Do animals know what they know?
This chapter examines whether success on behavioural tests for metacognition in animals can be explained in other, deflationary ways. While it is not possible to assess whether animals have a feeling of knowing, having the right controls can help define functionally similar behaviour and thus assess whether animals' performance depends on metacognitive information. One important control in metacognitive paradigms is randomly intermixed forced trials where the escape option is omitted and another is to transfer the animal to tests with new stimuli.
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