restoration and Management Notes, 16(2), 212–213.

Newton, A. C. and Ashmole, P. (1998). How may native woodland be restored to southern Scotland? Scottish Forestry, 52, 168–171.

Newton, A. C. and Kapos, V. (2002). Biodiversity indicators in national forest inventories. Unasylva, 53, 56–64.

Newton, A. C. and Oldfield, S. (2005). Forest policy, the precautionary principle and sustainable forest management. In: Biodiversity and the precautionary principle. Risk and uncertainty in conservation and sustainable use, eds. R. Cooney and B. Dickson, pp. 21–38. Earthscan, London.

Newton, A. C. and Pigott, C. D. (1991). Mineral nutrition and mycorrhizal infection of seedling oak and birch. II. The effect of application of fertilizers on growth, mineral uptake and mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist, 117, 45–52.

Newton, A. C., Cornelius, J. P., Mesén, J. F., and Leakey, R. R. B. (1995). Genetic variation in apical dominance of Cedrela odorata seedlings in response to decapitation. Silvae Genetica, 44(2–3), 146–150.

Newton, A. C., Allnutt, T., Gillies, A. C. M., Lowe, A., and Ennos, R. A. (1999a). Molecular phylogeography, intraspecific variation and the conservation of tree species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14(4), 140–145.

Newton, A. C., Watt, A. D., Lopez, F., Cornelius, J. P., Mesén, J. F., and Corea, E. (1999). Genetic variation in host susceptibility to attack by the mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Agriculture and Forest Entomology, 1, 11–18.

Newton, A. C., Stirling, M., and Crowell, M. (2001). Current approaches to native woodland restoration in Scotland. Botanical Journal of Scotland, 53(2), 169–196.

Niemeijer, D. (2002). Developing indicators for environmental policy: data-drive and theory-drive approaches examined by example. Environmental Science and Policy, 5, 91–103.

Niemi, G. J. and McDonald, M. E. (2004). Application of ecological indicators. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35, 89–111.

Nilsson, M., Folving, S., Kennedy, P. et al. (2003). Combining remote sensing and field data for deriving unbiased estimates of forest parameters over large regions. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 19–31. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Nix, H. A., Faith, D. P., Hutchinson, M. F. et al. (2000). The BioRap toolbox: A national study of biodiversity assessment and planning for Papua New Guinea. Consultancy Report to the World Bank. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.

(p.414) Noble, I. R. and Slatyer, R. O. (1980). The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbance. Vegetatio, 43, 5–21.

Norman, J. M. and Campbell, G. S. (1989). Canopy structure. In Plant Physiological Ecology, eds. R. W. Pearcy, J. R. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney, and P. W. Rundel, pp. 301–325. Chapman & Hall, London.

Normand, F., Habib, R., and Chaduf, J. (2002). A stochastic flowering model describing an asynchronically flowering set of trees. Annals of Botany, 90, 405–415.

Noss, R. F. (1990). Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology, 4(4), 355–364.

Noss, R. F. (1999). Assessing and monitoring forest biodiversity: a suggested framework and indicators. Forest Ecology and Management, 115, 135–146.

Noy-Meir, I. (1975). Stability of grazing systems: an application of predator graphs. Journal of Ecology, 63, 459–481.

Nussbaum, R. and Simula, M. (2005). The forest certification handbook. Earthscan, London.

Nybom, H. and Bartish, I. V. (2000). Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 3(2), 93–114.

O'Connor, S., Salafsky, N., and Salzer, D. W. (2005). Monitoring forest restoration projects in the context of an adaptive management cycle. In Forest restoration in landscapes. Beyond planting trees, eds. S. Mansourian, D. Vallauri, and N. Dudley, pp. 145–149. Springer, New York.

OECD (1993). OECD Core Set of Indicators for Environmental Performance Reviews. Environmental Monograph No 83, OECD, Paris.

Okubo, A. and Levin, S. A. (1989). A theoretical framework for data analysis of wind dispersal of seeds and pollen. Ecology, 70, 329–338.

Olden, J. D. (2003). A species-specific approach to modeling biological communities and its potential for conservation. Conservation Biology, 17(3), 854–863.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C., and MacKinven, A. (1998). The world list of threatened trees. World Conservation Press, WCMC, Cambridge.

Oliver, C. D. and Larson, B. C. (1996). Forest stand dynamics. Wiley, New York.

Oliver, C. D. and Stephens, E. P. (1977). Reconstruction of a mixed forest in central New England. Ecology, 58, 562–572.

Oliver, I. (1996). Rapid biodiversity assessment and its application to invertebrate conservation in production forests. Australian Journal of Ecology, 21, 349–350.

Oliver, I. and Beattie, A. J. (1996). Designing a cost-effective invertebrate survey: a test of some methods for the rapid assessment of invertebrate biodiversity. Ecological Applications, 6(2), 594–607.

Olmsted, I. and Alvarez-Buylla, E. (1995). Sustainable harvesting of tropical forest trees: demography and matrix models of two palm species in Mexico. Ecological Applications, 5, 484–500.

Olson, D. M. and Dinerstein, E. (1998). The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biology, 12(3), 502–515.

Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Abell, R. et al. (2000). The global 200: A representation approach to conserving the earth's distinctive ecoregions. Conservation Science Program, World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC.

Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D. et al. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience, 51, 933–938.

(p.415) Olthof, I. and King, D. J. (2000). Development of a forest health index using multispectral airborne digital camera imagery. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 26, 166–176.

O'Neill, R. V., Krummel, J. R., Gardner, R. H. et al. (1988). Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology, 1, 153–162.

O'Neill, R. V., Hunsaker, C. T., Timmins, S. P., Jackson, B. L., Jones, K. B., and Riitters, K. H. (1996). Scale problems in reporting landscape pattern at the regional scale. Landscape Ecology, 11, 169–180.

Oosterhoorn, M. and Kappelle, M. (2000). Vegetation structure and composition along an interior-edge-exterior gradient in a Costa Rican montane cloud forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 126, 291–307.

Osawa, A., Shoemaker, C. A., and Stedinger, J. R. (1983). A stochastic model of balsam fir bud phenology utilizing maximum likelihood parameter estimation. Forest Science, 29, 478–490.

Osunkoya, O. O., Ash, J. E., Hopkins, M. A., and Graham, A. W. (1994). Influence of seed size and seedling ecological attributes on shade-tolerance of rain-forest tree species in northern Queensland. Journal of Ecology, 82, 149–163.

Ouborg, N. J., Piquot, Y., and Van Groenendael, J. M. (1999). Population genetics, molecular markers and the study of dispersal in plants. Journal of Ecology, 87, 551–568.

Pacala, S. W., Canham, C. D., and Silander Jr., J. A. (1993). Forest models defined by field measurements: I. The design of a northeastern forest simulator. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 1980–1988.

Pacala, S. W., Canham, C. D., Saponara, J., Silander, J. A., Kobe, R. K., and Ribbens, E. (1996). Forest models defined by field measurement: estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66, 1–43.

Paciorek, C. J., Condit, R., Hubbell, S. P., and Foster, R. B. (2000). The demographics of resprouting in tree and shrub species of a moist tropical forest. Journal of Ecology, 88(5), 765–777.

Page, B. G. and Thompson, W. T. (1997). The insecticide, herbicide, fungicide quick guide. Thompson, Fesno, CA.

Paine, R. T. (1980). Food webs: linkage interaction strength and community infrastructure. Journal of Animal Ecology, 49, 667–685.

Palmer, J. and Synnott, T. J. (1992). The management of natural forests. In Managing the world's forests, ed. N. P. Sharma, pp. 337–374. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA.

Parent, S. and Messier, C. (1996). A simple and efficient method to estimate microsite light availability under a forest canopy. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 151–154.

Parker, G. G. and Brown, M. J. (2000). Forest canopy stratification—is it useful? The American Naturalist, 155(4), 473–484.

Parker, K. R. (1979). Density estimation by variable area transect. Journal of Wildlife Management, 43(2), 484–492.

Parker, P. G., Snow, A. A., Schug, M. D., Booton, G. C., and Fuerst, P. A. (1998). What molecules can tell us about populations: choosing and using a molecular marker. Ecology, 79, 361–382.

Parmenter, A. W., Hansen, A., Kennedy, R. E. et al. (2003). Land use and land cover change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 1975–1995. Ecological Applications, 13(3), 687–703.

Parrado-Rosselli, A., Machado, J.-L., and Tatiana, P.-L. (2006).Comparison between two methods for measuring fruit production in a tropical forest. Biotropica, 38(2), 267–271.

Patenaude, G., Milne, R., and Dawson, T. P. (2005). Synthesis of remote sensing approaches for forest carbon estimation: reporting to the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental Science and Policy, 8(2), 161–178.

Patil, G. P., Burnham, K. P., and Kovner, J. L. (1979). Nonparametric estimation of plant density by the distance method. Biometrics, 35, 597–604.

(p.416) Payandeh, B. and Ek, A. R. (1986). Distance methods and density estimators. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 918–924.

Pearcy, R. W., Ehleringer, J. R., Mooney, H., and Rundel, P. W. (eds.) (1990). Plant physiological ecology: Field methods and instrumentation. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Peck, S. L. (2000). A tutorial for understanding ecological modeling papers for the nonmodeler. American Entomologist, 46, 40–49.

Pekkarinen, A. and Tuominen, S. (2003). Stratification of a forest area for multisource forest inventory by means of aerial photographs and image segmentation. In Advances in forest inventory for sustainable forest management and biodiversity monitoring, eds. P. Corona, M. Köhl, and M. Marchetti, pp. 111–123. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Peng, C. (2000). Growth and yield models for uneven-aged stands: past, present and future. Forest Ecology and Management, 132, 259–279.

Pennanen, J. and Kuuluvainen, T. (2002). A spatial simulation approach to the natural forest landscape dynamics in boreal Fennoscandia. Forest Ecology and Management, 164, 157–175.

Pereira, J. M. C., Tomé, M., Carreiras, J. M. B. et al. (1997). Leaf area estimation from tree allometrics in Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 166–173.

Peres, C. A., Baider, C., Zuidema, P. A. et al. (2003). Demographic threats to the sustainability of Brazil nut exploitation. Science, 302, 2112–2114.

Perrow, M. and Davy, A. (eds.) (2002). Handbook of ecological restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Petchey, O. L. and Gaston, K. J. (2002a). Extinction and the loss of functional diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B269, 1721–1727.

Petchey, O. L. and Gaston, K. J. (2002b). Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecology Letters, 5, 402–411.

Peterken, G. F. (1996). Natural woodland. Ecology and conservation in northern temperate regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Peters, C. M. (1994) Sustainable harvest of non-timber plant resources in tropical moist forest: an ecological primer. Biodiversity Support Programme, World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC.

Peters, C. M. (1996). The ecology and management of non timber forest resources. Technical Paper 322. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Peters, R. H. (1991). A critique for ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Peterson, A. T., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Bartley, J. et al. (2002). Future projections for Mexican faunas under global climate change scenarios. Nature, 416, 626–629.

Peterson, C. J. (2000). Damage and recovery of tree species after two different tornadoes in the same old growth forest: a comparison of infrequent wind disturbances. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 237–252.

Peterson, C. J. and Rebertus, A. J. (1997). Tornado damage and initial recovery in three adjacent, low-land temperate forests in Missouri. Journal of Vegetation Science, 8, 559–564.

Peterson, G. D., Cumming, G. S., and Carpenter, S. R. (2003). Scenario planning: a tool for conservation in an uncertain world. Conservation Biology, 17(2), 358–366.

Petit, R. J., Aguinagalde, I., de Beaulieu, J.-L. et al. (2003). Glacial refugia: hotspots but not melting pots of genetic diversity. Science, 300, 1563–1565.

Philip, M. S. (1994). Measuring trees and forests, 2nd edition. CABI, Wallingford.

Phillips, O. L. and Gentry, A. H. (1994). Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests. Science, 263, 954–958.

Phillips, O. L., Hall, P., Gentry, A. H., Sawyer, S. A., and Vásquez, M. R. (1994). Dynamics and species richness of tropical rainforests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 91, 2805–2809.

Phillips, O. L., Malhi, Y., Higuchi, N. et al. (1998). Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forest: evidence from long-term plots. Science, 282, 439–442.

(p.417) Phillips, O. L., Malhi, Y., Vinceti, B et al. (2002a). Changes in growth of tropical forests: evaluating potential biases. Ecological Applications, 12, 576–587.

Phillips, O. L., Vásquez, M. R., Arroyo, L. et al. (2002b). Increasing dominance of large lianas in Amazonian forests. Nature, 418, 770–774.

Phillips, O. L., Vásquez Martínez, R., Núñez Vargas, P. et al. (2003). Efficient plot-based floristic assessment of tropical forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19, 629–645.

Pickett, S. T. A. and White, P. S. (eds.) (1985). The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.

Pickett, S. T. A., Kolasa, J., and Jones, C. G. (1994). Ecological understanding. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Pigott, C. D., Newton, A. C., and Zammit, S. (1991). Predation of acorns and oak seedlings by grey squirrel. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 85, 173–178.

Pillar, V. D. and Sosinski, Jr., E. E. (2003). An improved method for searching plant functional types by numerical analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 323–332.

Pinard, M. (1993). Impacts of stem harvesting on populations of Iriartea deltoidea (Palmae) in an extractive reserve in Acre, Brazil. Biotropica, 25(1), 2–14.

Pontius, R. G., Cornell, J., and Hall, C. (2001). Modelling the spatial pattern of land-use change with GEOMOD2: application and validation for Costa Rica. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 85, 191–203.

Poorter, L. (1999). Growth responses of 15 rainforest tree species to a light gradient: the relative importance of morphological and physiological traits. Functional Ecology, 13, 396–410.

Poorter, L. (2001). Light-dependent changes in biomass allocation and their importance for growth of rain forest tree species. Functional Ecology, 15, 113–123.

Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Kouame, F. N., and Hawthorne, W. D. (eds.) (2004). Biodiversity of West African forests. An ecological atlas of woody plant species. CABI, Wallingford.

Porte, A. and Bartelink, H. H. (2002). Modelling mixed forest growth: a review of models for forest management. Ecological Modelling, 150(1–2), 141–188.

Poso, S., Wang, G., and Tuominen, S. (1999). Weighting alternative estimates when using multi-source auxiliary data for forest inventory. Silva Fennica, 33, 41–50.

Possingham, H. P. and Davies, I. (1995). ALEX: A population viability analysis model for spatially structured populations. Biological Conservation, 73, 143–150.

Possingham, H. P., Ball, I. R., and Andelman, S. (2000). Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In Quantitative methods for conservation biology, eds. S. Ferson and M. Burgman, pp. 291–305. Springer, New York.

Prabhu, R., Colfer, C. J. P., Venkateswarlu, P., Tan, L. C., Soekmadi, R., and Wollenberg, E. (1996). Testing criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests: phase I. Final report. CIFOR, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Premoli, A. C., Souto, C. P., Allnut, T. R., and Newton, A. C. (2001). Effects of population disjunction on isozyme variation in the widespread Pilgerodendron uviferum. Heredity, 87(3), 337–343.

Premoli, A. C., Souto, C. P., Rovere, A. E., Allnut, T. R., and Newton, A. C. (2002). Patterns of isozyme variation as indicators of biogeographic history in Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florín. Diversity and Distributions, 8, 57–66.

Premoli, A. C., Vergara, R., Souta, C. P., Lara, A., and Newton, A. C. (2003). Lowland valleys shelter the ancient conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in the Central Depression of southern Chile. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 33(3), 623–631.

Pressey, R. L. and Nicholls, A. O. (1989). Efficiency in conservation evaluation: scoring versus iterative approaches. Biological Conservation, 50, 199–218.

Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Woods, C. A., Tully, S. L., and Weinman, K. M. (1996). How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? Analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecology and Management, 85, 311–333.

(p.418) Pressey, R. L., Possingham, H. P., and Day, J. R. (1997). Effectiveness of alternative heuristic algorithms for identifying indicative minimum requirements for conservation reserves. Biological Conservation, 80, 207–219.

Pressey, R. L., Possingham, H. P., Logan, V. S., Day, J. R., and Williams, P. H. (1999). Effects of data characteristics on the results of reserve selection algorithms. Journal of Biogeography, 26, 179–191.

Pressey, R. L., Whish, G. L., Barrett, T. W., and Watts, M. E. (2002). Effectiveness of protected areas in north-eastern New South Wales: recent trends in six measures. Biological Conservation, 106(1), 57–69.

Pretty, J. N., Guijt, I., Thompson, J., and Scoones, I. (1995). Participatory learning and action. A trainer's guide. IIED, London 〈www.iied.org/sarl/pubs/particmethod.html〉.

Price, M. (1986). The analysis of vegetation change by remote sensing. Progress in Physical Geography, 10, 473–491.

Price, M. V. and Reichman, O. J. (1987). Distribution of seeds in Sonoran desert soils: implications for heteromyid rodent foraging. Ecology, 68, 1797–1811.

Price, M. V. and Waser, N. M. (1979). Pollen dispersal and optimal outcrossing in Delphinium nelsonii. Nature, 277, 294–296.

Prins, E. and Kikula, I. S. (1996). Deforestation and regrowth phenology in miombo woodland assessed by Landsat Multispectral Scanner System data. Forest Ecology and Management, 84, 263–266.

Pullin, A. S. and Knight, T. M. (2001). Effectiveness in conservation practice: pointers from medicine and public health. Conservation Biology, 15, 50–54.

Pullin, A. S. and Knight, T. M. (2003). Support for decision making in conservation practice: an evidence-based approach. Journal for Nature Conservation, 11, 83–90.

Pullin, A. S., Knight, T. M., Stone, D. A., and Charman, K. (2004). Do conservation managers use scientific evidence to support their decision-making? Biological Conservation, 119, 245–252.

Putman, R. J. (1986). Grazing in temperate ecosystems. Large herbivores and the ecology of the New Forest. Croom Helm, London.

Putman, R. J. (1996). Ungulates in temperate forest ecosystems: perspectives and recommendations for future research. Forest Ecology and Management, 88, 205–214.

Puyravaud, J. P. (2003). Standardizing the calculation of the annual rate of deforestation. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 593–596.

Pyle, C. and Brown, M. M. (1999). Heterogeneity of wood decay classes within hardwood logs. Forest Ecology and Management, 114, 253–259.

Quine, C. P. (1995). Assessing the risk of wind damage; practice and pitfalls. In: Wind and trees, eds. M. P. Coutts and J. Grace, pp. 379–403. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Quine, C. P. and White, I. M. S. (1994). Using the relationship between rate of tatter and topographic variables to predict site windiness in upland Britain. Forestry, 67, 245–256.

Rackham, O. (1986). History of the countryside. Dent, London.

Rackham, O. (2003). Ancient woodland: Its history, vegetation and uses in England. Castlepoint Press, Dalbeattie, Kirkcudbrightshire.

Rametsteiner, E. and Simula, M. (2003). Forest certification—an instrument to promote sustainable forest management? Journal of Environmental Management, 67(1), 87–98.

Ramirez-Garcia, P., Lopez-Blanco, J., and Ocana, D. (1998). Mangrove vegetation assessment in the Santiago River Mouth, Mexico, by means of supervised classification using Landsat TM imagery. Forest Ecology and Management, 105, 217–229.

Ramsay, E. W. III., Chappell, D. K., Jacobs, D. M., Sapkota, S. K., and Baldwin, D. G. (1998). Resource management of forest wetlands: hurricane impact and recovery mapped by combining Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64, 733–738.

(p.419) Ranneby, B., Cruse, T., Hägglund, B., Jonasson, H., and Swård, J. (1987). Designing a new national forest survey for Sweden. Studia Forestalia Suecica, 177. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, Uppsala.

Ranta, P., Blom, T., Niemela, J., Joensuu, E., and Siitonen, M. (1998). The fragmented Atlantic rain forest of Brazil: size, shape and distribution of forest fragments. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 385–403.

Rapoport, E. H. (1982). Aerography. Pergamon, Oxford.

Read, H. (2000). Veteran trees: A guide to good management. English Nature, Peterborough.

Redford, K. H., Coppolillo, P., Sanderson, E. W. et al. (2003). Mapping the conservation landscape. Conservation Biology, 17(1), 116–131.

Reed, D. D. and Mroz, G. D. (1997). Resource assessment in forested landscapes. Wiley, New York.

Reimoser, F., Armstrong, H., and Suchant, R. (1999). Measuring forest damage of ungulates: what should be considered. Forest Ecology and Management, 120, 47–58.

Rhodes, M., Wardell-Johnson, G. W., Rhodes, M. P., and Raymond, B. (2006). Applying network analysis to the conservation of habitat trees in urban environments: a case study from Brisbane, Australia. Conservation Biology. In press.

Ribbens, E. J., Silander, J. A., and Pacala, S. W. (1994). Seedling recruitment in forests: calibrating models to predict patterns of tree seedling dispersion. Ecology, 75, 1794–1806.

Rich, P. M. (1989). A manual for analysis of hemispherical canopy photography. Report LA-11733-M, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.

Rich, P. M. (1990). Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photographs. Remote Sensing Reviews, 5, 13–29.

Rich, P. M., Clark, D. B., Clark, D. A., and Oberbauer, S. F. (1993). Long-term study of solar-radiation regimes in a tropical wet forest using quantum sensors and hemispherical photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 65, 107–127.

Richards, P. W. (1996). The tropical rain forest, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ricketts, T. H., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. M. et al. (1999). Terrestrial ecoregions of North America: A conservation assessment. Island Press. Washington, DC.

Ries, L., Fletcher, R. J., Battin, J., and Sisk, T. D. (2004). Ecological responses to habitat edges: mechanisms, models, and variability explained. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35, 491–522.

Rieseberg, L. H. and Swensen, S. M. (1996). Conservation genetics of endangered island plants. In Conservation genetics: Case histories from nature, eds. J. C. Avise and J. L. Hamrick, pp. 305–334. Chapman & Hall, New York.

Riitters, K. H., O'Neill, R. V., Hunsaker, C. T. et al. (1995). A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics. Landscape Ecology, 10, 23–39.

Ringvall, A. and Ståhl, G. (1999a). Field aspects of line intersect sampling for assessing coarse woody debris. Forest Ecology and Management, 119, 163–170.

Ringvall, A. and Ståhl, G. (1999b). On the field performance of transect relascope sampling for assessing downed coarse woody debris. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14, 552–557.

Ripley, B. D. (1981). Spatial statistics. Wiley, New York.

Ripley, B. D. (1988). Statistical inference for spatial processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ritland, K. (1986). Joint maximum likelihood estimation of genetic and mating structure using open-pollinated progenies. Biometrics, 42, 25–43.

Ritland, K. (1990). A series of FORTRAN computer programs for estimating plant mating systems. Journal of Heredity, 81, 235–237.

(p.420) Ritland, K. (2002). Extension of models for the estimation of mating systems using n independent loci. Heredity, 88, 221–228.

Roberts, D. W. (1996). Landscape vegetation modelling with vital attributes and fuzzy systems theory. Ecological Modelling, 90, 175–184.

Roberts, H. A. (1981). Seed banks in soils. Advances in Applied Biology, 6, 1–55.

Robertson, A., Newton, A. C., and Ennos, R. A. (2004). Breeding systems and continuing evolution in the endemic Sorbus taxa on Arran. Heredity, 93(5), 487–495.

Robertson, G. P. (1987). Geostatistics in ecology: interpolating with known variance. Ecology, 68, 744–748.

Robinson, D. (2005). Assessing and addressing threats in restoration programmes. In Forest restoration in landscapes. Beyond planting trees, eds. S. Mansourian, D. Vallauri, and N. Dudley, pp. 73–77. Springer, New York.

Rodrigues, A. S. L., Andelman, S. J., Bakarr, M. I. et al. (2004). Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428, 640–643.

Rodwell, J. S. and Patterson, G. S. (1994). Creating new native woodlands. Bulletin 112. HMSO, London.

Rorison, I. H. and Robinson, D. (1986). Mineral nutrition. In Methods in plant ecology, 2nd edition, eds. P. D. Moore and S. B. Chapman, pp. 145–213. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Roloff, G. J. and Kernohan, B. J. (1999). Evaluating reliability of habitat suitability index models. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27, 973–985.

Román-Cuesta, R. M. and Martínez-Vilalta, J. (2006). Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: Case study of Chiapas, Mexico. Conservation Biology, 20, 1074–1086.

Rosenzweig, M. L. (1995). Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Roxburgh, J. R. and Kelly, D. (1995). Uses and limitations of hemispherical photography for estimating forest light environments. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 19(2), 213–217.

Roy, P. S. and Tomar, S. (2000). Biodiversity characterization at landscape level using geospatial modelling technique. Biological Conservation, 95(1), 95–109.

Roy, P. S., Padalia, H., Chauhan, N. et al. (2005). Validation of geospatial model for biodiversity characterization at landscape level—a study in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. Ecological Modelling, 185(2–4), 349–369.

Rubino, D. L. and McCarthy, B. C. (2004). Comparative analysis of dendroecological methods used to assess disturbance events. Dendrochronologia, 21(3), 97–115.

Rundel, P. W. and Jarrell, W. M. (1989). Water in the environment. In Plant physiological ecology, eds. R. W. Pearcy, J. R. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney, and P. W. Rundel, pp. 29–56. Chapman & Hall, London.

Runkle, J. R. (1981). Gap regeneration in some old-growth forests of the eastern United States. Ecology, 62, 1041–1051.

Runkle, J. R. (1982). Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology, 63, 1533–1546.

Runkle, J. R. (1992). Guidelines and sample protocol for sampling forest gaps. Gen.Tech.Rep. PNW-GTR-283. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Portland, OR.

Running, S. W., Nemani, R. R., Peterson, D. L. et al. (1989). Mapping regional forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis by coupling satellite data with ecosystem simulation. Ecology, 70, 1090–1101.

Rutter, N. (1966). Tattering of flags under controlled conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 3, 153–l65.

(p.421) Rutter, N. (1968a). Tattering of flags at different sites in relation to wind and weather. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5, 163–181.

Rutter, N. (1968b). Geomorphic and tree shelter in relation to surface wind conditions, time of day and season. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5, 319–334.

Ryan, T. P. (1997). Modern regression methods. Wiley, New York.

Sabersky, R. H., Acosta, A. J., and Hauptman, E. G. (1989). Fluid flow, 3rd edition, Macmillan, New York.

Sader, S. A., Waide, R. B., Lawrence, W. T., and Joyce, A. T. (1989). Tropical forest biomass and successional age class relationships to a vegetation index derived from Landsat data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 28, 143–156.

Saito, K. (2001). Flames. In Forest fires. Behaviour and ecological effects, eds. E. A. Johnson and K. Miyanishi, pp. 11–54. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Sala, O. E., Chapin III, F. S., Armesto, J. J. et al. (2000). Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 1770–1774.

Salafsky, N., Margoluis, R., and Redford, K. (2001). Adaptive management: A tool for conservation practitioners. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, DC.

Salafsky, N., Margoluis, R., Redford, K., and Robinson, J. (2002). Improving the practice of conservation: a conceptual framework and agenda for conservation science. Conservation Biology, 16, 1469–1479.

Salvador, R., Valeriano, J., Pons, X., and Diaz-Delgado, R. (2000). A semi-automatic methodology to detect fire scars in shrubs and evergreen forests with Landsat MSS time series. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 655–671.

Sample, V. A. and Cheng, A. S. (2004). Forest conservation policy: A reference handbook. ABC Clio, Santa Barbara, CA.

San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Carlson, J. D., Alexander, M. et al. (2003). Current methods to assess fire danger potential. In Wildland fire danger estimation and mapping—The role of remote sensing data, ed. E. Chuvieco, pp. 21–61. Series in Remote Sensing Volume 4. World Scientific, Singapore.

Sarathchandra, S. U., Dimenna, M. E., Burch, G. et al. (1995). Effects of plant parasitic nematodes and rhizosphere microorganisms on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.). Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27, 9–16.

SAS (2002). SAS online documentation, version 9. SAS Institute, Cary, NC 〈www.support.sas.com/〉.

Schaal, B. A., Leverich, W. J., and Rogstad, S. H. (1991). A comparison of methods for assessing genetic variation in plant conservation biology. In Genetics and conservation of rare plants, eds. D. A. Falk and K. E. Holsinger, pp. 123–134. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Schamberger, M., Farmer, A. H., and Terrell, J. (1982). Habitat suitability index models: Introduction. FW/OBS-82/10 USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC.

Schirone, B., Leone, A., Mazzoleni, S., and Spada, F. (1990). A new method of survey and data analysis in phenology. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2, 27–34.

Schnitzer, S. A., Reich, P. B., Bergner, B., and Carson, W. P. (2002). Herbivore and pathogen damage on grassland and woodland plants: a test of the herbivore uncertainty principle. Ecology Letters, 5, 531–539.

Schreuder, H. T., Gregoire, T. G., and Wood, G. B. (1993). Sampling methods for multi-resource forest inventory. Wiley, New York.

Schulenberg, T. S., Short, C. A., and Stephenson, P. J., (eds.) (1999). A biological assessment of Parc National de la Marahoué, Côte d'Ivoire. RAP Working Papers 13. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Schume, H., Jost, G., and Katzensteiner, K. (2003). Spatio-temporal analysis of the soil water content in a mixed Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)–European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand. Geoderma, 112(3–4), 273–287.

(p.422) Schwartz, M. W. (2003). Assessing population viability in long-lived plants. In Population viability in plants. Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants, eds. C. A. Brigham and M. A. Schwartz, pp. 239–266. Ecological Studies 165. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Schweingruber, F. H. (1988). Tree rings: Basics and applications of dendrochronology. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Seaman, D. E., Griffith, B., and Powerll, R. A. (1998). KERNELHR: a program for estimating animal home ranges. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26, 95–100.

Sedgeley, J. A. and O'Donnell, C. F. J. (1999). Roost selection by the longtailed bat, Chalinolobus tuberculatus, in temperate New Zealand rainforest and its implications for the conservation of bats in managed forests. Biological Conservation, 88, 261–276.

Shaw, P. J. A. (2003). Multivariate statistics for the environmental sciences. Arnold, London.

Sheil, D. (1995). A critique of permanent plot methods and analysis with examples from Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 77, 11–34.

Sheil, D. (1996). Species richness, tropical forest dynamics and sampling: Questioning cause and effect. Oikos, 76(3), 587–590.

Sheil, D. (1999). Developing tests of successional hypotheses with size-structured populations, and an assessment using long-term data from a Ugandan rain forest. Plant Ecology, 140(1), 117–127.

Sheil, D. (2001a). Long-term observations of rain forest succession, tree diversity and responses to disturbance. Plant Ecology, 155(2), 183–199.

Sheil, D. (2001b). Conservation and biodiversity monitoring in the tropics: realities, priorities and distraction. Conservation Biology, 15(4), 1179–1182.

Sheil, D. (2003). Growth assessment in tropical trees: large daily diameter fluctuations and their concealment by dendrometer bands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33(10), 2027–2035.

Sheil, D. and Ducey, M. (2002). An extreme-value approach to detect clumping and an application to tropical forest gap-mosaic dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 671–686.

Sheil, D. and May, R. M. (1996). Mortality and recruitment rate evaluations in heterogeneous tropical forests. Journal of Ecology, 84(1), 91–100.

Sheil, D., Burslem, D. F. R. P., and Alder, D. (1995). The interpretation and misinterpretation of mortality-rate measures. Journal of Ecology, 83, 331–333.

Sheil, D., Jennings, S., and Savill, P. (2000). Long-term permanent plot observations of vegetation dynamics in Budongo, a Ugandan rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 765–800.

Sheil, D., Ducey, M. J., and Sidiyasa, K. (2003). A new type of sample unit for the efficient assessment of diverse tree communities in complex forest landscapes. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 15(1), 117–135.

Sheil, D., Salim, A., Chave, J., Vanclay, J., and Hawthorne, W. D. (2006). Illumination–size relationships of 109 coexisting tropical forest tree species. Journal of Ecology, 94, 494–507.

Shettigara, V. K. and Sumerling, G. M. (1998). Height determination of extended objects using shadows in SPOT images. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64, 35–44.

Shiver, B. D. and Borders, B. E. (1996). Sampling techniques for forest resource inventory. Wiley, New York.

Shortle, W. C. and Smith, K. T. (1987). Electrical properties and rate of decay in spruce and fir wood. Phytopathology, 77, 811–814.

Shugart, H. H. (1984). A theory of forest dynamics: The ecological emplications of forest succession models. Springer, New York.

Shugart, H. H. (1997). Plant and ecosystem functional types. In Plant functional types, eds. T. M. Smith, H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward, pp. 20–43. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shugart, H. H. (1998). Terrestrial ecosystems in changing environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

(p.423) Shugart, H. H. and Smith, T. M. (1996). A review of forest patch models and their application to global change research. Climatic Change, 34(2), 131–153.

Shugart, H. H. and West, D. C. (1977). Development of an Appalachian forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the chestnut blight. Journal of Environmental Management, 5, 161–179.

Shugart, H. H. and West, D. C. (1980). Forest succession models. BioScience, 30, 308–313.

Silvertown, J. W. and Lovett Doust, J. (1993). Introduction to plant population biology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

Silvertown, J., Franco, M., and Menges, E. (1996). Interpretation of elasticity matrices as an aid to the management of plant populations for conservation. Conservation Biology, 10, 591–597.

Sisk, T. D., Lanner, A. E., Switky, K. R., and Ehrlich, P. R. (1994). Identifying extinction threats: global analyses of the distribution of biodiversity and the expansion of the human enterprise. Bioscience, 44, 592–604.

Sisk, T. D., Haddad, N. M., and Ehrlich, P. R. (1997). Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitats. Ecological Applications, 7, 1170–1180.

Sjögren-Gulve, P. and Hanski, I. (2000). Metapopulation viability analysis using occupancy models. Ecological Bulletins, 48, 53–71.

Smith, D. M. (1986). The practice of silviculture, 8th edition. Wiley, New York.

Smith, J. L. (1986). Evaluation of the effects of photo measurement errors on predictions of stand volume from aerial photography. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 52, 401–410.

Smith, N. J. H., Williams, J. T., Plucknett, D. P., and Talbot, J. P. (1992). Tropical Forests and their Crops. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Snook, L. K. (1996). Catastrophic disturbance, logging and the ecology of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King): Grounds for listing a major tropical timber species on CITES. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 122(1), 35–46.

Soehartono, T. and Newton, A. C. (2000). Conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria. I. Status and distribution in Indonesia. Biological Conser vation, 96, 83–94.

Soehartono, T. and Newton, A. C. (2001). Conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria. II. The impact of gaharu har vesting in Indonesia. Biological Conservation, 97(1), 29–41.

Sokal, R. R. and Oden, N. (1978). Spatial autocorrelation in biology, 1. Methodology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 10, 199–228.

Sollins, P. (1982). Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 12, 18–28.

Sollins, P., Cline, S. P., Verhoeven, T., Sachs, D., and Spycher, G. (1987). Patterns of log decay in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17, 1585–1595.

Solomon, A. M. and Bartlein, P. J. (1992). Past and future climate change: response by mixed deciduous-coniferous forest ecosystems in northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 1727–1738.

Soltis, D. E. and Soltis, P. S. (eds.) (1990). Isozymes in plant biology. Advances in Plant Sciences Series, Vol. 4. Chapman & Hall, London.

Sørensen, L. L., Coddington, J. A., and Scarff, N. (2002). Inventorying and estimating subcanopy spider diversity using semi-quantitative sampling methods in an Afromontane forest. Environmental Entomology, 31, 319–330.

Sork, V. L. (1984). Examination of seed dispersal and survival in red oak, Quercus rubra (Fagaceae), using metal-tagged acorns. Ecology, 65, 1020–1022.

Southwood, T. R. E. and Henderson, P. A. (2000). Ecological methods, 3rd edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Spellerberg, I. F. (1991). Monitoring ecological change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

(p.424) Spetich, M. A., Shifley, S. R., and Parker, G. R. (1999). Regional distribution and dynamics of coarse woody debris in midwestern old-growth forests. Forest Science, 45, 302–313.

Spies, T. (1997). Forest stand structure, composition and function. In Creating a forestry for the 21st century. The science of ecosystem management, eds. K. A. Kohm and J. F. Franklin, pp. 11–30. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Spies, T. and Turner, M. G. (1999). Dynamic forest mosaics. In Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems, ed. M. L. Hunter, pp. 95–160. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Spies, T. A., Franklin, J. F., and Thomas, T. B. (1988). Coarse woody debris in Douglas-fir forests of Western Oregon and Washington. Ecology, 69, 1689–1702.

Ståhl, G., Ringvall, A., and Fridman, J. (2001). Assessment of coarse woody debris—a methodological overview. Ecological Bulletins, 49, 57–70.

Starfield, A. M., Smith, K. A., and Bleloch, A. L. (1990). How to model it: Problem solving for the computer age. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Staus, N., Strittholt, J., Dellasala, D., and Robinson, R. (2002). Rate and patterns of forest disturbance in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion, USA between 1972 and 1992. Landscape Ecology, 17, 455–470.

Stellingwerf, D. A. and Hussin, Y. A. (1997). Measurements and estimations of forest stand parameters using remote sensing. VSP, Utrecht.

Stephenson, N. L. (1999). Reference conditions for Giant Sequoia forest restoration: structure, process and precision. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1253–1265.

Stern, M. J. (1998). Field comparisons of two rapid vegetation assesment techniques with permanent plot inventory data in Amazonian Peru. In Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies, eds. F. Dallmeier and J. A. Comiskey, pp. 269–283. UNESCO/Parthenon, Paris.

Stevenson, P. R., Quiñones, M. J., and Ahumada, J. A. (1998). Annual variation in fruiting pattern using different methods in a lowland tropical forest, Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Biotropica, 30(1), 129–134.

Stewart, G. B., Coles, C. F., and Pullin, A. S. (2005). Applying evidence-based practice in conservation management: Lessons from the first systematic review and dissemination projects. Biological Conservation, 126(2), 270–278.

Stewart, G. H. and Burrows, L. E. (1994). Coarse woody debris in old-growth temperate beech (Nothofagus) forests of New Zealand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 1989–1996.

Stiles, F. G. (1977). Coadapted competitors: the flowering seasons of hummingbird-pollinated plants in a tropical forest. Science, 196, 1177–1178.

Stiles, F. G. (1978). Temporal organization of flowering among the hummingbird foodplants of a tropical wet forest. Biotropica, 10, 194–210.

Stockman, A. K., Beamer, D. A., and Bond, J. E. (2006). An evaluation of a GARP model as an approach to predicting the spatial distribution of non-vagile invertebrate species. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 81–89.

Stockwell, D. R. B. (1999). Genetic algorithms II. In Machine learning methods for ecological applications, ed. A. H. Fielding, pp. 123–144. Kluwer, Boston, MA.

Stockwell, D. R. B. and Peters, D. P. (1999). The GARP modelling system: Problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 13, 143–158.

Stohlgren, T. J., Falkner, M. B., and Schell, L. D. (1995). A Modified-Whittaker nested vegetation sampling method. Vegetatio, 117, 113–121.

Stork, N. E., Boyle, T. J. B., Dale, V. et al. (1997). Criteria and indicator for assessing the sustainability of forest management: conservation of biodiversity. Working Paper no. 17. CIFOR, Jakarta, Indonesia.

(p.425) Strickler, G. S. (1959). Use of the densiometer to estimate density of canopy on permanent sample plots. Research Note no. 180, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Summers, R. W. (1998). The lengths of fences in Highland woods: the measure of a collision hazard to woodland birds. Forestry, 71(1), 73–76.

Sutherland, W. (ed.) (1996). Ecological census techniques, a handbook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sutherland, W. J. (2000). The conservation handbook. Research, management and policy. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Sutherland, W. J., Newton, I., and Green, R. E. (eds.) (2004a). Bird ecology and conservation. A handbook of techniques. Techniques in Ecology and Conservation Series. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sutherland, W. J., Pullin, A. S., Dolman, P. M., and Knight. T. M. (2004b). The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(6), 305–308.

Sutton, S. L. (2001). Alice grows up: canopy science in transition from Wonderland to Reality. Plant Ecology, 153, 13–21.

Swaine, M. D., Lieberman, D., and Putz, F. E. (1987). The dynamics of tree populations in tropical forest: a review. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 3, 359–366.

Swaine, M. D. and Whitmore, T. C. (1988). On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio, 75, 81–86.

Swartzman, G. L. and Kaluzny, S. P. (1987). Ecological simulation primer (biological resource management). Macmillan, New York.

Tallent-Halsell, N. G. (ed.) (1994). Forest health monitoring: 1994 field methods guide. EPA/620/R-94/-027. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Taylor, A. H. and Halpern, C. B. (1991). The structure and dynamics of Abies magnifica forests in the Southern Cascade Range, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2, 189–200.

ter Braak, C. J. F. (1986). Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology, 67, 1167–1179.

ter Braak, C. J. F. (1988). CANOCO: an extension of DECORANA to analyze species–environment relationships. Vegetatio, 75, 159–160.

ter Braak, C. J. F. and Šmilauer, P. (1998). CANOCO reference manual and user's guide to Canoco for Windows: Software for canonical community ordination (version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY.

ter Steege, H. (1998). The use of forest inventory data for a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 1457–1483.

ter Steege, H. (1994). HEMIPHOT, a programme to analyze vegetation indices, light and light quality from hemispherical photographs. Tropenbos Documents 03, Tropenbos International, Wageningen.

Theis, J. and Grady, H. (1991). Participatory rapid appraisal for community development. Save the Children Fund, London.

Thomas, L. and Krebs, C. J. (1997). A review of statistical power analysis software. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 78, 126–139.

Thompson, K. (1993). Persistence in soil. In Methods in comparative plant ecology, eds. G. A. F. Hendry and J. P. Grime, pp. 199–202. Chapman & Hall, London.

Thompson, K., Bakker, J. P., and Bekker, R. M. (1997). The soil seed banks of north west Europe: Methodology, density and longevity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Thompson, P. A. and Fox, D. J. C. (1971). A simple thermo-gradient bar designed for use in seed germination studies. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association, 36, 255–263.

Ticktin, T. (2004). The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41(1), 11–21.

(p.426) Tischendorf, L. (2001). Can landscape indices predict ecological processes consistently? Landscape Ecology, 16(3), 235–254.

Tischendorf, L. and Fahrig, L. (2000a). How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landscape Ecology, 15, 633–641.

Tischendorf, L. and Fahrig, L. (2000b). On the usage and measurement of landscape connectivity. Oikos, 90, 7–9.

Tomppo, E. (1993). Multi-source national forest inventory of Finland. In Proceedings of the Ilvessalo symposium on national forest inventories, ed. A. Nyssönen, pp. 52–59. Research Paper 444, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki.

Toms, J. D. and Lesperance, M. L. (2003). Piecewise regression: a tool for identifying ecological thresholds. Ecology, 84, 2034–2041.

Trakhtenbrot, A., Nathan, R., Perry, G., and Richardson, D. M. (2005). The importance of long-distance dispersal in biodiversity conservation. Diversity and Distributions, 11, 173–181.

Trani, M. K. and Giles R. H. (1999). An analysis of deforestation: metrics used to describe pattern change. Forest Ecology and Management, 114, 459–470.

Trotter, C. M., Dymond, J. R., and Goulding, C. J. (1997). Estimation of timber volume in a coniferous forest using Landsat TM. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 2209–2223.

Tuomisto, H., Linna, A., and Kalliola, R. (1994). Use of digitally processed satellite images in studies of tropical rain forest vegetation. Inter national Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 1595–1610.

Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., Kalliola, R., Linna, A., Danjoy, W., and Rodriguez, Z. (1995). Dissecting Amazonian biodiversity. Science, 269, 63–66.

Turner, I. M. (2001). The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., and O'Neill, R. V. (2001). Landscape ecology in theory and practice. Springer, New York.

Turner, W., Spector, S., Gardiner, N., Fladeland, M., Sterling, E., and Steininger, M. (2003). Remote sensing for biodiversity science and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(6), 306–314.

Ulanova, N. G. (2000). The effects of windthrow on forests at different spatial scales: a review. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 155–167.

Underwood, A. J. (1990). Experiments in ecology and management: their logics, functions and interpretations. Australian Journal of Ecology, 15, 365–389.

Underwood, A. J. (1997). Experiments in ecology: Their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Urban, D. L. (1990). A versatile model to simulate forest pattern: a user's guide to ZELIG version 1.0. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Viginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Urban, D. L., Bonan, G. B., Smith, T. M., and Shugart, H. H. (1991). Spatial applications of gap models. Forest Ecology and Management, 42, 95–110.

Uusivuori, J., Lehto, E., and Palo, M. (2002). Population, income and ecological conditions as determinants of forest area variation in the tropics. Global Environmental Change, 12, 313–323.

USDA Forest Service. (2001). Down woody debris and fuels. In Field Inventory and Analysis Field Methods for Phase 3 Measurements, 2001. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC 〈http://fia.fs.fed.us/manuals/p3sec14_2001.doc

Vales, D. J. and Bunnell, F. L. (1988). Comparison of methods for estimating forest overstory cover. I. Observer effects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 606–609.

Vanclay, J. K. (1994). Modelling forest growth and yield: Applications to mixed tropical forests. CABI, Wallingford.

Vanclay, J. K. (1995). Growth models for tropical forests: a synthesis of models and methods. Forest Science, 41, 7–42.

(p.427) Vanclay, J. K., Skovsgaard, J. P., and Hansen, C. P. (1995). Assessing the quality of permanent sample plot databases for growth modeling in forest plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 71, 177–186.

Vanclay J. K., Gillison, A. N., and Keenan, R. J. (1997). Using plant functional attributes to quantify stand dynamics in mixed forests for growth modelling and yield prediction. Forest Ecology and Management, 94, 149–163.

Vandermeer, J. (1978). Choosing category size in a stage projection matrix. Oecologia, 32, 79–84.

Van der Pijl, L. (1982). Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer, New York.

Vander Wall, S. B., Kuhn, K. M., and Beck, M. J. (2005). Seed removal, seed predation, and secondary dispersal. Ecology, 86(3), 801–806.

van Dorp, D., Schippers, P., and Groenendael, J. M. (1997). Migration rates of grassland plants along corridors in fragmented landscape assessed with a cellular automation model. Landscape Ecology, 12, 39–50.

Veblen, T. T. (1979). Structures and dynamics of Nothofagus forests near timberline in South Chile. Ecology, 60, 937–945.

Veblen, T. T. (1985). Stand dynamics in Chilean Nothofagus forests. In The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, eds. S. T. A. Pickett and P. S. White, pp. 35–51. Academic Press, New York.

Veblen, T.T., Donoso, C., Schlegel, F. M., and Veblen, A. T. (1981). Forest dynamics in south-central Chile. Journal of Biogeography, 8, 211–247.

Veenendaal, E. M., Swaine, M. D., Lecha, R. T., Walsh, M. F., Abebrese, I. K., and Owusu-Afriyie, K. (1996). Responses of West African forest tree seedlings to irradiance and soil fertility. Functional Ecology, 10, 501–511.

Veldkamp, A. and Lambin, E. F. (2001). Predicting land-use change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 85, 1–6.

Vellend, M. (2001). Do commonly used indices of beta-diversity measure species turnover? Journal of Vegetation Science, 12(4), 545–552.

Vera, F. W. M. (2000). Grazing ecology and forest history. CABI, Wallingford.

Verissimo, A., Barreto, P., Tarifa, R., and Uhl, C. (1995). Extraction of a high-value natural-resource in Amazonia—the case of mahogany. Forest Ecology and Management, 72(1), 39–60.

Villard, M.-A., Trzcinski, M. K., and Merriam, G. (1999). Fragmentation effects on forest birds: relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy. Conservation Biology, 13, 774–783.

Vogler, P. and Desalle, R. (1994). Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology, 8, 354–363.

Voysey, B. C., McDonald, K. E., Rogers, M. E., Tutin, C. E. G., and Pannell, R. J. (1999). Gorillas and seed dispersal in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. I. Gorilla acquisition by trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 23–28.

Wackernagel, H. (2003). Multivariate geostatistics: An introduction with applications. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Wade, P. R. (2000). Bayesian methods in conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 14(5), 1308–1316.

Waggoner, P. E. and Stephens, G. R. (1970). Transition probabilities for a forest. Nature, 225, 1160–1161.

Wagner, D. H. (1991). The ‘1-in-20’ rule for plant collectors. Plant Science Bulletin, 37(2), 11.

Wagner, H. H. (2003). Spatial covariance in plant communities: integrating ordination, geostatistics, and variance testing. Ecology, 84, 1045.

Walter, J. and Soos, J. (1962). The gimbal sight for the projection of crown radius. Research Note No. 39, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

(p.428) Ward, M., Dick, C. W., Gribel, R., Lemes, M., Caron, H., and Lowe, A. J. (2005). To self, or not to self: A review of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow in neotropical trees. Heredity, 95, 246–254.

Watkinson, A. R. (1997). Plant population dynamics. In Plant ecology, ed. M. J. Crawley, 2nd edition, pp. 359–400. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Watt, A. S. (1947). Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology, 35, 1–22.

Weaver, P. L. (2000). Elfin woodland recovery 30 years after a plane wreck in Puerto Rico's Luquillo mountains. Caribbean Journal of Science, 36(1–2), 1–9.

Weber, R. O. (2001). Wildland fire spread models. In Forest fires. Behaviour and ecological effects, eds. E. A. Johnson and K. Miyanishi, pp. 151–169. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Webster, R. and Oliver, M. A. (2000). Geostatistics for environmental scientists. Wiley, New York.

Weihs, U., Dubbel, V., and Krummheuer, F. (1999). Die Elektrische Wiederstandstomographie—Ein vielversprechendes Verfahren zur Farbkerndiagnose am stehenden Rotbuchenstamm. Forst und Holtz, 6, 166–170.

Werner, P. A. (1975). A seed trap for determining patterns of seed deposition in terrestrial plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 54, 1189–1197.

Wesseling, C. G., Karssenberg, D., Van Deursen, W. P. A., and Burrough, P. A. (1996). Integrating dynamic environmental models in GIS: the development of a dynamic modelling language. Transactions in GIS, 1, 40–48.

West, D. C., Shugart, H. H. and Botkin, D. B. (eds.) (1981). Forest succession: Concepts and applications. Springer, New York.

West, P. W. (2004). Tree and forest measurement. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Westoby, M. and Leishman, M. (1997). Categorizing plant species into functional types. In Plant functional types, eds. T. M. Smith, H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward, pp. 104–121. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Whelan, R. J. (1995). The ecology of fire. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

White, G. M. and Boshier, D. H. (2000). Fragmentation in Central American dry forests: genetic impacts on Swietenia humilis (Meliaceae). In Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations, eds. A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke, pp. 293–311. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

White, P. S. (1979). Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Reviews, 45, 229–299.

White, T. L., Adams, W. T., and Neale, D. B. (2002). Forest genetics. CABI, Wallingford.

Whitehead, C. J. (1969). Oak mast yields on wildlife management areas in Tennessee. Tennessee Wildlife Resource Agency, Nashville, TN.

Whitman, A. A., Brokaw, N. V. L., and Hagan, J. M. (1997). Forest damage caused by selection logging of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in northern Belize. Forest Ecology and Management, 92(1–3), 87–96.

Whitmore, T. C. (1990). An introduction to tropical rain forests. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Whitmore, T. C. and Brown, N. D. (1996). Dipterocarp seedling growth in rain forest canopy gaps during six and a half years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B351, 1195–1203.

Whitmore, T. C., Brown, N. D., Swaine, M. D., Kennedy, D. K., Goodwin-Bailey, C. I., and Gong, W. K. (1993). Use of hemisphere photographs in forest ecology: measurement of gap size and radiation totals in a Bornean tropical rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 9, 131–151.

Whittaker, R. H. (1975). Communities and ecosystems, 2nd edition. Macmillan, New York.

Whitten, T., Holmes, D., and MacKinnon, K. (2001). Conservation biology: a displacement behaviour for academia? Conservation Biology, 15(1), 1–3.

Wiant, H. V., Wood, G. B., and Furnival, G. M. (1992). Estimating log volume using the centroid position. Forest Science, 38, 187–191.

(p.429) Wiegand, T. and Moloney, K. A. (2004). Rings, circles, and null-models for point pattern analysis in ecology. Oikos, 104, 209–229.

Wiegand, T., Jeltsch, F., Hanski, I., and Grimm, V. (2003). Using pattern-oriented modeling for revealing hidden information: a key for reconciling ecological theory and application. Oikos, 100, 209–222.

Wiegert, R. G. (1962). The selection of an optimum quadrat size for sampling the standing crop of grasses and forbs. Ecology, 43, 125–129.

Wiersum, K. F. (1995). 200 years of sustainability in forestry: lessons from history. Environmental Management, 19(3), 321–329.

Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Loucks C. J. et al. (2002). Terrestrial ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific. A conservation assessment. Conservation Science Program, WWF-US. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Williams, J. C., ReVelle, C. S., and Levin, S. A. (2004). Using mathematical optimization models to design nature reserves. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(2), 98–105.

Williams, P., Gibbons, D., Margules, C., Rebelo, A., Humphries, C., and Pressey, R. (1996). A comparison of richness hotspots, rarity hotspots, and complementary areas for conserving diversity of British birds. Conservation Biology, 10, 155–174.

Williams, W. T., Lance, G. N., Webb, L. J., Tracey, J. G., and Connell, J. H. (1969). Studies in the numerical analysis of complex rain-forest communities. IV. The elucidation of small-scale forest pattern. Journal of Ecology, 57, 635–654.

Willson, M. F. (1983). Plant reproductive ecology. Wiley, New York.

Willson, M. F. (1993). Dispersal mode, seed shadows, and colonization patterns. Vegetatio, 108, 261–280.

Wilson, K., Newton, A., Echeverría, C., Weston, C., and Burgman, M. (2005a). A vulnerability analysis of the temperate forests of south central Chile. Biological Conservation, 122, 9–21.

Wilson, K., Pressey, B., Newton, A., Burgman, M., Possingham H., and Weston, C. (2005b). Measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning. Environmental Management, 35(5), 527–543.

Winn, A. A. (1989). Using radionuclide labels to determine the post-dispersal fates of seeds. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 1–2.

Woldendorp, G., Spencer, R. D., Keenan, R. J., and Barry, S. (2002). An analysis of sampling methods for coarse woody debris in Australian forest ecosystems. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra 〈www.affa.gov.au/brs

Wolf, P. R. and Dewitt, B. A. (2000). Elements of photogrammetry with applications in GIS, 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Wolter, P. and White, M. (2002). Recent forest cover type transitions and landscape structural changes in northeast Minnesota, USA. Landscape Ecology, 17, 133–155.

Woodward, F. I. and Yaqub, M. (1979). Integrator and sensors for measuring photosynthetically active radiation and temperature in the field. Journal of Applied Ecology, 16(2), 545–552.

Wright, S. (1951). The genetical structure of populations. Annals of Eugenics, 15, 323–354.

Wright, S. J., Muller-Landau, H. C., Condit, R., and Hubbell, S. P. (2003). Gap-dependent recruitment, realized vital rates, and size distributions of tropical trees. Ecology, 84(12), 3174–3185.

Wulder, M. A. and Franklin, S. E. (eds.) (2003). Remote sensing of forest environments. Concepts and case studies. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Yaussy, D. A. (2000). Comparison of an empirical forest growth and yield simulator and a forest gap simulator using actual 30-year growth from two even-aged forests in Kentucky. Forest Ecology and Management, 126, 385–398.

Yoccoz, N. G., Nichols, J. D., and Boulinier, T. (2001). Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(8), 446–453.

(p.430) Young, A., Boshier, D., and Boyle, T. (eds.) (2000). Forest conservation genetics. Principles and practice. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia/CABI, Wallingford.

Young, A. G. and Clarke, G. M. (eds.) (2000). Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Yumoto, T. (1999). Seed dispersal by Salvin's curassow, Mitu salvini (Cracidae), in a tropical forest of Columbia: direct measurements of dispersal distance. Biotropica, 31, 654–660.

Zaniewski, A. E., Lehmann, A., and Overton, J. M. (2002). Predicting species distribution using presence-only data: a case study of native New Zealand ferns. Ecological Modelling, 157, 261–280.

Zapata, T. R. and Arroyo, M. T. K. (1978). Plant reproductive ecology of a secondary deciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. Biotropica, 10, 221–230.

Zeide, B. (1993). Analysis of growth equations. Forest Science, 39, 594–616.

Zhang, Q. F., Devers, D., Desch, A., Justice, C. O., and Townshend, J. (2005). Mapping tropical deforestation in Central Africa. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 101(1–3), 69–83.

Zhang, S.-Y. and Wang, L.-X. (1995). Comparison of three fruit census methods in French Guiana. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 281–294.

Zimmerman, J. K., Everham, E. M., Waide, R. B., Lodge, D. J., Taylor, C. M. and Brokaw, N. V. L. (1994). Responses of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: implications for tropical tree life histories. Journal of Ecology, 82, 911–922.

Zobel, B. and Talbert, J. (1984). Applied forest tree improvement. Wiley, New York.

Zuidema, P. A. (ed.) (2000). Demography of exploited tree species in the Bolivian Amazon. PROMAB Scientific Series 2. Riberalta, Bolivia.

Zuidema, P. A. and Boot, R. G. A. (2002). Demography of the Brazil Nut Tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon: impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18(1): 1–31.

Zuidema, P. A. and Zagt, R. J. (2000). Using population matrices for long-lived species: a review of published models for 35 woody plants. In Demography of exploited tree species in the Bolivian Amazon, ed. P. A. Zuidema, pp. 159–182. PROMAB Scientific Series 2. Riberalta, Bolivia.