Muslims look to the Prophet Muṭammad as the supreme example of human dignity, temperance, fortitude, and wisdom. Broadly speaking, there are two conflicting views to consider in this chapter. The first is that the Prophet, although undoubtedly the supreme example of great human qualities, was fallible in his judgement and possessed an incomplete knowledge of worldly affairs. The second view is that the Prophet was infallible in his judgement and preserved from error (ma'sūm), as the only human vessel completely to contain the definitive ‘gathering together’ of truth which is the Qur'ān. Taking up a position against the infallibility of the Prophet has definite implications. A discussion on Aṭmad Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn 'Aṭā Allāh al-Sikandarī is provided.
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