Feeling our way
This chapter explores the outward and visible signs of inner emotional experience in animals. There is an obvious problem in relying on outward signs of inner awareness when one goes beyond the boundary of the human species. The expression of emotion that is seen in other people and can usually interpret in them at least moderately well, may be quite different in other animals. A bear covered in fur is not going to give very much away if and when it blushes, and birds, by the constraints of their anatomy, cannot raise a clenched fist or even smile. Even if one were to acknowledge that each species has its own unique ways for giving public expression to its emotions, one would still have difficulties making the link between emotion and behaviour.
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